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Centar - Balkanski institut za hebrejski jezik i knjizevnost
Institute for hebrew language and literature

Besplatno preuzmite radove

1. Prevod Svetog Pisma-Biblije Instituta za hebrejski jezik i knjizevnost preuzmi klikom OVDE

2. Prvi prevod Jevandjelja po Mateju sa hebrejskog jezika preuzmi klikom OVDE

3. Originalni tekst Jevandjelja po Mateju na hebrejskom jeziku preuzmi OVDE

4. Besplatan video kurs hebrejskog jezika na našem jeziku, DA BISTE POHADJALI KURS, KADA SE OTVORI STRANICA MORATE SE REGISTROVATI. KLIKNITE OVDE

5. NAjnovija knjiga Zeljka Stanojevica "Kumranski spisi" preuzmi klikom OVDE

6. Ekskluzivna predavanja o istoriji, arheologiji, geografiji Izraela pod nazivom "Biblija mit ili istina" na nasem jeziku gledajte OVDE

7. TV emisija o Institutu za hebrejski jezik pogledaj prvi deo drugi deotreci deo 

8. Predavanje na temu KAKO PREDAVATI I KAKO UCITI HEBREJSKI JEZIK pogledajte OVDE

 

 

 


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KUMRANSKI SPISI
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Copyright: Institut za hebrejski jezik (IHJ), Beograd
www.hebrejski.webs.com
Izdavač: Metafizika u saradnji sa IHJ
Tehničko uređenje: Metaphysica
Štampa: Topalović, Valjevo
Tiraž: 1000
Distribucija: Metaphysica, 011/292-0062
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Željko Stanojević
KUMRANSKI SPISI
Dokaz verodostojnosti Biblije
Metaphysica
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BIBLIJA
Šta je to Biblija?
Da li je to strašna, tajna knjiga koju mogu razumeti samo
sveštenici?
Da li pravoslavci smeju da je čitaju? Da li je smeju čitati katolici?
Da li je smeju čitati Jevreji, Muslimani...
Da li je Biblija neka sekta?
Da li je Sveto pismo isto što i Biblija? Da li je Biblija istinita?
Da li je Bibliju Bog napisao?
Zar Bibliju nisu pisali ljudi? Šta su Kumranski spisi (rukopisi)?
Da li su Kumranski rukopisi otkrili da je Isus izmišljotina
crkve?
Ova pitanja su danas veoma aktuelna i zanimaju savremenog
čoveka. U ovoj knjizi ćemo polako doći do odgovora na ova
pitanja..
Reč Biblija vodi poreklo iz Grčke, od reči ”biblos” što znači
”knjiga”.
Ova reč uopšte nije grčkog porekla već je ”biblos” bio fenički
grad na prostoru današnjeg Južnog Libana iz kojeg se
izvozio papirus. Tako su Grci najpre papir, a posle i knjigu zvali
”biblos”. Kada se danas spomene religija, sveci, papa, krštenje,
venčanje, Marija, Isus, sve nas to asocira na masivnu
zgradu, lepo ukrašenu - i spolja i iznutra - u kojoj miriše tamjan
i koju vodi čovek pred kojim nam klecaju kolena.
A zašto nam klecaju kolena?
Zato što on zna nešto što mi ne znamo. On, odnosno sveštenik,
poznaje Sveto Pismo.
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Njegov posao je da nam prenosi ono što u Svetom Pismu
piše jer mi za čitanje takvog štiva nemamo vremena.
Međutim, čim vam je u rukama ova knjiga, izgleda da vi za
to ipak imate vremena. I to je dobro.
Vreme koje ćete uložiti u čitanje svega što sledi, neskromno
govoreći, biće jedna od najvećih investicija u vašem životu.
Odmah da nešto razjasnimo - Biblija je u stvari Sveto Pismo, a
Sveto Pismo je Biblija. To su sinonimi, dva naziva za jednu te
istu knjigu.
Biblija je knjiga zbog koje je nastalo hiljade sekti. Kad god
je neko mislio drugačije, dok je tumačio Bibliju, pravio je svoju
sektu. Tako da Biblija nije sekta, ali je svim sektama, svim
verama, najvećim svetskim religijama, i to judaizmu, hrišćanstvu,
mnogo manje islamu, zapravo Sveta Knjiga. Neki su je
skraćivali, neki proširivali, neki priznavali tek pojedine delove,
ali svima je glavni izvor informacija.
Biblija je u stvari zbirka više knjiga. Zamislite da su se sve
te knjige štampale odvojeno, imali bismo 63 knjige koje bi činile
jedan red na našoj polici. Radi lakše upotrebe, od davnina se
Biblija štampa u jednim koricama.
Kako je sve počelo?
Prvo se Bog obratio Mojsiju, i on je napisao svojih pet knjiga
koje se danas zovu Pet Mojsijevih knjiga ili Tora (tako to
zovu Jevreji) ili Pentateuh, kako to zovu katolici.
Mojsije je svoje knjige pisao pre 3500 godina. On je u svojim
knjigama opisao stvaranje sveta, jevrejsku istoriju, ali i
najvažnija pravila i zakone koje je Bog dao čovečanstvu. Nakon
toga, nešto kasnije, nastaje šest većih i trinaest manjih proročkih
knjiga. Negde pre 2700 godina nastaje još jedanaest drugih
manjih i većih knjiga Biblije. Sve ove knjige zovu se danas
još i Stari zavet. Sve su pisane na hebrejskom jeziku. Sve te
knjige bave se Bogom, religijom, istorijom, tradicijom, zakonima,
načinom života...
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U jevrejskoj religiji, pre oko 2100 godina počinju da se javljaju
različiti religijski pravci i tumačenja Biblije.
Jedan od najpoznatijih religijskih pravaca vezan je za Isusa
Hrista koji je promenio neke načine tumačenja Starog zaveta
koje je u to vreme prihvatao najveći broj ljudi u Izraelu. On je
bio Jevrejin, okupio je oko sebe deo naroda iz tog doba i napravio
novi jevrejski religijski pokret. Nakon njega, neki njegovi
sledbenici pisali su o njemu knjige i to četiri najveće koje
se još zovu Jevanđelja (Matej, Marko, Luka i Jovan). Pored ove
četiri knjige o Isusu, i o njegovom religijskom pristupu napisano
je još osamnaest manjih knjiga. Sve te knjige, od Isusa na
ovamo, zovu se još i Novi zavet.
Većina Jevreja ne prihvata Isusov pristup religiji i zato za
Sveto Pismo smatraju samo Stari zavet. Isus pristup religiji,
koji je kasnije nazvan ”hrišćanstvo” za Sveto Pismo smatra i
Stari i Novi zavet.
Pre oko 1400 godina počele su da se javljaju neke nove ideje.
U Saudijskoj Arabiji, gde takođe u to vreme žive Jevreji, nekim
Arapima se svidela jevrejska religija, pa su odlučili da je
prihvate, prilagode sebi, ali i modernizuju. To se dešava tako
što se pojavljuje Muhamed koji prihvata i Stari i Novi zavet, ali
ih dopunjuje sa mnogo drugih novina i osniva novu religiju koja
se zove ”islam”. Ove nove stvari zapisane su u novoj knjizi
koja se zove Kuran. Tako da sada imamo sledeću situaciju: Jevreji
poštuju samo Stari zavet, hrišćani poštuju i Stari i Novi
zavet, a muslimani i Stari i Novi zavet, ali najviše Kuran.
Godine 424. pre nove ere Jevreji su odlučili koje će knjige
ući u Stari zavet. Hrišćani 393. godine posle Hrista prave
konačan dogovor i prihvataju jevrejske stavove o ovome. Kada
se hrišćanstvo podelilo na pravoslavno i katoličko, dosta vremena
se u Starom zavetu ništa nije menjalo. Godine 1546, katolička
crkva donosi odluku koje će knjige činiti Stari zavet, s
tim da se uvode i neke knjige koje do tada nisu ulazile u Stari
zavet. Pravoslavno hrišćanstvo se pre svega rukovodilo jevrej8
skim Starim zavetom (ono što su Jevreji utvrdili 424. god
p.n.e), mada se u pojedinim pravoslavnim crkvama dodaju, kao
i u katoličanstvu, knjige koje do tada nisu činile Stari zavet.
Iz pravoslavlja se razvija mnogo različitih pravaca (grčki,
etiopski, palestinski, ruski, srpski, rumunski...) i svi imaju isto
Sveto Pismo koje se zove još i Biblija. Protestanti, koji su
nastali odvajanjem od katoličke crkve, se kasnije dele na stotine
verskih zajednica (luterani, baptisti, pentakostalci, jehovini svedoci,
mormoni, adventisti, nazareni...) i svi oni koriste gotovo
isto Sveto Pismo kao i pravoslavci i kao katolici.
Koji je religijski pravac pravi, koji je najbliži Bogu i slična
pitanja, nisu tema razmatranja u ovoj knjizi.
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BIBLIJSKE KNJIGE
U prethodnom poglavlju rekli smo da se Biblija sastoji iz
više knjiga. Sada ćemo se pozabaviti tim knjigama, ali i time ko
je odlučio, i na osnovu čega, koje će se knjige zvati Biblijom.
Pravilo koje određuje koja knjiga sme biti u Bibliji, a koja ne
sme, naziva se kanon. Reč kanon dolazi od hebrejske reči
”kane” koja znači ”trska”.
Kasnije, ova reč u hebrejskom rečniku je značila ”mera” (jer
se trskom merila dužina) i onda u prenosnom smislu ”pravilo,
pravilnik, norma”. Od četvrtog veka kanon predstavlja, od
hrišćanske crkve usvojen i odobren spisak knjiga Svetog Pisma
ili Biblije. Godine 424. p.n.e. Jevreji usvajaju sledeće knjige
koje čine Stari zavet.
1. BEREŠIT (Prva knjiga Mojsijeva)
2. ŠEMOT (Druga knjiga Mojsijeva)
3. VAJIKRA (Treća knjiga Mojsijeva)
4. BAMIDBAR (Četvrta knjiga Mojsijeva)
5. DEVARIM (Peta knjiga Mojsijeva)
6. JEHOŠUA (Isus Navin)
7. ŠOFTIM (Sudije)
8. ŠEMUEL (Samuilo)
9. MELAHIM (Carevi)
10. JEŠAAJAHU (Isaija)
11. JIRMEJAHU (Jeremija)
12. JEHEZKEL (Jezikelj)
13. HOŠEA (Osija)
14. JOEL (Joil)
15. AMOS
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16. OVADJA (Avdija)
17. JONA
18. MIHA (Mihej)
19. NAHUM (Naum)
20. HAVAKUK (Avakum)
21. CEFANJA (Sofonija)
22. HAGAJ (Agej)
23. ZEHARJA (Zaharija)
24. MALAHI (Malahija)
25. TEHILIM (Psalmi)
26. JOV
27. MIŠLE ŠELOMO (Priče Solomonove)
28. RUT (Ruta)
29. ŠIR HAŠIRIM (Pesma nad pesmama)
30. KOHELET (Knjiga propovednikova)
31. EIHA (Plač Jeremijin)
32. ESTER (Jestira)
33. DANIEL (Danilo)
34. JEZDRA UNEHEMJA (Jezdra i Nemija)
35. DIVRE HAJAMIM (Dnevnici)
U ovom spisku, kao što se vidi, imamo trideset i pet knjiga.
Kod Jevreja, knjige Starog zaveta se dele u tri grupe. Prvu
grupu čini pet Mojsijevih knjiga. Ova grupa knjiga se zove
”Tora” ili u slobodnom prevodu ”zakon”. Drugu grupu knjiga
čine devetnaest knjiga, i to na našem spisku od rednog broja
šest, zaključno sa rednim brojem dvadeset i četiri. Ovu grupu
nazivaju ”Neviim”, što znači ”proroci”. Treću grupu knjiga
čine jedanaest knjiga, i to na našem spisku od rednog broja
dvadeset i pet pa do kraja. Ova treća grupa se na hebrejskom
jeziku zove još i ”Ketuvim” što znači ”spisi”. Ove tri grupe
knjiga čine Stari zavet Biblije. Ime prve grupe na hebrejskom
počinje slovom T, druge grupe slovom N, a treće grupe slovom
K. Kada se prave skraćenice, u hebrejskom jeziku se dodaje
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slovo ”a” nakon svakog suglasnika. Kada se slovo ”k” koje se
naziva ”kaf”, nađe na kraju reči postaje slovo ”h” i naziva se
haf. Tako dobijamo reč TANAH. Stari zavet Biblije se na hebrejskom
zove ”Tanah”.
Nakon što su Jevreji odlučili koje će knjige činiti Stari zavet,
oko 300 godina kasnije, tačnije oko 130. godine p.n.e. radi se
prevod Starog zaveta na grčki jezik. U to vreme mnogi Jevreji
gotovo da nisu govorili hebrejski već grčki. Iz tih razloga radi
se prevod na grčki koji se još zove ”Septuaginta”. Kasnije, 405.
godine završen je prevod Starog zaveta sa grčkog na latinski
jezik. Ovaj prevod se zove Vulgata. Uglavnom od Vulgate nastaju
slovenski prevodi kao i prevodi na skoro sve svetske
jezike. U odnosu na jevrejski kanon Starog zaveta, ovaj prevedeni
Stari zavet na grčki, a sa njim latinski i slovenski, razlikuju
se u broju knjiga. Osim onih knjiga koje postoje u jevrejskom
Starom zavetu, grčki, latinski i slovenski Stari zavet imaju i
sledeće knjige:
1. Knjiga Tovita
2. Knjiga Judite
3. Premudrosti Solumonove
4. Premudrosti Isusa Sirahovog sina
5. Knjiga proroka Baruha
6. Knjiga Makabejaca 1
7. Knjiga Makabejaca 2
8. Jeremijina poslanica (u Vulgati ova knjiga je zapravo
šesta glava knjige Baruha)
9. Knjiga o Jezdri 2
10. Knjiga Makabejaca 3
11. Knjiga o Jezdri 3
12. Knjiga Makabejaca 4
Postoje dva različita mišljenja u hrišćanstvu i to još od prvih
dana, koje su knjige Starog zaveta kanonske, odnosno koje su
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svete, koje su inspirisane od strane Boga. Prema jednom mišljenju,
samo trideset i pet jevrejskih knjiga čine Stari zavet. Po
drugom mišljenju, svetim knjigama se smatraju i neke kojih
nema u jevrejskom Starom zavetu, a koje smo gore naveli. Može
se reći da pravoslavno i protestantsko hrišćanstvo više cene
jevrejski kanon, dok katoličko hrišćanstvo više prati Vulgatu
(prevod Biblije na latinski jezik) i raspored knjiga u njoj.
Kanon Starog zaveta određuje se pomoću tačnog principa
odabira knjiga. Pre svega da bi knjiga ušla u Stari zavet ona je
morala biti inspirisana od Boga. Isto tako Josif Flavije, rimski
istoričar jevrejskog porekla smatra i da je broj knjiga morao biti
ograničen na trideset i pet, ali i da je tekst svake knjige morao
biti nepovrediv. Prema Josifu Flaviju i prema jevrejskom Talmudu
(Talmud čine komentari i priče jevrejskih rabina o Starom
zavetu) pisanje Starog zaveta završeno je u vreme vladavine
cara Artakserksa I. Možemo reći i da je kanonizacija
starozavetnih knjiga prema mnogim naučnicima završena tek
oko 100. godine i to od strane Jevreja u gradu Javne na obali
Sredozemnog mora. Katoličko hrišćanstvo od 1563. godine u
Stari zavet ubraja četrdeset i sedam knjiga. Protestantsko hrišćanstvo
od 1643. godine u Stari zavet ubraja samo trideset i pet,
kao i Jevreji. Pravoslavno hrišćanstvo uglavnom smatra 35
jevrejskih knjiga svetim, ali neki pravoslavni bogoslovi priznaju
i nekanonske knjige za kanonske.
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BIBLIJSKE KNJIGE - JEZIK I PISMO
Stari zavet Biblije pisan je na hebrejskom jeziku. Da bismo
mogli pratiti ovu knjigu do kraja, moramo pre svega naučiti
ponešto o hebrejskom jeziku i hebrejskom pismu. Hebrejski
jezik je semitski jezik afro-azijatske porodice jezika kojim
govori 6 miliona ljudi, uglavnom u Izraelu, delovima palestinskih
teritorija, SAD i u jevrejskim zajednicama širom sveta.
Savremeni hebrejski jezik potiče od klasičnog hebrejskog
jezika, koji je korišćen pri pisanju Starog zaveta pre 3300
godina. Jevreji su za njega koristili izraz Lašon ha-kodeš
(”Sveti jezik”), jer su njime pisane svete knjige.
Kao i ostali semitski jezici, hebrejski jezik je korenski jezik.
To znači da se svaka ideja izražava korenom koji se obično
sastoji od tri suglasnika. Tako recimo, sve što je vezano za
učenje označava se korenom dml - lmd. Onda se od ovog
korena javljaju razne vrste reči. Pa na primer imamo talmid –
učenik, talmud – učenje, lamad – učio je, jilmad – učiće,
melumad – naučen…
Poznavanje ovog jezika neophodno je svakom ozbiljnijem
interesentu za Bibliju i religiju da bi mogao prodreti u dubine
biblijskih tajni. Zato ćemo ovde dodati još neke karakteristike
hebrejskog jezika koje će čitaocu ove knjige biti od značajne
koristi.
Imenice imaju jedan nastavak za mušku i jedan za žensku
množinu. I to je uvek tako. Kada je množina u pitanju, te iste
nastavke imaju i pridevi i glagoli. Pored množine, postoji i dvojina,
kao što je to slučaj sa nekim indoevropskim jezicima, na
primer crkvenoslovenskim jezikom, pa i slovenačkim jezikom.
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Glagolski sistem je veoma razvijen tako da postoji sedam
grupa glagola i veći broj ”podgrupa” ili ”gizri”. Postoje samo
tri vremena: prosto prošlo, prosto buduće i jednostavno sadašnje.
Često se veznikom može buduće vreme pretvoriti u prošlo i
prošlo u buduće, što je veoma često u biblijskom tekstu. Ne postoji
srednji rod, što je velika razlika u odnosu na indoevropske
jezike. Sintaksa je specifična, pa se recimo pridev uvek stavlja
posle imenice, glagol je često na početku rečenice i slično.
Jezik kojim su izvorno pisane starozavetne knjige nazivao se
različitim imenima: starojevrejskim, jevrejskim, kanaanskim,
judejskim, svetim jezikom i na posletku hebrejskim jezikom.
Ovaj drevni jezik, kao što smo već rekli, pripada velikoj porodici
semitskih jezika, i to njenoj severozapadnoj grani. Da je
deo familije semitskih jezika, doznalo se još u XVIII veku, kada
ga je poznati nemački orijentalista Eichhorn, svrstao u po tada
prvi put navedenu novu familiju jezika, zajedno sa arapskim,
aramejskim i abesinskim jezikom. Ime ovoj, u nauci novoj,
jezičkoj porodici, samo se nametnulo, kako su većina govornika
jezika ove familije potomci Nojevog sina Sema (Šem).
Semitski jezici su prema svom geografskom prostiranju
podeljeni na tri osnovne grane, i to: istočno-semitski jezici, severo-
zapadno-semitski i južno-semitski jezici. Danas se u nauci
pretpostavlja jedan prasemitski jezik, koji se razvijao u, kako je
navedeno, tri osnovna pravca, te je dao veliki broj međusobno
srodnih jezika.
Istočno-semitski jezici pojavljuju se kroz akadski, najstariji
jezik ove grane, od kojeg se razvijaju asirski i vavilonski jezik.
Južno-semitski jezici se razvijaju u dva pravca, i to s jedne
strane javlja se staroarapski jezik, a s druge habaški (geez) jezik.
Od staroarapskog se razvijaju južni arapski i severni arapski.
Južno-arapski će dati ševaitski, a severni će dati književni
arapski i brojne njegove dijalekte. Habaški će se razviti na
mnoge dijalekte, s jedne strane, i na amharitski (etiopski) jezik
s druge strane.
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Severo-zapadno-semitski jezici predstavljaju, prema broju
jezika, najraznovrsniju granu semitskih jezika, u okviru koje je
i hebrejski. Ova jezička grana se razvijala takođe u dva pravca:
1. Od starojevrejskog jezika, razvijaju se moavski, fenički i
punski, te ugaritski jezik, svaki odvojeno, i svakako jevrejski
Mikre, jevrejski Mišne, srednjovekovni jevrejski i novojevrejski,
koji se danas označava kao hebrejski jezik.
2. Od staroaramejskog nastaju istočno-aramejski i zapadnoaramejski
jezik. Istočni će dati magdaitski, sirijački (sa istočnom
i zapadnom varijantom), i aramejski jezik Talmuda. Zapadni
će dati aramejski jezik Mikre i aramejskih targuma, samarijanski
jezik i novoaramejski jezik.
HEBREJSKI JEZIK je jedan od najstarijih jezika sveta. Njegovi
počeci se vezuju za period od pre najmanje četiri hiljade
godina. Govorio se i pre dolaska starih Jevreja u prostore Kanaana
(Hanana), kada je predstavljao jezik starih Semita na tim
prostorima. Prodiranjem Kanaanaca, naroda hamitskog porekla,
lako je od njih samih prihvaćen, kao jezik nove domovine,
otkada se označava kanaanskim jezikom. Dolaskom Avramovog
jevrejskog plemena na prostore Kanaana, kanaanski jezik
će potisnuti maternji jezik Jevreja, (koji je bio blizak aramejskom
jeziku), i postati jezikom svih jevrejskih plemena. Proces
zamene jezika bio je veoma lak i relativno brz, zbog izuzetne
bliskosti navedenih jezika.
U periodu prvog hrama (jevrejskog hrama u Jerusalimu),
hebrejski je bio zvanični jezik severnog carstva - Izraela, i južnog
carstva - Judeje (u Judeji se označavao i judejskim jezikom).
U ovom periodu nastaju severni i južni dijalekti ovog
jezika, njime su napisane mnoge starozavetne knjige i druga
književna dela toga doba. Nakon razorenja prvog hrama, hebrejski
prestaje da bude zvanični jezik, već ga zamenjuje aramejski,
koji postaje službenim jezikom Bliskog Istoka. Međutim,
hebrejski jezik ipak nije izašao iz upotrebe tokom perioda
drugog hrama i nakon njega, sve do drugog veka naše ere.
16
U ovom periodu dolazi do snažnog uticaja aramejskog jezika na
hebrejski, koji postoji kao jezik jevrejskog naroda, a naročito
kao jezik mudraca. Na ovakvom hebrejskom napisana je
mudrosna književnost Mišne, kao i ostale jevrejske knjige -
Halaha, Midraš…
U periodu Amorejaca, hebrejski prestaje da se koristi kao
govorni jezik, već ga i u tom smislu zamenjuje aramejski. Tako
hebrejski postaje jezikom religije i svetih spisa, dok aramejski
postaje narodnim jezikom i jezikom svakodnevnice.
Tokom perioda jevrejske dijaspore, hebrejski je korišćen kao
jezik svetih knjiga, jezik molitvi i jezik književnosti. Jevreji u
dijaspori služili su se jezikom naroda na čijem su tlu boravili.
Pojavom cionizma i buđenjem nacionalne svesti, javlja se i
potreba za približavanjem jevrejskog naroda svome jeziku.
Hebrejski je uvek bio živ jezik, iako je njegov razvoj u
zadnjih 2000 godina bivao samo u pisanoj reči. Kada su prvi
cionisti krajem XIX veka došli u tursku Palestinu, zatekli su
jevrejske zajednice koje su vekovima bile tu naseljene, naročito
u Jerusalimu, Hebronu, Sefadu i Tiberijasu. U tim zajednicama
je hebrejski jezik bio jezik svetog učenja. U kući su se uglavnom
upotrebljavali arapski, ladino (stari španski jezik sa primesama
hebrejskih reči) ili jidiš (staronemački sa primesama
hebrejskih i slovenskih reči). Međutim, hebrejski jezik je predstavljao
most između tih zajednica, pri čemu su Jevreji doseljeni
iz Evrope, morali prihvatiti izgovor orijentalnih Jevreja, da bi
se uopšte razumeli.
Da bi ukazao na potrebu za jednim jezikom, jedan novi
useljenik je odlučio da u krugu svoje porodice upotrebljava samo
hebrejski jezik. Bio je to Eliezer Ben-Jehuda (prvobitno
Perelmann, rođen u Litvaniji 1858, preminuo u Jerusalimu
1922). Jezički proces koji je u tom momentu nastao raširio se sa
jedne na sto hiljada porodica. Čak su i ostaci ultraortodoksnih
zatvorenih zajednica, u svom domu govorili sa decom na hebrejskom.
Da bi svome narodu pružio jezička sredstva, Eliezer
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Ben-Jehuda se prihvatio velikog posla - sastavljanja sveobuhvatnog
velikog hebrejskog rečnika, kojeg i objavljuje 1908 u
Berlinu (sveske 1-7). Rad na rečniku se nastavlja nakon smrti
Ben-Jehude, pod rukovodstvom N. H. Tur-Sinaja, koji ga završava
1960. sa 18. sveskom. Danas je hebrejski jezik zvanični
jezik države Izrael, njime se služi više od 6 miliona ljudi u svetu
kao govornim jezikom, i veliki broj ljudi kao jezikom religije.
18
HEBREJSKO PISMO
Hebrejski alfabet je pismo od 22 slova kojim se piše hebrejski
jezik. Široko je rasprostranjen i među jevrejskom dijasporom,
tako da se još nekoliko jezika - kao jidiš, ladino ili judeo-
arapski, pišu ovim pismom.
Jevreji ga zovu alefbet (jer su prva dva slova alef [ א] i bet
ב] ]). Broj slova, njihov redosled, njihova imena, kao i njihove
fonetske vrednosti su jednake kao u aramejskom pismu, jer su i
Jevreji i Aramejci preuzeli feničko pismo krajem drugog milenijuma
p.n.e.
Savremeno pismo kojim se piše hebrejski jezik je nastalo u
trećem veku p.n.e. iz aramejskog, koji su koristili Jevreji još od
6. veka p.n.e. Pre toga, koristili su pismo koje je u 9. veku
p.n.e. nastalo iz feničkog. U verskim spisima, Samarićani još
uvek koriste varijantu ovog starog pisma.
Sva pisma Evrope i mnoga pisma Azije i Afrike su međusobno
povezana po nastanku. Sva vode poreklo od feničkog
pisma. Pogledajmo na sledećim stranicama kako je došlo do toga
da mi danas pišemo zapravo prilagođenim feničkim pismom
za naše potrebe i kakve to veze ima sa Svetim pismom i sa
Kumranskim rukopisima.
Od feničkog pisma preko Kumrana do današnjeg
modernog pisma
U zapadnosemitskim jezicima konsonant (suglasnik) predstavlja
nosioca značenja određenog izraza. Vokali se menjaju,
dodaju se afiksi koji mogu biti kako konsonanti, tako i vokali.
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Međutim, jedan, dva ili tri, pa i četiri konsonanta, u svakom
semitskom jeziku predstavljaju nosioce ideje, pomoću kojih se
izražava skup semantički srodnih pojmova. Svi zapadni Semiti
pisali su isključivo konsonantima. To znači da su se zapisivali
samo suglasnici pojmova, a da su se vokali pretpostavljali prilikom
čitanja poznatog jezika od strane njegovog govornika.
Tako je i danas u arapskom i hebrejskom jeziku, s tim da
postoje oznake za vokale koje se koriste u rečnicima, svetim
spisima, kao i kod učenja ovih jezika. U literaturi, štampi i
pisanju, vokali se ne koriste. Ova tradicija ne-pisanja vokala
potiče dakle još od Feničana. Vokale uvode tek stari Grci primivši
oznake za konsonante od Feničana. Često se danas može
čuti da su Feničani opismenili, svet pa tako i Slovene, naravno
posredno. Kako se taj proces u stvari odvijao?
Na tlu Fenikije, feničansko pismo se pojavljuje kao gotovo,
dakle bez razvojnih i prelaznih oblika pisama. Ova konstatacija
nas navodi na zaključak da su Feničani verovatno primili gotovo
pismo od nekog naroda sa kojim su dolazili često u
kontakt. Postoje mnoge teorije o pitanju naroda od koga su Feničani
preuzeli pismo. Jedna od njih je teorija o kritskom, kretskom
ili krićanskom pismu. Evans naznačava da 12 od 22
fenička znaka imaju isti oblik kao i kretske grafeme za iste
glasove. Tako i Šnajder navodi da izvore feničkog pisma treba
tražiti upravo u kretskom pismu. Smatra se da su pismo
Feničanima u Fenikiju sa Krita preneli Filistejci. Oni su zapravo
narod indoevropskog porekla koji se u drugom milenijumu
p.n.e. spustio sa severa u prostore tadašnjeg Kanaana i
Fenikije i to morskim putem prelazeći pri tome i preko Krita.
Kao dokaz da su Filistejci preneli kretsko pismo Feničanima,
može poslužiti i činjenica da Feničani baš u momentu kada na
njihovo tlo dolaze Filistejci počinju da koriste pismo, koje je
bilo veoma slično kretskom zbog zapisivanja i vođenja trgovačkih
beleški i knjiga.
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21
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Ovde treba pomenuti i interesantnu sličnost vinčanskog
pisma, pronađenog u Vinči kraj Beograda, sa feničkim. U pitanju
je deset identičnih znakova, od 22 koliko ih ima u feničkom
pismu. Vinčansko pismo postoji još u četvrtom milenijumu
p.n.e. tako da postoje indicije da su Krićani, pa tako posredno i
Feničani, primili pismo upravo sa područja današnjeg Balkana.
Međutim, nauka će dokazati da li su ove pretpostavke i tačne.
Od feničkog pisma razvija se starojevrejsko pismo i to u osmom
veku p.n.e. Najstariji natpis pronađen na starojevrejskom
pismu je tzv. Gezerov kalendar (vidi sliku na sledećoj strani).
Osim starojevrejskog, od feničkog pisma se razvija i punsko,
kao direktan nastavak feničkog, a koje koriste Puni, inače
Feničani koji naseljavaju Kartaginu. Od feničanskog pisma razvija
se i aramejsko, koje inače primaju Jevreji već u petom veku
p.n.e., i nešto modifikovano zadržavaju sve do danas. Feničko
pismo je preteča i današnjeg arapskog pisma, i mnogih
indijskih pisama. Takođe se od feničkog razvijaju etiopsko i
mnoga druga pisma u Africi i Aziji. Heleni u devetom veku
p.n.e. od Feničana prenose na svoje tlo pšenicu, ječam, bob,
sočivo, luk, zlatarstvo, preradu ulja i vina, staklarstvo, kola sa
točkovima, papirus, mere za težinu, dužinu i vreme, slikarstvo i
pisanje. Čak je i sam grčki termin za knjigu (biblos), nastao od
imena feničkog grada Biblos, pošto je papirus koji su Grci kupovali
od Feničana dolazio prvenstveno preko ovog grada. Grci
su u početku papirus nazivali ”biblos”, a kasnije i knjigu. Tako
nastaje i naziv za Sveto pismo - ”Biblija”.
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Gezerov kalendar
U najstarijim grčkim tekstovima slova su još potpuno feničkih
oblika, nema znakova za vokale i piše se s desna na levo,
kako to i danas zapadni Semiti upražnjavaju (naravno ovo važi
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i za mnoge druge Semite, pre svega za Arape). Grci čak primaju
i nazive slova. Današnji nazivi grčkih slova nemaju značenje.
Imena tih slova na grčkom jeziku ne znače ništa, dok na
hebrejskom, aramejskom i pretpostavlja se i na feničkom imaju
značenje. Neki od njih su:
Alef-alfa Jod-jota
Bet-beta Kaf-kapa
Gimel-gama Lamed-lambda
Dalet-delta Mem-mi
Zajin-zeta Nun-ni
Het-eta Pe-pi
Tet-teta Reš-ro
Tav-tau
Interesantno bi bilo i pomenuti značenja naziva feničkih slova
na samom feničkom jeziku, kao i na hebrejskom, što se u
mnogome i podudara. Pre svega treba pomenuti tumačenje feničkih
naziva od strane nemačkog naučnika Šnajdera, koje on
objavljuje još dvadesetih godina prošlog veka. Za znak ”alef”,
on smatra da označava glavu bika (vidi tabelu na stranama 19-
20), bet - lavirint, gimel - sekiru, dalet - lenjir, he - drvo, vav -
štap sa rogovima, zajin - rezu, het - polje, tet - točak, jod - ruku
sa šakom, kaf - otvorenu šaku, lamed - godinu, mem - vodu,
nun - zmiju, sameh - stub, ajin - vulvu, pe - koplje, cadi -
trozubac, kof - penis životinje, reš - glavu, šin - brdo, vrata, tav
- krst.
Postoje i druga tumačenja, koja su danas prihvaćenija, kada
je u pitanju hebrejski alefbet, koja su proizašla ne iz izgleda
samih znakova, već od naziva konsonanata na zapadnosemitskim
jezicima. Za bet se navodi značenje ”kuća”, dalet - vrata,
vav - kuka, ajin - oko, pe - usta, šin - zub, zubi, gimel - kamila,
nun - riba, het - barijera, ograda, tet - lopta, klupko, lamed -
štap učitelja…
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Poređenje (vidi tabelu na stranama 19-20) današnjih grčkih,
latinskih, starih feničkih i hebrejskih slova (grafema), ukazuje
na sledeće sličnosti i razlike između navedenih ortografskih
sistema:
1. Grčki znak ALFA predstavljen je upravo feničkim znakom
kojim se označava prvo slovo i u feničkom pismu. U grčkom
slučaju je došlo do toga, da je oštar ugao kojeg čine dve
prave crte iste dužine, okrenut nagore, za razliku od feničkog
znaka kod kojeg isti ugao ide u pravcu pisanja, prema levo.
Poredeći ovaj grčki znak sa hebrejskim znakom alef (a), kojem
odgovara po položaju u alfabetu, a i po nekim fonetskim osobenostima,
možemo uvideti takođe određene bliskosti. Naime,
hebrejski znak je zadržao tzv. ”rogove” od glave bika, koji su
postojali i u feničkom, a i u protokanaanskom znaku za fonemu
alef. Hebrejski znak nema vodoravnu crtu, iako se ova vodoravna
crta pojavljuje još u protokanaanskom simbolu za glas
alef, koji se datira na trinaesti vek p.n.e.
2. BETA - grafema Bet u grčkom pismu prilagođena je
pravcu pisanja s leva na desno, sa takozvanim trbuščićima okrenutim
nadesno. Fenički znak za isti glas ima okrenut trbuščić
takođe u pravcu pisanja - nalevo, ali donji trbuščić nije potpuno
formiran. Donji se trbuščić formirao na ovoj grafemi tek kod
Grka. Aramejsko-hebrejski znak: b (bet), koji odgovara grčkom
beta je potpuno prilagođen pravcu pisanja - nalevo, pojednostavljen
je i nema tzv. trbuščića. Ćirilični znak: ”Б”, predstavlja
u potpunosti preslikan fenički odgovarajući znak prilagođen
pravcu pisanja sa jednim trbuščićem okrenutim nadole kao svojevrsnim
oblikom osnove.
3.GAMA - ovа grafema u grčkom pismu predstavlja potpuno
preslikanu feničku grafemu za konsonant ”gimel” (vidi tabelu).
Naravno da je u grčkom slučaju prilagođena pravcu pisanja,
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te je gornja vodoravna crta okrenuta nadesno, dakle suprotno
od pravca pisanja, dok je u feničkom slučaju okrenuta nalevo,
takođe suprotno od pravca pisanja. Aramejsko-hebrejska grafema
za ovaj konsonant - g (gimel), je nešto stilizovanija, u smislu
da je za osnovu korišćen fenički znak, kojem je pridodata kraća
crta nalevo u osnovi znaka. Ovakva stilizacija ove grafeme kod
aramejsko-hebrejskog pisma primećena je još u drugom veku
p.n.e. Pre toga, znak je bio veoma nalik feničkom. Latinska grafema
CE (C) vodi grafički poreklo od feničkog gimel, pri čemu
je ovaj znak naravno u nešto izmenjenom obliku i podseća na
samarićansko ”G”, prilagođeno pravcu pisanja - nadesno.
4.DELTA - ova grčka grafema je predstavljena u potpunosti
feničkim znakom za konsonant ”dalet”. Latinski znak za isti
glas je nešto zaobljeniji na desnoj strani. Aramejsko-hebrejski
znak dalet (d) je vremenom izgubio svoj trouglasti oblik produžavanjem
desne stranice toga jednakostraničnog trougla. Ovo
se produžavanje javlja već u sedmom veku p.n.e. u starom
pismu Jevreja. Tokom razvoja ove grafeme kod Jevreja, postojali
su periodi kada je ista podsećala na latinično slovo P, sa
trbuščićem na levoj strani, dakle sa drastičnim produžetkom
desne stranice tog jednakostraničnog trougla feničkog znaka.
Iako su pronađeni neki stari jevrejski natpisi iz devetog veka
p.n.e. u kojima je glas ”dalet” zapisivan u potpunosti isto kao i
grčko ”delta”, konačni oblik aramejsko-hebrejskog znaka za
ovu fonemu sačinjen je od jedne kraće vodoravne linije, postavljene
na levoj strani u odnosu na tzv. postolje znaka, uspravne
i duže crte. Gornja crta izlazi malo iz linije postolja na
desnoj njegovoj strani, kao što se vidi i na gore navedenom
prikazu znaka za konsonant dalet u hebrejskom jeziku.
5. EPSILON. Ovaj grčki i latinski znak za glas (vokal) E,
predstavljen je nešto modernizovanim feničkim znakom za glas
”he” (vidi ”Hebrejski izgovor”). Naime, fenički znak je us27
pravnu liniju imao postavljenu na desnoj strani, što je odgovaralo
i pravcu pisanja. U grčkoj i latinskoj varijanti, uspravna
linija u znaku, koja na neki način predstavlja i osnovu
znaka, postavljena je sa leve strane, čime je i ovaj znak u
grčko-latinskom slučaju prilagođen pravcu pisanja. U indoevropskim
jezicima, ovim se znakom predstavlja vokal, dok se
u semitskim predstavlja konsonant ”he”. U aramejsko-hebrejskoj
varijanti ovoga znaka (h), osnovna uspravna linija postavljena
u feničkom znaku na desnoj strani se zadržava, kao i
jedna gornja vodoravna crta. Srednja linija postaje uspravna i
odvojena od vodoravne gornje, dok se donja vodoravna gubi.
Odvajanje donje vodoravne linije iz znaka primećuje se još u
natpisima u starojevrejskom pismu iz šestog veka p.n.e., dok do
njenog potpunog ispadanja dolazi tek u II veku p.n.e.
6. Zapadnosemitski znak VAV (w). Grčko pismo nema odgovarajućeg
znaka za ovaj fenički i aramejsko-hebrejski znak. U
latinskom pismu ovaj simbol postoji. Polukrug, koji je na osnovu
znaka bio postavljen naviše, negde u devetom veku p.n.e.
počinje da se okreće nadesno, i sve se više približava današnjem
latinskom znaku F, samo okrenutim nadesno, prilagođeno
pravcu pisanja. Već u sedmom veku p.n.e. znak je gotovo identičan
latinskom znaku F, samo je okrenut nadesno. U aramejsko-
hebrejskom pismu, gube se dve vodoravne crte, postavljene
na osnovu, a zadržava se samo deo prve, i to okrenute nalevo,
dakle suprotno pravcu pisanja. U petom veku p.n.e. potpuno su
se pomenute dve vodoravne crte izgubile iz znaka, u aramejskom
pismu, što se dakle preslikava kasnije, i na jevrejsko.
7. Grčki znak ZETA predstavljen je modifikovanim feničkim
znakom. Fenički znak se sastojao od dve duže vodoravne
linije sa među njima postavljenom jednom dužom uspravnom
linijom. U desetom veku p.n.e. u starojevrejskom pismu skraćuje
se središnja uspravna crta i polako se počinje zapisivati
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dijagonalno u odnosu na dve vodoravne, koje se gotovo i ne
menjaju. U grčkom i latinskom pismu, središnja je linija postavljena
potpuno dijagonalno kod znaka za glas Z. Aramejskohebrejsko
pismo, za ovaj glas ima zadržanu samo središnju liniju
koja je postavljena uspravno, sa manjom kvržicom na
svom gornjem delu okrenutom nalevo, dakle u pravcu pisanja: z
8. ETA - ovaj grčki znak je predstavljen modifikovanim
feničkim znakom HET. Naime, kako se i u tabeli vidi, fenički
znak je bio predstavljen dvema uspravnim linijama, između
kojih su postavljene tri kraće vodoravne crte međusobno
razdvojene. U devetom veku p.n.e. u starojevrejskom pismu
gubi se treća vodoravna linija, te ostaju samo dve. Nešto kasnije
se dve stapaju u jednu, i tako nastaje znak za glas ”eta” u
grčkom jeziku, i za glas H u latinskom jeziku. Aramejskohebrejski
znak za glas ”het” (j) zadržava dve uspravne linije i
prvu vodoravnu iz feničkog znaka, koja je postavljena na vrhu
dve uspravne, tako da znak podseća na ćirilično slovo: P.
Potpuna modifikacija ovog aramejsko-hebrejskog znaka, javlja
se tek u drugom veku p.n.e.
9. THETA - ovaj grčki znak predstavlja preslikani fenički
znak, veoma malo modifikovan. Fenički znak ”tet”, bio je predstavljen
krugom u kojem je postojao krstić. Grčki znak je
takođe predstavljen krugom, s tim da je krstić modifikovan u
jednu kratku vodoravnu liniju unutar kruga. U starojevrejskom
pismu, ovaj se krug malo otvara, da bi se lakše i brže pisalo, a
na mestu gde se manji otvor završava, stavlja se potez na unutra,
da se označi i postojanje znaka unutar kruga. Ovakvo
zapisivanje se javlja u zapisima na starojevrejskom jeziku iz
petog veka p.n.e. U aramejsko-hebrejskoj varijanti istog znaka,
zadržava se sličan način pisanja ovog znaka iz starojevrejskog
pisma: f
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10. IOTA - postoje manje ili više osnovane sumnje da se
ovaj grčki, pa i latinski simbol za označavanje glasova: I, J
može dovesti u vezu feničkim ili starojevrejskim znakom za
glas ”jod”. Ovakvo mišljenje pre svega vlada iz razloga što
fenički i starojevrejski znakovi za pomenute glasove, kako se i
u tabeli vidi, poseduju jednu uspravnu i dve ili tri vodoravne
linije, koje prekrižavaju uspravnu. Ovakav razvoj grčke i latinske
grafeme vezuje se za pojednostavljenje zapisivanja samo
baze znaka-uspravne crte. U aramejsko-hebrejskoj varijanti, pojavljuje
se znak koji je nešto kraći u odnosu na druge, i koji se
najčešće predstavlja kao jedna kraća crtica, koja mnogo kasnije
dobija izgled zareza ili kvačice: y - ovim se znakom u aramejskom
i hebrejskom jeziku označavaju glasovi J, i dok se
sam znak naziva ”jod”.
11. KAPA - ovaj grčki i latinski znak je zapravo nešto modifikovan
fenički i starojevrejski. Naime fenički je znak imao
pre svega oblik male grabulje postavljene naviše sa tri kraka.
Vremenom je (u devetom veku p.n.e.), desni krak grabuljice
produžen nadole, tako da se dobije znak nalik na grčko i latinsko
K, s tim da je postavljen kracima nagore. U grčkom i latinskom
pismu znak je prilagođen pravcu pisanja. U aramejskohebrejskom
pismu, koje se i danas koristi u hebrejskom jeziku,
kraci su prešli u jednu deblju i kratku vodoravnu liniju koja na
svojoj krajnjoj desnoj tački ima liniju nadole, dakle uspravnu
crtu, koja se savija nalevo, dakle u pravcu pisanja, a paralelno
sa gornjom linijom: k. Koristi se za označavanje glasova: kaf
(K) i haf (H).
12. LAMBDA - grčki znak kojim se označava glas L, predstavlja
gotovo preslikan fenički znak za isti glas. Naime, fenički
znak je imao isti izgled kao grčko lambda (kao ćirilično L), ali
je bio okrenut otvorom prema desno, dakle prema strani od koje
pisanje počinje u feničkom jeziku. Jedan krak u feničkom
30
znaku je bio obično nešto duži u odnosu na drugi. Latinski
znak, kao da nastaje od starojevrejskog znaka za glas L. U
devetom veku p.n.e. starojevrejski znak je podsećao na latinski,
s tim da je donja kraća crta bila okrenuta nadesno i nije gradila
prav ugao sa uspravnom crtom. Može se reći da je podsećao na
latinsko J, okrenuto nadesno. Aramejsko-hebrejski znak
”lamed”, u drugom veku p.n.e. dobija svoj konačni oblik.
Naime, duža crta iz feničkog znaka se još više izdužuje i postavlja
uspravno, kraća crta se nastavlja nadole, u obliku jednog
cik-cak poteza. Tek kasnije u modernom pismu znak je predstavljen
zapravo ovim potezom, a duga uspravna linija, koja
predstavlja i osnovu znaka, biva skraćena: l
13. MI - grčki znak, koji se potpuno zadržao iz doba feničkog
pisanja, nešto modifikovan i prilagođen pravcu pisanja.
Fenički znak za glas M, je predstavljao talase vode, dva do tri
talasa postavljena uspravno u obliku vodopada (vidi tabelu).
Grčki i latinski znak je predstavljen sa dva talasa u dva poteza,
pomoću četiri linije. Aramejsko-hebrejski znak se razvijao nešto
drugačije, tako da se negde u 9 veku p.n.e. u starojevrejskom
pismu talasi, kojima je znak predstavljen, postavljaju vodoravno,
a jedan desni krak se produžava. U petom veku p.n.e. talasi
dobijaju oblik deblje polukružne linije, postavljene vodoravno
u odnosu na uspravnu, ranije nastalu liniju, koja predstavlja
dakle produžetak krajnje desnog talasa iz feničkog znaka. Osim
toga, pomenutoj uspravnoj liniji dodaje se postolje paralelno
debljoj polukružnoj liniji. Iz deblje vodoravne polukružne linije
izlazi, pridodata kasnije, uspravna linija čime se dobija nepravilni
kvadrat. Na kraju, aramejsko-hebrejski znak dobija
ovakav oblik: m
14. NI - simbol kojim se u grčkom i latinskom jeziku predstavlja
glas N, odgovara verno feničkom znaku za isti glas,
nešto prilagođen za potrebe ovih jezika, odnosno pravcu pisa31
nja. Naime, fenički znak je bio sastavljen od jednopotezne linije,
zapravo krive, u obliku obrnuto napisanog latiničnog slova
Z (vidi tabelu). Grčki i latinski znak je prilagođen pravcu pisanja,
te okrenut tako da mu bazu čine gornja i donja linija
feničkog znaka, a da je među njima ostala dijagonalna crta, i to
s leva nadesno. Aramejsko-hebrejski znak za isti glas dobija u
devetom veku p.n.e. produženu donju crtu u odnosu na fenički
znak, koja kasnije postaje osnova znaka. Tek u sedmom veku
p.n.e. ona se u svom donjem delu povija nešto nalevo, dakle u
pravcu pisanja. Gornja linija se smanjuje, ili u pojedinim oblicima
starojevrejskih pisama potpuno iščezava. Danas u hebrejskom
pismu izgleda upravo tako: n
15. KSI - grčki znak nastao od feničkog znaka, kojim se
označavao glas S u feničkom jeziku. Od ovog feničkog znaka
nastao je i znak X u latinskom jeziku, kao i znak za konsonant
”sameh” (s) u hebrejskom jeziku. Fenički znak je imao tri vodoravne
kraće crte, kroz koje je prolazila jedna uspravna i duža,
tako da je podsećao na antenu (vidi tabelu na str. 19-20). Grčki
znak je samo izgubio uspravnu crtu. Latinski znak ima nešto
drugačiju strukturu - dve ukrštene linije, pa dobijamo znak X,
dok je slučaj sa aramejskim i hebrejskim znakom ”sameh”
nešto drugačiji. Tri vodoravne linije počinju vremenom da se
ispisuju sa manje pažnje. Prednost se daje upravo središnjoj uspravnoj
liniji, a zapisivanje znaka započinje tom istom uspravnom
linijom nalevo, koja se nešto zaobljava, pa se tri vodoravne
linije zapisuju u jednom potezu bez mnogo obraćanja
pažnje na njih same. Kasnije, u drugom veku p.n.e., tri vodoravne
crte se pretvaraju u jednu deblju, nešto kitnjastu, koja sa
osnovom, ili pomenutom uspravnom linijom opisuje krug.
Danas znak za glas sameh izgleda ovako: s.
16.OMIKRON - ovaj grčki, a kasnije i latinski znak za vokal O,
predstavljaju u potpunosti imitiran fenički znak za sličan glas.
32
Naime u zapadnosemitskim jezicima u pitanju je guturalni glas
”ajin” (vidi o glasu ajin). Aramejsko-hebrejski znak ovde
dobija jedan oblik trougla, kojem se kasnije, u šestom veku
p.n.e. jedna, i to desna stranica produžava, dok on sam gubi
oblik trougla i otvara se. Danas ovaj znak u hebrejskom jeziku
izgleda ovako: ע
17. PI - ovaj grčki znak je zapravo razvijeniji fenički, kojim
se označavao takođe glas P. Kod feničana je ovaj znak bio
predstavljen kraćom kosom crtom, od koje se nadole spuštala
jedna duža u obliku postolja. Kasnije je grčki znak dobio današnji
oblik (ćirilično P). Latinski jezik ovde koristi oznaku za
grčko ”ro”. Aramejski i hebrejski koriste nešto razvijeniji znak:
p

18. KU - ovaj znak i glas ne postoje u grčkom, ali se zato
javljaju u latinskom pismu, koje je potpuno preslikalo fenički
znak za emfatični glas KOF. Jedina modifikacija je da se skraćuje
bazna uspravna linija iz feničkog znaka, dok bazu predstavlja
upravo krug. Aramejsko i hebrejsko pismo zadržavaju
kod ovog znaka za osnovu uspravnu liniju od feničkog znaka,
dok je krug smanjen, čak i otvoren. Konačno, hebrejski znak
dobija ovakav oblik: q

19. RO - grčki znak za glas R, je u stvari prepisani fenički
znak za isti glas. Naime, fenički je znak samo bio okrenut u
pravcu pisanja nalevo, dok je grčki prilagođen pravcu pisanja
nadesno. Aramejski i hebrejski znak umesto zatvorenog jajolikog
kruga postavljenog na uspravnoj liniji kao bazi, dobija
samo jednu zaobljenu uspravnu liniju. Tako i danas izgleda hebrejski
znak za glas R - r

20. SIGMA - predstavlja znak koji je preslikan iz feničkog
pisma, postavljen da odgovara pravcu pisanja s leva nadesno.
Fenički znak kojim se označavaju glasovi: S, Š - imao je oblik
33
današnjeg znaka sigme u grčkom jeziku, postavljenim kracima
nagore. U latinskom se kraci zaobljavaju, te se dobija latinsko
S. U ćirilici ostaje feničko i starojevrejsko ”šin”, sa ravnom
bazom. Danas hebrejsko ”šin”, odnosno ”sin” izgledaju ovako:
c v

21. TAU - ovaj grčki znak za glas T je modifikovan fenički
znak za isti glas. Fenički znak prestaje da se koristi kao krstić u
grčkom slučaju, već uspravna crta krstića postaje postolje, pri
čemu se izdužava. U latinskom je isto tako. Aramejski i
hebrejski znak za isti glas dobijaju ovakav oblik: t. Dakle,
krstić se razdvaja na dve uspravne crte, koje su međusobno
povezane novom.
Iz navedenih uporednih grafičkih analiza više pisama može
se zaključiti da su iz feničkog, možda i iz aramejskog i jevrejskog
pisma, grčko i latinsko pismo nasledili, odnosno preuzeli,
21 grafemu, od postojećih 22. Ostale grafeme su u grčkom
i latinskom pismu nastale kasnije, verovatno kao tvorevine kombinovanja
postojećih zapadnosemitskih grafema ili neposrednim
ličnim idejnim grafičkim rešenjima pojedinih drevnih pisaca.
Kako je pismo kod Slovena u početku predstavljala glagoljica,
može se čisto grafički porediti ovo pismo sa feničanskim i
starogrčkim. Međutim, malo je naučnika koji tu nalaze zajedničke
elemente. O tome je ipak potrebno uraditi jednu posebnu
analizu. Danas, u nauci preovladava mišljenje da je glagoljicu
sastavio Ćiril, koji je 863. godine došao među Moravce
da im propoveda hrišćanstvo. Treba razmišljati i o tome da
mnogi znakovi iz glagoljice imaju istu formu i oblik kao i
pojedini znaci feničkog pisma, a koji služe za označavanje istih
glasova. Može se reći da te osnovne konture imaju i grčki
znakovi, koji su kako je već predočeno, direktno nastali iz
feničkog pisma. Pojedini znakovi glagoljice, predstavljaju i
kombinaciju dva jednostavnija znaka iz glagoljice. (To su
34
znakovi kao: šta, jeri…) Znak AZ u glagoljici, ima konture
znaka ”alef” iz feničanskog i ”alfa” iz grčkog pisma. Vide se
katete zamišljenog trougla, koje su u ovom slučaju ukrštene u
obliku krstića, s tim da nema te osnovice trougla koja u grčkom
i u feničkom znaku preseca katete trouglića. Znak ”buki” u
glagoljici okrenut je kao i fenički znak, trbuščić je okrenut
dakle nagore, umesto ćiriličnog - nadole. Kao baza, osnovica
kod glasa ”buki” je vodoravna linija, a trbuščić je rešetkast,
dakle samo stilizovan u odnosu na fenički znak. Znak ”vedi”, je
mogao biti naknadno izmišljen, ali ”glagolj” ima osnovnu
dijagonalnu linijicu, koja mu je baza, dakle kao i fenički znak,
gornja kraća crta iz feničkog znaka je prerasla u zatvoreni
kružić, te je analogno tome radi simetrije mogao nastati u
znacima ”glagolj” i ”donj” desni kružić. Išlo se dakle ka jednom
zaokruživanju ili zaobljavanju znakova. Znak ”dobro” ima konturu
feničkog ”dalet”, sa opet zaobljenim donjim uglovima
trougla, ali je i vrh trougla takođe neznatno zaobljen. Takođe i
znak u glagoljici ”esti” ima oblik feničkog ”he” od kojeg je
nastalo i grčko ”eta”, s tim da je u grčkom pismu znak promenio
smer, prateći pravac pisanja, dok je u glagoljici smer zadržan,
dakle suprotno pravcu pisanja.
Uopšte gledano, dakle ne analizirajući svaki znak glagoljice,
vide se uticaji feničkog pisma, možda i pre grčkog direktno, ali
i feničkog indirektno. Znak ”ša” ili ”šta” jesu direktan prepis
feničkog znaka za glas Š, koji se kao takav kasnije preneo i u
ćirilicu. Znakovi: ”mislite”, ”pokoj”, ”rici”, ”slovo”, ”tvrdo”…
imaju takođe osnovne konture grčkih, pa indirektno i feničkih
znakova.
Ovo su činjenice. Dakle, zaključak koji se može izvesti jeste
da su Sloveni, ako ne sve, onda mnoge znakove u svom pismu
primili od Grka tj. indirektno, mada je diskutabilno da li i zaista
indirektno, od Feničana. Redosled slova u glagoljici je takođe
fenički, tj zapadnosemitski. Kasnije Sloveni, već od desetog
veka počinju upotrebljavati i ćirilicu kao produkt feničkog
35
pisma koje je do njih došlo preko Grka. Romanski narodi donose
Slovenima i latinicu, nasleđenu od Latina. Osnovni potezi
gotovo svakog znaka ćirilice i latinice jesu direktan prepis ideje
zapadnosemitskih starih pisama - feničkog i starojevrejskog.
36
JEVREJSKO PISMO U PERIODU
NASTAJANJA KUMRANSKIH RUKOPISA
Kumranski rukopisi su pisani takođe hebrejskim jezikom, ali
pismom karakterističnim za doba kada su pisani. Svaki period
je imao karakteristično pismo, a videli smo u prethodnom periodu
da se svako pismo tokom vremena razvijalo. U periodu pisanja
kumranskih rukopisa jevrejsko pismo je bilo blisko današnjem
savremenom kvadratnom pismu. Uzrok za to je snažan
aramejski uticaj na jevrejsko pismo toga doba. Danas se ovo
jevrejsko pismo naziva još i aramejsko pismo. U tabeli ispod,
može se videti izgled slova kojim su pisani kumranski spisi, a
možemo ih lako i naučiti.
) a = alef
b b = bet
g g = gimel
d d = dalet
h h = he
w w = vav
z z = zajin
x h = het
+ t = tet
y y = jod
k k = kaf
\ h = haf na kraju reči
l l = lamed
m m = mem
{ m = mem na kraju reči
n n = nun
} nun na kraju reči
s s = samek
( ajin
p p = pe
v f = fe na kraju reči
c c = cadi
q q = kof
r r = reš
$ š = šin
t t = tav
37
Primer teksta iz Isaije 1:1 na „kumranskom“ pismu.
ymyk {l$wryw hdwh l(hzx r$) cwm) }b
why($y }wzx
hdwhy yklm whyqzxy zx) {twy whyz)
38
SAVREMENO HEBREJSKO PISMO
I u starom i u novom hebrejskom pismu ne postoji razlika
između tzv. malih i velikih slova, već samo nekoliko slova ima
drugačiji oblik kada se piše na kraju reči, slično arapskom
pismu, ali mnogo jednostavnije. U pisanju se samoglasnici uglavnom
ne pišu. Hebrejsko pismo se piše sa desna na levo.
U donjoj tabeli, mogu se videti savremena hebrejska slova i
takođe se lako mogu naučiti:
Kaf Yod Tet Het Zajin Vav He Dalet Gimel Bet Alef
כ א ב ג ד ה ו ז ח ט י
ך
Tav Šin Reš Kof Cadi Pe Ajin Sameh Nun Mem Lamed
מ נ פ צ ל
ם ן
ס ע
ף ץ
ק ר ש ת
Da bismo bolje razumeli razvoj savremenog hebrejskog pisma,
možemo pogledati i sledeću tabelu:
39
Oblici
Naziv Savremeni hebrejski Drevni hebrejski
slova
Štampana
I tip
Štampana
II tip
Štampana
III tip
Pisana
slova Raši tip Feničko
pismo
Paleohebrejsko
pismo
Aramejsko
pismo
Alef א א א
Bet ב ב ב
Gimel ג ג ג
Dalet ד ד ד
He ה ה ה
Vav ו ו ו
Zajin ז ז ז
Het ח ח ח
Tet ט ט ט
Jod י י י
Kaf כ כ כ
40
Završno
Kaf ך ך ך
Lamed ל ל ל
Mem מ מ מ
Završno
Mem ם ם ם
Nun נ נ נ
Završno
Nun ן ן ן
Sameh ס ס ס
Ajin ע ע ע
Pe פ פ פ
Završno
Pe ף ף ף
Cadi צ צ צ
Završno
Cadi ץ ץ ץ
,
Kof ק ק ק
41
Reš ר ר ר
Šin ש ש ש
Tav ת ת ת
Da bi se pravilno označavali samoglasnici, nastao je veći
broj sistema dijakritičkih znakova tj. tačkica i crtica kojima se
označavaju samoglasnici (nikud). Jedan od ovih, zvani Tiberijanski
sistem je vremenom postao dominantan. Aaron ben Mozes
ben Ašer, i njegova porodica kroz više generacija, se smatraju
zaslužnim za nastanak i usavršavanje ovog sistema. Ove
oznake se koriste za posebne namene, kao što su biblijski tekstovi,
poezija ili za učenje hebrejskog jezika. U Tiberijanskom
sistemu postoji i određeni broj znakova za pojanje, koji označavaju
kako treba pojati određene citate (slično evropskim
neumama), kao i određeni broj ukrasa, koji se koriste samo u
svicima Tore.
Hebrejska slova se mogu koristiti i kao brojevi (najčešće u
Bibliji), ali su danas u svakodnevnoj upotrebi tzv. arapski, odnosno
zapadni brojevi.
42
ZANIMLJIVOSTI BIBLIJSKOG TEKSTA
Nijedna knjiga Starog zaveta se nije sačuvana u autografu
(autograf je originalni tekst pisan rukom pisca). Sve što imamo
su zapravo prepisi. Pošto nekada štamparije nisu postojale,
knjige su se prepisivale i to na papirusu ili na pergamentu
(koža). Pošto su starozavetne knjige obimne i pošto su prepisivači
bili ljudi od krvi i mesa koji su mogli i pogrešiti, tokom
prepisivanja su se u prvobitni tekst uvukle neke veoma sitne
greške. Najviše takvih grešaka su bile zapravo nenamerne. Navedimo
nekoliko primera da bismo razumeli koliko su ovakve
greške uticale na današnje Sveto pismo koje je nama dostupno.
Pre svega, čest slučaj je zamena međusobno sličnih konsonanata
(vidi donju tabelu).
Bet i reš Reš i dalet Tet i ajin Kaf i nun He i het
b r
r d
Kao što se u tabeli vidi, u starom hebrejskom pismu međusobno
su slični konsonanti bet i reš, reš i dalet, tet i ajin, kaf i
nun, he i het, mem i nun, kaf i nun...
U hebrejskom kvadratnom pismu, koje je, kako smo rekli,
novijeg datuma, slični su dalet i reš, he i het, bet i kaf, jod i vav
itd (vidi tabelu na sledećoj strani).
43
Bet i
reš
Reš i
dalet
Tet i
ajin
Kaf i
nun
He i
het
Ajin i
cadi
Kaf i
nun
završno
b r f k h ö[ ^
r d ö[ n j x @
Kada se tako pogreši može se dogoditi da neka hebrejska reč
dobije drugo značenje. Tako recimo možemo imati slučaj da
umesto reči hyh haja što znači ”on je bio” prepisivač teksta
napiše haja hyj (sa het umesto he) što znači ”životinja”. Međutim,
ovakve i slične greške lako se mogu otkriti u hebrejskom
tekstu, pre svega po smislu. Jer, ako u hebrejskom tekstu stoji
na primer ”čovek je bio na planini” ili stoji ”čovek je životinja
planina” jasno će biti da je došlo do slučajne greške u prepisivanju
i po smislu ćemo razumeti da je reč o prošlom vremenu
glagola ”biti”, a ne o nekakvoj životinji. Iako su ovakve greške
zaista retke, postoje brojni kritičari verodostojnosti biblijskog
teksta, pa je bilo važno da na ovom mestu objasnimo šta to u
stvari izazivaju ove slučajne greške u prepisivanju. Kao što se
može videti, ne izazivaju ništa posebno.
Pri mehaničkom prepisivanju ponekad se događalo da dođe
do metateze konsonanata (metateza je zamena mesta). Tako
recimo, umesto ”abv” imamo ”avb”, ili umesto ”bhr” imamo
”brh”. Ovakva situacija, a naročito zbog toga što se hebrejski
jezik piše gotovo samo pomoću konsonanata, ponekad je dovodila
do toga da prepisivač umesto rjb (bahar) što znači ”birati”
napiše jrb (barah) što znači ”pobeći”. I ovakve greške nisu mogle
uticati na razumevanje i verodostojnost teksta jer svaki
tekst, pa i svaka rečenica, ima svoj smisao pa se ne može dogoditi
da neko bira u celom tekstu šta će da jede i da pije, pa
onda odjednom kada treba da ”izabere pšenicu” on ne izabere
pšenicu nego ”pobegne pšenicu”.
Ponekad se dešavalo da prepisivač umesto dva identična ili
slična slova, a koja se nalaze jedno pored drugog, napiše samo
jedno. To je kao kada bi u našem jeziku neko umesto „najjuž44
nije“ napisao nepravilno „najužnije“. Ova greška se naziva
”haplografija”. Tako recimo u 2. Samuilovoj 7,23 napisano je
ispravno ”lifdot lo leam”, dok za istu stvar u 1. Dnevnika 17, 21
imamo napisano pogrešno ”lifdot lo am”. Ponekad se pojavljuje
i ditografija, što je u stvari dvostruko pisanje jednog ili više
slova. Tako recimo u Jeremiji 29,19 imamo napisano pravilno
!yabnh (haneviim) dok u Jeremiji 7,25 imamo pogrešno
napisano !yyabnh (hanevijim), što je više pravopisna greška prepisivača
i može poslužiti kao dokaz da prepisivač nije sve
vreme gledao u tekst koji prepisuje već je čitao nekoliko reči
teksta pa ih iz glave zapisivao na materijal na kojem je pisao.
Zbog nepažnje prepisivača ponekad se dešavalo da dođe do
ispuštanja celog reda ili pasusa. Ovo se najčešće dešavalo između
dve iste reči. Nekada se događalo da je prepisivač pogrešno
dešifrovao skraćenice. Tako recimo u Isaiji 7,10 nekada
je postojala skraćenica y (J) što je bila skraćenica od why[vy (Ješaajahu).
Kasnije se ova skraćenica ispisala pogrešno i pretvorena
je u hwhy (Jahve).
Neke tekstove su pisari zapisivali slušanjem. Osoba koja je
tekst znala napamet diktirala je pisaru koji je zapisivao i koji je
mogao napraviti grešku. Ukoliko dobro razmislimo, u ovakvim
situacijama zapravo imamo dvojicu odgovornih ljudi. Za grešku
može biti odgovoran i onaj koji diktira i onaj koji zapisuje.
Osoba koja diktira mogla je zaboraviti neku reč ili čak rečenicu,
dok je osoba koja je zapisivala mogla pogrešno čuti reč pa je
tako i mogla pogrešno zapisati. Tako na primer u Isaijinoj knjizi,
koja je inače cela pronađena u Kumranu, u prvom stupcu u
26. redu (što se može videti i na fotografijama, kao i u analizi
dela Isaijinog svitka u nastavku ove knjige) neke reči su date u
množini dok su u masoretskom tekstu Isaije na tom istom
mestu te reči date u jednini.
Pored grešaka u slušanju, javljaju se i greške usled neznanja
ili nepažnje. Pre svega događalo se da prepisivač ne zna kako
se tačno piše određena reč. Ukoliko prepisivač sluša osobu koja
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diktira, ovakve greške su bile česte, jer je lakše tekst prepisati
nego ga zapisivati po diktatu. U Kumranskim rukopisima ima
ovakvih slučajeva, a primer za to je prvi stubac Isaije u 9. redu,
pretposlednja reč, gde se reč ”tkphmk ke-mahpekat” nalazi zapisana
kao ”tkpmk ke-mapekat”. Najveća otežavajuća okolnost
prepisivačima Biblije bio je sam način zapisivanja reči u tekstu.
Važna karakteristika hebrejskog teksta u to vreme je bila
zapisivanje reči bez znakova interpunkcije (kao tačka, zarez...) i
bez razdvajanja reči od reči, pa su se zbog ove karakteristike
zapisivanja jezika takođe potkradale sitne nenamerne greške.
Do namerne izmene teksta dolazilo je usled toga što se nekada
teško razumljiv izraz hteo zameniti lakše razumljivim.
Dešavalo se da su reči, kojim se tekst objašnjavao, ispisivane
između redova ili na rubu, pa su kasnije bile unesene u sam
tekst. To su glose. Tako u Isaiji 4,18, koji počinje sa rečima hi'
beth, a završava se rečju el, iza reči lez je napisana glosa.U 2.
Carevima 9,4 neko je u vezi sa rečju r[nh (ha – na’ar) u tekstu,
ispisao istu reč i na rubu dodao objašnjenje ybnhr[nh (hn’r
hnbj’). Kasnije, prepisivač je primedbu sa ruba uneo u tekst i
danas čitamo ybnh r[nh (ha-na’ar ha-navi).
Jedan veliki autoritet na području biblijskih rukopisa, Fenton
Hort, rekao je veoma važnu stvar kada su u pitanju prepisivači
Biblije: ”Uprkos realnim mogućnostima kvarenja teksta tokom
prepisivanja i postojanja razlika među raznim rukopisima, rad
prepisivača, gledano u celini, bio je obavljen s velikom brižljivošću
i verodostojnošću. U stvari, procenjeno je da varijacija
ima u svega hiljaditom delu celokupnog teksta.”
Ukoliko uzmemo u obzir ovu Hortovu izjavu, slobodno možemo
biti oduševljeni radom prepisivača Biblije. Pošto znamo
da su od tehnike za pisanje imali samo kožu i pero, ne možemo,
a da ne pomislimo da je sam Bog čuvao tačnost biblijskog
teksta.
Pogledajmo bilo koju knjigu štampanu u vreme kompjuterske
ere. Svaka ima greške. Nađe se tu pravopisnih grešaka,
46
štamparskih grešaka, materijalnih grešaka autora itd. Ne zaboravimo
da svaki program za pisanje na računaru dozvoljava
pisanje i brisanje, čak na mnogim jezicima sam ispravlja gramatičke
i pravopisne greške. Nakon ovoga, autor obično još
nekoliko puta pročita tekst, i ispravi greške, lektor pročita pa i
on ispravi, onda se još jednom uradi korektura, pa se knjiga
štampa. A greške su, i pored svega toga, i dalje tu.
Prepisivači Biblije sa svojim perom i kožom nisu smeli ni da
pogreše. Zamislite Isaijin svitak, pronađen u Kumranu. Dugačak
je preko sedam metara, zapisan u 54 stupca. Ako bi prepisivač
napravio samo jednu ozbiljnu grešku, koje bi bio svestan,
morao bi da počne posao ispočetka. Nesvesne greške prepisivača
su nam ostale, ali su ih tokom vekova za nas, najpre jevrejski,
a posle toga i mnogi drugi naučnici, ispravili.
Sve ove greške nisu mogle da ostave trag na kvalitet i razumevanje
bilo koje biblijske rečenice. Obzirom da postoji
dobar broj prepisa, a kasnije i prevoda, pojedine sitne greške
ostajale su do današnjih dana, dok su neke druge greške tokom
vremena ispravljane.
Svaki prepis i svaki prevod Biblije ima određeni broj nenamernih
grešaka, a ponekad čak i namernih. Na svu sreću svi
oblici gore navedenih grešaka mogu se lako otkriti ukoliko poznajemo
pre svega hebrejski, pa zatim i grčki jezik, a onda eventualno
i latinski ili recimo staroslovenski jezik. Mnogi naučnici,
prevodioci, ali i izdavačke kuće, uradili su ovaj posao za nas
tako da nam poznavanje ovih jezika nije neophodno da bismo
znali da je biblijski tekst verodostojan, ako verujemo prevodiocima
i naučnicima.
Činjenica je da ne postoji verzija Biblije koja je apsolutno
tačna od slova do slova, od crtice do crtice, ali je zato, možemo
tvrditi sa apsolutnom sigurnošću, svaka rečenica sačuvana do
danas sa svojim jasnim smislom. Ponovimo i to da je poznavanje
pre svega hebrejskog jezika, ali i starogrčkog, put u svet u
kojem ćemo otkriti da su izjave koje ste do sada pročitali tačne.
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Godine 1947. u pećinama pored Mrtvog mora, u malom
mestu Kumran, otkriveni su veoma stari zapisi. Njihov pronalazak
pokrenuo je lavinu strahova među ateistima, čežnji naučnika
i radosti lingvista. Ovi zapisi su uglavnom sadržali razne
delove Starog zaveta. Pisani su tokom dugog niza godina. Neki
zapisi su nastali pre 2400 godina, dok su neki nastali pre 1950
godina. Ono što je najvažnije, otkriće ovih zapisa dokazalo je
da je sve što mi možemo danas da pročitamo u Bibliji i ono što
je napisano pre 3000 godina apsolutno identično po značenju.
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PREVODI BIBLIJE
Svi prevodioci se slažu da je njihov zadatak da prenesu smisao
originala, da prenesu značenje. Ako je jezik prevoda bliži
primaočevom jeziku onda je to idiomatski prevod. Drugi osnovni
način prevođenja je doslovni - literarni prevod. U ovom
prevodu, forma prevoda više odgovara formi originala. Izbor
koji će prevodilac da načini između ova dva pristupa određivaće
da li će prevod predstavljati klasično delo u literarnom
smislu ili će biti idiomatski prevod. Međutim najbolji prevod je
prevod takozvanog ”dinamičkog ujednačavanja”. U ovom prevodu
forma (sintaksa, slaganje rečenice i leksika, vrsta reči) izmenjene
su koliko je to bilo nužno, ali je značenje sačuvano.
Ništa nije parafrazirano dodavanjem, izbacivanjem ili menjanjem
poruke i slično. Dobar prevod Biblije je onaj prevod koji
na najbolji način izražava značenje jevrejskog i grčkog jezika,
odnosno poruku na tom jeziku. Svaki stih Svetog Pisma mora
da bude tačno preveden. Prevodilac mora da radi po Svetom
Duhu i ne sme da dopusti da njegova teologija određuje prevod,
i uvek mora da vodi računa o kontekstu. Namera prevodioca
mora biti da tačno prenese ono što je autor rekao.
Ako se odlomak može prevesti na dva načina, moramo ga
prevesti tako da je u skladu sa opštom teologijom pisca koji ga
je napisao. Moramo težiti doslednosti i skladu s piscem, tako i
sa Biblijom u celini.
Postoje nekoliko nužnih uslova kod prevođenja Biblije. To
su:
1. Ispravan originalan tekst Svetog Pisma, i povremena revizija
u skladu sa eventualnim novim otkrićima.
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2. Tačnost teksta prevoda u odnosu na izvorni tekst Svetog
Pisma, gde može da postoji nekoliko eventualnih problema:
a. problem nedostatka filološkog ili teološkog znanja,
b. nasilna modernizacija biblijskog jezika,
c. uticaj prevodiočevih teoloških i drugih stavova,
3. Poznavanje jezika na koji se prevodi, gde može da postoji
nekoliko eventualnih problema:
a. problem preterane doslovnosti,
b. problem prevelike slobode u prevođenju.
Veoma je važno da prevodilac za osnovni tekst koji prevodi
ima što ispravniji originalni tekst Svetog Pisma. Mnogo je rukopisa
Biblije, i kao što smo već rekli, u tim rukopisima postoje
određene sitne razlike. Zato je veoma važno da prevodilac konsultuje
novootkrivene rukopise koji su potvrđeni kao autentični
od teologa i naučnika.
Vuk Karadžić je 1820. godine preveo Novi zavet koji je
nekoliko puta revidiran i objavljen 1847. godine. Od te godine
pa do danas imali smo bar tri velika otkrića biblijskih rukopisa.
Prvo otkriće dogodilo se 1844. godine u grčkom manastiru
Svete Katarine na Sinajskom poluostrvu. Ovi rukopisi nazvani
su Sinajski rukopisi – Codex Sinaiticus. Nastali su u VI veku i
sadrže skoro čitavu Bibliju. Ovi rukopisi se smatraju za jedan
od najautentičnijih izvora Biblije. Godine 2009. objavljeni su i
na internetu i prevedeni na engleski, nemački i ruski jezik
(www.codexsinaiticus.org)
Posle ovog velikog pronalaska, godine 1895. u Egiptu su otkriveni
novozavetni papirusi koji su takođe veoma značajni za
razumevanje sadržaja Novog zaveta. Pored ovoga, najvažniji su
Kumranski rukopisi koji su otkriveni 1947. godine. Da je Vuk
Karadžić imao ove izvore sigurno bi ih konsultovao i imali bismo
neznatno drugačiji Novi zavet.
Osim što je važno da bude ispravan tekst koji se prevodi
važno je da prevod bude tačan. Jedan prevodilac ne može imati
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dovoljno jezičkog, teološkog, književnog i drugog znanja da bi
napravio prevod vrhunskog kvaliteta. Zato se danas Biblija prevodi
komisijski, jer ukupno znanje svih članova komisije je veće
od znanja jedne osobe. Pored stručnjaka za hebrejski i grčki
jezik u komisiju se pozivaju i arheolozi, istoričari, teolozi,
geografi, književnici i pesnici koji pomažu u prevodu i obliku
rečenice.
Glavni izvor teksta Starog zaveta je Masoretski tekst. Jevrejski
tekst Biblije nije oduvek imao oblik koji ima danas. U
današnjem tekstu, recimo, postoje znakovi za samoglasnike i
akcente kojih nekada uopšte nije bilo. Današnji starozavetni
tekst potiče iz IX veka. On je u stvari rezultat hiljadugodišnjeg
proučavanja teksta od strane naučnika. Rad na čuvanju i redigovanju
teksta se na hebrejskom jeziku naziva ”masoret”, što
znači ”prenos, tradicija”. Naučnici koji su se bavili ovim poslom
se nazivaju ”masoreti”. Tekst koji su oni obrađivali se naziva
”masoretski tekst”.
Masoreti su svoj posao započeli još 600. godine p.n.e., dakle
pre 2600 godina. Tada su se zvali ”soferimi” ili ”književnici”.
U Bibliji često nailazimo na književnike i sada je, nadamo se,
jasno ko su oni bili i čime su se bavili. U X veku masoreti
završavaju svoj posao i konačno osmišljaju sistem vokalizacije,
odnosno pisanje samoglasnika. Poznato je da je starohrebrejsko
pismo imalo znakove samo za suglasnike. U nedostatku znakova
za samoglasnike, tokom vremena su pojedini suglasnici
upotrebljavani kao znaci za samoglasnike. To su alef, he, vav i
jod - slova koja se zovu još i ”mater lectiones” (majka čitanja).
Hebrejski tekst je pisan pre masoreta, kako smo u prethodnom
poglavlju mogli videti, bez razdvajanja reči, bez znakova
interpunkcije, bez odvajanja rečenica, bez odvajanja na
stihove ili poglavlja. Podela na stihove bila je poznata još u
talmudsko vreme. Označavanje stihova brojevima prvi put se
javilo u latinskoj Vulgati. Podela na poglavlja je takođe prvi
put urađena u Vulgati.
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Pokušajmo sada da razumemo kada je počela da se javlja
prva potreba za prevodima Biblije i iz kojih razloga. U V veku
p.n.e. zvanični jezik Persijskog carstva postao je aramejski
jezik. Hebrejski jezik počinje da izumire kao govorni jezik čak i
kod samih Jevreja. Međutim, na molitvama u sinagogama
ostaje u upotrebi zbog čitanja Biblije. Iako su Jevreji čitali
Bibliju na hebrejskom jeziku, u to vreme su je tokom same
molitve prevodili na njima razumljiv aramejski jezik. Zbog toga
se pojavila potreba da se Biblija prevede na aramejski jezik.
Prvi prevod Starog zaveta Biblije bio je prevod na aramejski
jezik, za potrebe Jevreja. Prvi zapisani prevod na aramejski bio
je 138. godine. Ovaj prevod se još zove i Targum. Targum je
postojao i u prvom veku, ali nije bio zapisan već se prenosio
usmeno.
Usled raznih istorijskih okolnosti, mnogi Jevreji su bili prinuđeni
da napuste svoju matičnu zemlju (deportovani), ili su
smatrali neophodnim da se iz svoje zemlje sele u druge krajeve,
gde su stvarali svoje naseobine – dijaspore. Tako se stvorila i
egipatska dijaspora, čiji počeci možda datiraju iz X veka p.n.e.
(Sisak – Rovoam). Iz papirusa iz Elefantine vidimo da je pred
kraj X veka p.n.e. tamo postojala jevrejska vojnička kolonija.
Počev od Aleksandra Velikog (IV vek), judaizam dolazi u
vezu sa grčkim jezikom i kulturom, te s vremenom zaboravlja
svoj jezik i, kao i ostali narodi prednjeg Orijenta, usvajaju grčki
jezik za svoj govorni (i književni) jezik. Usled toga javlja se
potreba za prevodom Starog zaveta na grčki jezik. Prvi prevod
na grčki jezik zove se Septuaginta i urađen je u Aleksandriji u
vreme Ptolomeja II Filadelfa, 285-247. godine p.n.e.
Postoji legenda kako je Filadelf poželeo da ima prevod
jevrejske svete knjige na grčki jezik, te se obratio jerusalimskom
jevrejskom prvosvešteniku za pomoć. Ovaj mu je poslao
72 prevodioca koji su posao prevođenja završili za 72 dana.
Septuaginta je bio veoma poštovan prevod tokom istorije. Iako
ne najbolji, iako namenjen zapravo egipatskim Jevrejima vre52
mena u kojem je nastao, uticao je na to da mnogi narodi kasnije
dobiju prevode Starog zaveta Biblije na svoje jezike. Od Septuaginte
nastaju prevodi na jezike Jermena, Etiopljana, Kopta,
Gota, Gruzijaca, Rimljana i Slovena. Kasnije, se javlja potreba
za još savremenijim prevodom, te za Jevreje prevod radi Akila,
koji je bio Grk iz Sinope. Njegov prevod predstavlja u stvari
bukvalnu mehaničku transpoziciju jevrejskih reči. Na primer,
tyvarB (berešit) što znači ”u početku”, sastoji se od predloga
”be” što znači ”u, na” i od imenice tyvar (rešit) koja znači ”početak”,
a koja vodi poreklo od reči var (roš) koja znači ”glava”.
Dakle, Akila tu reč ”rešit” na grčki jezik prevodi sa rečju
koja u grčkom jeziku potiče od reči ”glava” samo da bi to bilo
kao što je na hebrejskom, iako ta reč na grčkom jeziku ne znači
”početak” nego ”glavna stvar, suma”.
Ovaj Akilin prevod nije doživeo takav uspeh kao Septuaginta
jer nije odražavao smisao biblijskog teksta. Mada je kod
Jevreja bio cenjen, prvi hrišćani ga nisu uzeli u obzir jer im nije
mogao biti od pomoći. Zašto je to tako? Razlog je očigledan.
Ako imamo nekog Grka koji je prešao u hrišćanstvo, a koji prvi
put u životu, jer je Grk, a ne Jevrejin, čuje za recimo Potop i
Nojevu barku, kako će on shvatiti potpuno nerazumljivi tekst
Akilinog prevoda? Kako se taj Grk tada osećao, dok je čitao
Akilin prevod Biblije na svom maternjem grčkom jeziku,
možemo i mi doživeti ako pokušamo da razumemo sledeću
rečenicu: Akila ne prenositi svetlost pisanje iznad srbin jezik,
što bi trebalo značiti Akila nije preveo Sveto pismo na srpski
jezik. Jevreji su prihvatali ovaj prevod jer im je bilo potrebno da
koliko-toliko razumeju reči, jer su znali samo grčki, a hebrejski
nisu znali, dok su svaku situaciju, svako dešavanje, svaku
poruku iz Svetog pisma već znali iz kuće, naučili su ih od
mame i tate, pa shvataju i Akilino „naglabanje“.
Pedeset godina nakon Akilinog prevoda nastaje Teodotionov
prevod, koji je zapravo samo revizija Septuaginte. Teodotionov
prevod je bio veoma cenjen kod ranih hrišćana. Još bolji prevod
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na grčki uradio je Simah početkom III veka nakon Hrista, koji
ipak nije toliko zaživeo među tadašnjim hrišćanima. Rana hrišćanska
crkva se zapravo zadovoljila Septuagintom i nije sebi
posebno pripremala druge prevode na grčki jezik. Međutim, obzirom
da se i Septuaginta prepisivanjem umnožavala, mnogi
prepisivači su pravili kopije koje su usled grešaka, približavanja
jezika narodnom grčkom jeziku, pojednostavljivanja jezika i
slično, postajale previše udaljene od originalnog hebrejskog
teksta. Iz tih razloga se osećala potreba da se tekst Septuaginte
dovede u red.
Hrišćanski naučnici su 245. godine završili reviziju tadašnje
Septuaginte, dok je Origen sačinio Heksaplu koja se sastojala
od šest uporednih stubaca teksta celog Starog zaveta. Heksapla
je sadržala sledeće stupce: a) jevrejski konsonantski tekst, b)
transkripcija jevrejskog teksta grčkim slovima, c) prevod Akile,
d) prevod Simaha, e) Septuagintu, f) Teodotionov prevod. Origen
je u svojoj Heksapli izvršio i reviziju grčkog teksta, stavljao
oznake gde su postojale greške ili gde je iz prevoda neka
reč ”ispala” ili je dodata kao višak.
Šta se događa sa starim hrišćanima u Rimu, što se prevoda
Svetog pisma tiče? U početku se rimski hrišćani služe grčkim
jezikom i grčkim prevodima. Međutim, kada se hrišćanstvo
proširilo i među običnim narodom koji je razumeo samo latinski
jezik, pojavila se potreba za prevodom Svetog pisma na
latinski jezik. Prvi prevodi na latinski jezik bili su Vetus latina i
Itala. Oba su prevodi na lingua rustica (rustični jezik, prost
narodni jezik). Vetus latina nastao je u Africi, a Itala u Južnoj
Galiji. Sve knjige Starog zaveta su prevedene sa Septuaginte,
osim knjige proroka Danila, koja je prevedena sa Teodotionovog
prevoda. Ovi prevodi na narodni jezik počeli su tokom vremena,
usled kopiranja prepisivanjem, da se menjaju, kako Jeronim
oko 400. godine nakon Hrista kaže: ubacivao je u tekst i
izbacivao iz njega ko je kako hteo i šta je hteo.
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Da bi se okončao ovakav odnos prema latinskom tekstu Biblije,
papa Damas I je 382. godine zadao Jeronimu zadatak da
napravi reviziju latinskog teksta, a da za taj posao kao izvor
koristi grčki tekst. On je prvo revidirao Novi zavet, koji je tada
postojao preko 300 godina. Godine 387. Jeronim ponovo revidira
latinski tekst psalama, ali sada na osnovu Origenove Heksaple.
Ova revizija psalama i danas se koristi u katoličkim crkvama
širom sveta.
Ipak, najznačajniji prevod Svetog pisma na latinski jezik je
takozvana Vulgata. Ovaj prevod je takođe uradio Jeronim, ali
ne sa grčkog jezika već sa hebrejskog originala. Počeo je sa
prevodom 390. godine, a završio ga je 405. godine. Jezik na koji
je preveo je takođe lingua rustica (narodni rimski jezik). Kao
izvore je, pored hebrejskog teksta, koristio i Italu, Septuagintu,
Akilin i Simahov prevod, ali i rabinske komentare za mnoge
njemu nejasne i teške delove. Ovaj Jeronimov prevod crkva
prihvata tek u 7. veku. Rimska crkva jedino ne prihvata psalme
iz Vulgate, već zadržava, kako smo i ranije rekli, Jeronimovu
revidiranu verziju iz Itale.
Pored ovih najvažnijih prevoda Svetog pisma na grčki i
latinski jezik, Sveto pismo se prevodilo i na mnoge druge jezike.
Tako je, recimo, Stari zavet preveden na sirijski jezik, koji
se ispravnije zove i istočno-aramejski. Početkom III veka, zbog
velike jevrejske dijaspore u Mesopotamiji sa centrom u Edesi,
ali i zbog velikog širenja hrišćanstva u ovoj regiji, javila se
potreba za prevodom Svetog pisma na istočno-aramejski. Neki
delovi Svetog pisma prevodili su se sa hebrejskog originala,
dok su drugi prevođeni sa grčkog jezika iz Septuaginte. Na
istočno-aramejski jezik prevodilo je nekoliko prevodilaca. Kada
su se svi ti prevodi skupili u jednu knjigu, dobio se prevod
nazvan Pešita, što na aramejskom znači „jednostavan“, i što se
može uporediti sa hebrejskim fwvp (pašut) sa istim značenjem.
Sredinom V veka se usled neslaganja, sirijska crkva deli na
jakovitsku ili zapadnosirijsku i nestorijansku ili istočnosirijsku,
55
što se vremenom dešava i sa istočno-aramejskim jezikom, ali i
sa Pešitom. Prepisivanjem dolazi do razlika u jeziku oba sada
već novonastala prevoda.
U trećem veku nakon Hrista, za potrebe egipatskih hrišćana
Kopta, počinje se sa radom na prevodu Svetog pisma na koptski
jezik. Koptski jezik je poslednji živi izdanak staroegipatskog
jezika. Na koptski jezik Sveto pismo je prevođeno sa
Septuaginte. Postoje sahidski (gornjoegipatski) prevod i bohairski
ili donjoegipatski prevod, ali i još nekoliko prevoda na razne
koptske dijalekte.
U IV veku je hristijanizirana i Etiopija, jedina crnačka zemlja
čiji je narod zapravo semitskog porekla. Prevod na geez jezik
urađen je početkom V veka, a kao izvor je korišćena Septuaginta.
Prvi prevod na jermenski jezik urađen je u V veku. Kao izvor
je korišćena aramejska Pešita, ali je kasnije ovaj prevod
dorađivan uz korišćenje Septuaginte. Na gruzijski jezik prevod
je rađen u V ili VI veku, mada tekst ovog prevoda nije dovoljno
proučen, obzirom da je uglavnom nedostupan naučnicima.
Gotski prevod nastao je dosta rano, oko 350. godine. Nastao
je od Septuaginte, a pretpostavlja se da ga je uradio zapadnogotski
episkop Ulfile. Pretpostavlja se da najraniji prevod na
arapski jezik potiče od jevrejskog gramatičara i upravnika
jevrejske škole u Vavilonu Saadije Gaona. On je kao izvor koristio
jevrejski masoretski tekst, a prevod na arapski je završio
oko 930. godine nakon Hrista.
Na slovenski jezik prvi prevod Biblije uradili su Ćirilo i
Metodije (Ćirilo je čak za tu svrhu sastavio i novo slovensko
pismo - glagoljicu). Ćirilo i Metodije su kao izvor koristili Septuagintu.
Nakon svih ovih nabrojanih prevoda, krenulo se vremenom
sa prevođenjem Biblije na sve svetske jezike. Do danas je Biblija
prevedena na više od 3000 jezika.
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KUMRAN - LOKACIJA I OTKRIVANJE
RUKOPISA
Istočno od Jerusalima, u pravcu Jordana, prostire se Mrtvo
more, koje svojom istočnom obalom zapljuskuje državu Jordan,
a zapadnom staru - novu državu Izrael. Na izraelskoj obali,
inače veoma stenovitoj, uzdižu se ruševine Kirbet Kumrana.
Kumran je smešten na beloj lapornoj terasi udaljenoj oko 2 km
od Mrtvog mora.
Danas same zidine Kumrana ne odaju naročiti utisak. Upadljiva
je kula veoma širokih zidova, potom nekoliko rezervoara
za vodu koji su međusobno povezani mrežom kanala. Između
ruševina i Mrtvog mora, na lapornoj terasi, smešteno je veliko
groblje sa oko 1200 grobova. Oko ruševina Kumranskih zidina,
među stenama, primetne su brojne pećine.
Pećina broj 4, Kumran, Izrael
57
Unutrašnjost jedne od kumranskih pećina, Kumran, Izrael
Upravo su u tim pećinama 1947. godine otkriveni mnogi spisi
na hebrejskom i aramejskom jeziku, zapisani na različitim
materijalima. Okolnosti oko otkrivanja ovih drevnih zapisa već
su ušle u legendu. Izvorno otkriće se pripisuje jednom beduinskom
čobaninu Muhamed ad-Dibu. Tražeći izgubljenu kozu,
primetio je na jednoj od stena otvor, unutar kojeg se prostirala
velika prostorija - pećina. Kasnije je u istoj otkrio više posuda
različitih veličina u kojima su se nalazile kožne rolne sa zapisima
na starojevrejskom jeziku.
Kako je vreme prolazilo, ovo je mesto u tadašnjoj Palestini
pod engleskom upravom, izazivalo sve veće interesovanje, kako
trgovaca i krijumčara starinama, tako i mnogih naučnika. Prvo
zvanično saopštenje o otkrivanju drevnih spisa, objavljeno je
od strane univerziteta Jejl, nakon analize prvopronađenih spisa
od strane profesora Vilijema Olbrajta sa univerziteta Džon
58
Hopkins. Ubrzo, u samom Kumranu, ali i u obližnjim područjima
(Wadi Murabaat i sl.) pronalaze se mnogi drugi spisi. Prelazeći
iz ruke u ruku, iz države u državu, od različitih institucija
do bazara, mnogi spisi su zauvek oštećeni, pa čak i izgubljeni.
Međutim, veliki broj njih, ostao je sačuvan i do danas.
Za teologiju, ali i arheologiju i istoriju, kao nauke, najvažniji
pronađeni spisi su zapravo prepisi biblijskih knjiga, koji i čine
gotovo četvrtinu celokupnog otkrivenog materijala. Među biblijskim
rukopisima zastupljene su knjige ili delovi knjiga kako
iz Mojsijevih knjiga, tako i iz Proročkih knjiga i Spisa. Od
nekanonskih knjiga, važnije pronađene su: Tuvija, Sirah, Jeremijino
pismo, Knjiga Jubileja, Knjiga Enohova, Apokrif Geneze,
Nabonidova Molitva...
Od komentara biblijskih knjiga zastupljeni su Komentar Habakuka,
Testimonia itd. Među spisima raznih verskih grupa tu
su: Pravilo zajednice, Himne zahvalnosti, Pravilo ratovanja i dr.
Još od dana kada su prvi spisi pronađeni na njima se aktivno
radi. Vrše se analize, određuje se njihova starost, jezik, pismo,
prevode se na evropske jezike.
Vodeću ulogu u ovome imali su Francuz, sveštenik de Vo iz
Francuske biblijske škole u Jerusalimu, Josif Saad direktor muzeja
Rokfeler u Jerusalimu, uz čiju asistenciju je osnovan internacionalni
tim za analizu i obradu svitaka, 1953. godine sa sedištem
u istočnom delu Jerusalima, tada u Jordanu. Na samo
dva do tri kilometra odatle, u zapadnom delu grada takođe se
ažurno radilo na analizi svitaka pri Jevrejskom univerzitetu.
Internacionalni tim i tim za obradu svitaka na Jevrejskom
univerzitetu radili su odvojeno bez ikakvih kontakata, čak iako
je bilo svitaka koji su se delom nalazili u jednoj, a delom u
drugoj ustanovi. Nakon 1967. godine Izrael zaposeda do tada
jordanski deo Jerusalima, pa se većina spisa od tada nalazi na
jednom mestu.
Kako bi se spisi lakše razlikovali i prepoznavali, ustanovljena
je međunarodna nomenklatura istih. Prema magazinu Jo59
urnal of the Evangelical Theological Society oznaka svakog rukopisa
sa Mrtvog mora, sastoji se od rednog broja pećine u kojoj
je rukopis pronađen, nakon čega sledi skraćenica za lokaciju
nalaženja datog dokumenta, pošto je sasvim jasno da nisu svi
rukopisi nađeni u oblasti Kumrana (na primer, 1Q, 3Hev,
2Mur...).
Određene škole preferiraju da se nakon broja pećine i oznake
lokacije, stavlja broj samog spisa, što je i najčešće u upotrebi.
Međutim, postoje i slovne oznake, tipa skraćenica, prema
pripisanom imenu određenom rukopisu (na primer, 4QTest ili
4Q175Testimonia, 11QPs ili 11Q5-Knjiga psalama...) Različite
kopije istog spisa iz iste pećine, označavaju se malim slovom
redom, abecedno (na primer, 4Q215, 4Q215a...)
Svakako da se napredovanjem u otkrivanju informacija oko
samih spisa nomenklatura razvija i vremenom menja. Ovde je
data samo njena osnova.
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KUMRAN - DATIRANJE
Mnogi istraživači Kumranskih rukopisa slažu se u jednom -
ovi spisi su morali nastati u periodu od oko 200. godina p.n.e.
pa sve do najkasnije 68. godine n.e. Tim naučnika okupljen oko
Rolana de Voa prikupio je na hiljade sitnih delova rukopisa,
odnosno fragmenata. Ove fragmente trebalo je identifikovati i
razvrstati. Prilikom ovog posla otkriveno je da mnogi fragmenti
sadrže već poznate biblijske tekstove. Isto tako, naučnici su
otkrili i delove tekstova koji su takođe poznati, ali koji nisu
uvršteni u biblijski kanon. Ovi tekstovi poznati su kao ”apokrifi”
i ”pseudoepigrafi”. Ovi tekstovi nisu nadahnuti od Boga,
na njima se ne može zasnivati nikakva teologija, ali kao i svaki
drugi otkriveni stari spisi mogu poslužiti za informacije o nekim
istorijskim događajima.
Jedan od najvažnijih zadataka za naučnike bio je otkrivanje
vremena nastanka kumranskih rukopisa. Naučnici su uzeli u obzir
arheologiju kumranskog lokaliteta kao i sadržaj samih
tekstova. Mnogi naučnici nisu verovali da se koža (pergament)
na kojoj su rukopisi pisani mogla sačuvati 2000. godina (vidi
sliku na sledećoj strani).
Oni su najpre tvrdili da su svici srednjevekovnog porekla ili
da su falsifikati. Danas je, ipak, naučno dokazano da su pronađeni
svici stari 2000. godina, a neki čak i više.
Kako su naučnici došli do ovog zaključka? Pribegli su
poznatim sredstvima za određivanje starosti, a to je najpre paleografija.
Zato ćemo ovde objasniti šta je to paleografija. Ova
naučna disciplina bavi se proučavanjem starih rukopisa i odnosa
među njima.
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Tekst pisan na pergamentu (koži) pronađen u Kumranu
Kod paleografije je veoma važno iskustvo samog paleografa,
pa zbog toga mnogi smatraju da je paleografija više umeće, nego
nauka. Ukoliko ljudi pišu jednim istim jezikom, tokom nekoliko
vekova mogu se otkriti razne promene. Ove promene su
uglavnom u stilu pisanja slova (grafema) ili čak u načinu na
kojem su reči napisane. Tako se recimo mogu uočiti razne promene
u formiranju svakog slova, u debljini delova slova ili u
razdaljini između reči ili između redova. Da bismo bolje razumeli
kako se koristi paleografija za utvrđivanje datuma nastanka
nekog starog teksta možemo uzeti neki nama bliži primer.
Negde do 1970. godine u osnovnim školama postojao je
predmet krasnopis. Na tom predmetu đaci su se učili lepom
pisanju. Pretpostavićemo da je neki rukopis nastao posle 1970.
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godine, ako nije pisan krasnopisom. Problem paleografije i leži
u tome što je možda neki revnosni tekstopisac 2009. godine
koristio krasnopis. To će dovesti paleografa u zabludu da je
tekst koji analizira zapravo stariji nego što jeste.
Međutim, većina pisama (ne krasnopisa nego standardnih pisama)
se iz veka u vek menjala. Zbog toga paleograf ipak može
makar odrediti vek u kojem je tekst pisan. Što je tekst stariji to
je paleografu teže, i preciznost datiranja je manja.
Dvojica paleografa Frenk Kros i Solomon Birnbaum pokušali
su da primene paleografsko datiranje na kumranske rukopise.
Koristili su najpoznatiju teoriju paleografije koja u stvari
upoređuje nedatirane rukopise sa datiranim. Na taj način se određuje
starost nedatiranih rukopisa.
Kada su Solomon i Frenk, pedesetih godina počeli da obrađuju
svitke sa Mrtvog mora, susreli su se sa problemom. Naime,
bilo je veoma malo primeraka spisa na hebrejskom ili aramejskom
pismu koji su bili iz istog vremena kao i pronađeni
Kumranski rukopisi. ??Jedino sa čime su mogli da uporede
kumranski materijal bio je natpis iz Araq el Emir-a iz II veka
p.n.e. (svega pet slova), zatim natpis na grobu čoveka p oimenu
Jakov iz I veka p.n.e. i natpis na većem broju osuara (urna sa
kostima) iz I veka p.n.e. do I veka n.e. Među ovim poslednjim
imamo i osuar cara Judinog Ozije (785 – 747) iz I veka po Hristu
sa natpisom (na aramejskom): ”Ovde su stavljene kosti Osije,
cara Judinog. I neka se ne otvara (osuar).”
Od teksta Starog zaveta bio je takozvani papirus Naš, fragment
od 24 reda koji sadrži 10 Božjih zapovesti i početak molitve
”Šema Jisrael”. Do skora se smatralo da ovaj fragment potiče
iz II veka nove ere, ali je profesor Albright izneo dokaze
koji govore u prilog druge polovine II veka p.n.e. To bi bilo sve
sa čime bi se raspolagalo iz najranijeg doba.
Od II – V veka nemamo pisanih dokumenata te vrste, nego
tek od VI i VII veka, i to fragmente i manje delove nekih knjiga
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Starog zaveta, a veće delove i kodekse Starog zaveta tek od
kraja IX veka.
Radeći pod ovakvim uslovima ova dvojica paleografa su izvršila
podelu kumranskih svitaka na tri grupe. Prvu grupu nazvali
su ”arhajskom” (starom) za koju su pretpostavili da je nastala
u periodu od oko 250. do 150. godine p.n.e. Drugu grupu
su nazvali ”hašmonejskom” (po vladarima u Izraelu), a za rukopise
koju su stavili u ovu grupu smatrali su da napisani od oko
150. do oko 30. godine p.n.e. I konačno, treću grupu nazvali su
”irodskom” (po rimskom vladaru u Izraelu), a rukopise koje su
svrstali u ovu grupu datirali su u period od oko 30. godine
p.n.e. do 70. godine n.e.
Nakon ovog posla počeli su da datiraju rukopise u okviru
svake ove grupe i to po suženom sistemu datiranja pomoću
paleografije koji dozvoljava raspon od najviše dvadeset i pet
godina. Na ovaj način je, recimo, Knjiga Samuilova datirana i
ispostavilo se da je rukopis ove knjige nastao u periodu od 125
– 100. p.n.e.
Mnogi naučnici pokušavali su da ospore rezultate Krosa i
Solomona. Tako na primer Robert Ajzenman kaže: ”Zamislimo
jednog 80-ogodišnjeg pisara koji sedi pored nekog 25-ogodišnjaka,
takođe pisara, i obojica ispisuju neki rukopis. Mlađi pisar
još nije ovladao strukom i zato bi se moglo dogoditi da njegov
prepis sadrži neki broj nenamernih, ali zbunjujućih, različitih
oblika slova, iako on ustvari samo pokušava da piše na moderan
način. Stariji pisar je učio da piše šesdeset godina ranije, i
još uvek piše na staromodan način koji je naučio kao mladić.”
Kada paleograf upoređuje ova dva rukopisa, on će skoro sigurno
zaključiti da je rukopis starca stariji od mladićevog rukopisa
oko šestdeset godina, dok pogreške u mladićevoj verziji
mogu da se protumače kao savremene novine. A sada zamislite
da je i sam stariji pisar učio od veoma starog konzervativnog
pisara, koji je takođe učio da piše kada je i sam bio mlad. Po
ovom scenariju, greška paleografa može da bude još veća i
64
može da ga dovede do toga da poveruje da je rukopis, koji je
prepisivao stariji pisar, više od sto godina stariji od verzije
mladog pisara, iako su rukopisi zapravo pisani istog dana. Uz
ovaj problem javlja se i pitanje da li su neki pisari možda namerno
upotrebljavali ili oživljavali stara pisma. Ovo se može
dogoditi sa jednim stilom pisanja koji je pronađen među kumranskim
spisima. Reč je o oblom ili paleohebrejskom pismu
koji je bilo zaboravljeno i zamenjeno kvadratnim pismom. Ovo
kvadratno pismo bilo je pod snažnim aramejskim uticajem, a
koristi se i danas u savremenom hebrejskom jeziku. Moguće je
da su kumranski pisari pisali namerno starim ili paleohebrejskim
pismom. U periodu nastanka kumranskih rukopisa Jevreji
su govorili aramejskim jezikom. Međutim u vreme Makabejaca,
koji su svakako bili tradicionalisti, hebrejski jezik se polako
vraćao u upotrebu. Ako se uzme u obzir vraćanje Jevreja tradiciji,
u to doba, onda je sasvim normalno očekivati da su pisari u
Kumranu možda pisali paleohebrejskim slovima. Ovakvo gledanje
na stvari dovodi u pitanje datiranje putem paleografije.
Još jedna veoma važna stvar, koju ovde moramo reći, jeste da
paleografija otkriva vreme, odnosno deceniju kada je neki rukopis
nastao, ali ne i kada je nastao tekst. Recimo, 5. Knjiga
Mojsijeva i Isaijina knjiga, obe pronađene u pećinama Kumrana,
nisu napisane u vreme kada su žitelji Kumrana postojali. 5.
Knjiga Mojsijeva napisana je 1300 godina pre nego što su živeli
Kumranci. Dakle, pisari su samo prepisivali knjige, jer u to
doba nije postojala štampa i prepisivanje je bio jedini način da
se neki tekst ili knjiga umnože.
Još jedan metod, koji neki naučnici pokušavaju da koriste za
datiranje mnogih arheoloških nalaza, je datiranje pomoću radiokarbona
(ugljenika C-14). Ovaj način određivanja starosti nastao
je 1950. godine. Evo kako on funkcioniše: atomi ugljenika
nalaze se u svim živim organizmima. Postoje tri tipa ovog atoma
i svaki tip ima različitu atomsku težinu. To su C-12, C-13 i
C-14. Prva dva su veoma stabilni i ne menjaju se tokom vreme65
na dok je C-14 radioaktivan i kao i svi drugi radioaktivni elementi
raspada se tokom vremena. Tokom života, biljke i životinje
preko ishrane unose u svoj organizam sva tri tipa ugljenika.
Kada organizam prestane da živi ovaj proces unošenja ugljenika
prestaje, a atomi C-14 se i dalje raspadaju.
U idealnim uslovima C-14, raspada prilično konstantnom brzinom.
Tokom vremena, prisustvo bilo kog radioaktivnog materijala
prepolovljuje se tokom perioda od otprilike 5730 godina
u slučaju C-14, pa se tako merenjem odnosa C-14 prema stabilnim
formama atoma ugljenika, koji su ostali u mrtvoj organskoj
materiji, može teoretski ustanoviti koliko je vremena
proteklo od njegovog nastanka. Ovo je popularno poznato kao
radiokarbonska metoda datiranja.
Naučnici su takođe otkrili da koncentracija C-14 u atmosferi
nije uvek stalna, ali i da brzina apsorpcije od strane živih organizma
dosta varira. Zbog ovoga dolazi do nepodudaranja u
procenjivanju starosti. Zato se koristi još jedan način datiranja
pomoću kojeg se proverava C-14 radiokarbonsko datiranje.
Ovaj metod je u stvari merenje vremena pomoću drveta ili dendrohronologija
- metoda bazirana na radovima astronoma Endrjua
Daglasa i arheologa Klarka Vislera. Otkrivena je početkom
20. veka.
Stablo drveta ima godove koji označavaju godine. U poprečnom
preseku stabla za svaku godinu vide se linije koje opisuju
krug. Lako ih je izbrojati i videti koliko je drvo bilo staro u
trenutku sečenja. Ukoliko su godovi širi, godina je bila
dovoljno topla i vlažna. Na ovaj način određuje se i klimatsko
stanje u određenoj godini. Da bi se proverila tačnost C-14 metode
za datiranje nekog materijala koji je pronađen u Izraelu
uzima se komad drveta na kojem se izvodi radikarbonski test i
nakon toga se dendrohronologijom pokušava da proveri tačnost
radiokarbonske metode.
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Godovi pomoću kojih se određuje starost stabla
Ako pomoću dendrohronologije znamo da je drvo staro, recimo
2100 godina i ako na njemu uradimo C-14 test moći ćemo
da uočimo da je pre 2100 godine procenat C-14 atoma u
atmosferi u Izraelu bio takav da odstupa u datiranju za recimo
150 godina. Onda ćemo znati da ako datiramo neku kost, parče
kože ili Kumranske rukopise pomoću ugljenika C-14 i ako nam
test pokaže starost od 2000 godina onda znamo da je testirani
materijal star zapravo 2150 godina.
Važno je napomenuti da trenutno ne postoji jednoglasno
mišljenje naučnika kako da se datumi dobijeni pomoću ugljenika
C-14 izmere precizno. To znači da je datum koji je ustanovljen
C14 metodom zapravo samo pretpostavka.
Evo kako izgledaju datumi dobijeni C14 merenjem i
paleografijom za pojedine Kumranske rukopise:
67
Svitak Test C14 paleografija
Himne zahvalnice 21. p.n.e. - 61. 50. p.n.e. - 70.
nakon Hrista
Apokrifno postanje 73 - 14. p.n.e. Kasni I vek p.n.e.
do rani I vek
Svitak hrama 97. p.n.e. - 1. Kasni I vek p.n.e.
do rani I vek
Knjiga Samuilova 192 - 63. p.n.e. 100 - 75. p.n.e.
Levijevo zaveštanje
191 - 155.p.n.e. do
146 - 12. p.n.e.
Kasni II vek
p.n.e. do rani I
vek p.n.e.
Knjiga proroka
Isaije
335 - 327. p.n.e. do
202 - 107. p.n.e.
125 - 100. p.n.e.
Propisano
Petoknjižje
339 - 324. p.n.e. do
209 - 117. p.n.e.
125 - 100. p.n.e.
Kahatovo zaveštanje 388 - 353. p.n.e. 100 - 74. p.n.e.
68
POLITIČKO DRUŠTVENE OKOLNOSTI U
VREME NASTANKA KUMRANSKIH
SPISA
Važno je da znamo šta se zapravo, u periodu nastajanja
Kumranskih spisa, događalo u oblasti Mrtvog mora i u samom
Izraelu. Izrael je do IV veka p.n.e. bio pod uticajem istočnjačkih
država (Asirije, Egipta, Vavilona, Persije). Godine 332.
p.n.e, Aleksandar Makedonski, bez mnogo napora, osvaja
Izrael.
Nakon grčkog osvajanja, u periodu od 301. godine p.n.e. do
200. god. p.n.e., nad Izraelom vlada egipatski car Ptolomej I,
iako ostaje pod snažnim grčkim uticajem. Osim toga, druga
značajna grčka dinastija - Seleukidi, zauzevši Siriju, Vaviloniju,
Mesopotamiju i druge oblasti, vrši takođe jak uticaj na ovu
malu, ali veoma značajnu oblast.
Pod vlašću Ptolomeja i Seleukida, Izrael dobija ime Kelesirija
i Fenikija, dok su je njeni stanovnici obično nazivali Jahud
ili Judeja, te postaje autonomna oblast. Njome upravlja veliki
sveštenik i ”gerusija”. Istorijski izvori pominju i postojanje narodnih
zborova u Jerusalimu.
Nakon smrti velikog grčkog vladara Antioha Epifana, već
164. god. p.n.e, jevrejski vojskovođa Juda Makabejac (Jehuda
Ha-Maqabi), uspeo je da oslobodi Jerusalim. Judina braća Jonatan
i Šimon uspevaju da uspostave vlast svoje dinastije Hašmonejaca,
a Šimon posebno od naroda biva proglašen narodnim
poglavarom, velikim sveštenikom, glavnim zapovednikom
vojske, kao i poglavarom Hrama.
69
U periodu obnovljene nezavisnosti jevrejske države, pod
vladavinom Hašmonejaca, razvijaju se u jevrejskom narodu dva
glavna religijska pravca - fariseji i sadukeji. U religijskom pogledu,
fariseji su predstavljali izrazito jaku grupaciju. U socijalno-
političkom aspektu, bili su predstavnici širokih narodnih
masa. Sadukeji, pak, zastupaju plemstvo i bogataše. Iako su bili
daleko malobrojniji, usled izuzetno dobrog materijalnog položaja
predstavljaju jedan od glavnih činilaca u životu hašmonejske
države.
Period Hašmonejaca, ipak predstavlja vreme najvišeg uspona
nezavisne jevrejske države u periodu drugog Hrama. Pored
dve navedene veće struje, u jevrejskom narodu se javlja i više
manjih. Jedna od njih je nastala otcepljenjem od hasida (od njih
se razvijaju i fariseji). Ta novonastala grupacija vernih ljudi,
označavala se kao ”eseni”. Oni su bili veoma privrženi Zakonu
(Tori), i jedni od najvećih predstavnika mesijanizma. Većinom
su nastanjivali Kumran, živeći u veoma zatvorenoj zajednici.
Godine 37. p.n.e., Jerusalim će već pasti u ruke Iroda i Rimskog
carstva. Time prestaje postojanje nezavisne jevrejske države.
Iako će Rimsko carstvo vladati ovom regijom još dugo, to
neće sprečiti jevrejski narod da svetu podari versko i književno
stvaralaštvo od neprocenjive vrednosti, upravo u ovom periodu.
U periodu drugog Hrama, a ovde se govori o poslednjim njegovim
danima, veoma je istaknuta pojava mesijanizma. Jednoj
od mesijanskih struja bilo je dato da odigra ogromnu ulogu u
istoriji čovečanstva. Radi se svakako o hrišćanstvu.
Kako je izgledao političko-društveni život u periodu kada su
nastajali Kumranski rukopisi? Autonomnom Judejom u vreme
grčke vladavine upravljali su veliki sveštenik, kao i ”gerusija”,
što znači savet staraca. Veliki sveštenik se smatrao vođom nacije,
njegov čin je bio doživotan i prenosio se sa oca na sina.
Veliki sveštenik je bio najviša instanca i religijskog života, naročito
o pitanjima Hrama. On se bavio i snabdevanjem i čuvanjem
Jerusalima, s jedne strane, ali i brigom o porezu, s dru70
ge strane. Bio je i na čelu gerusije. Uticaj Velikog sveštenika je
najviše zavisio od same ličnosti koja je imala tu funkciju.
Gerusija je imala takođe veliki uticaj. Nju su činili učeni
starci i predstavnici plemena i rodova. Grčko carstvo je veoma
isticalo važnost jevrejske gerusije i često mu davalo i veći značaj
od Velikog sveštenika. Ali, kada je dinastija Hašmonejaca
došla na vlast, Veliki sveštenik ima veći značaj od gerusije i to
verovatno zbog toga što su Hašmonejci sebi dali za pravo da po
novom, isključivo član njihove porodice može postati Veliki
sveštenik.
Osnovni zakoni Judeje bili su zasnovani na Tori, koju je
priznavala čak i tuđinska vlast. Na taj način su autonomni organi
Judeje imali pravo da od stanovništva traže da se maksimalno
pridržavaju Tore i da u korenu sasecaju idolopoklonstvo,
mnogoboštvo i slične vanbiblijske religijske pokrete. Jerusalimski
hram bio je središte verskog, političkog i društvenog života
u Judeji. Izdržavanje sveštenika i posebnih sveštenika - Levita,
bila je dužnost celog naroda, kako iz Judeje tako i iz dijaspore.
Hram je služio i kao štedionica. U njemu je čuvan novac
svih građana koji su to želeli. Sveštenici su bili povlašćen i ugledan
sloj. Oni sveštenici koji su živeli u unutrašnjosti Izraela,
često su putovali u Jerusalim radi bogosluženja, kada bi na njih
došao red. Svi sveštenici Judeje su bili organizovani u 24 smene
i obavljali su službu po rasporedu koji je bio ustanovljen u
Bibliji.
U sveštenstvu nije vladalo jedinstvo. Postojalo je neslaganje
između gradskih visokokotiranih svešteničkih porodica i onih
iz unutrašnjosti - iz manjih mesta i sela. Najviše se isticala porodica
Hakoc, kao i porodica Tuvija (Tobija). Josef ben Tuvija
bio je glavni grčki zastupnik za ubiranje poreza od građana
Judeje. On je bio toliko ozbiljan u svom poslu da je Judeja u to
vreme primila u svoju kasu najveću količinu novca u poznatoj
istoriji, a država Grčka je opet najveći porez u to vreme ubirala
upravo iz Judeje.
71
Dugotrajna grčka vladavina Judejom i Izraelom uopšte, ostavila
je dubok uticaj na jevrejski narod toga doba. Mnogi su
imali čak i grčka imena, maternji jezik im je postao grčki, a
hebrejski jezik nije korišćen u govoru. Jevrejska autonomna
vlast nije želela ovu svojevrsnu helenizaciju (poprimanje grčkih
osobina) Jevreja, ali se u to vreme ona nije mogla zaustaviti, na
sličan način kao što danas imamo prodiranje engleskog jezika u
sve društvene pore ili prodiranje određenih stilova oblačenja ili
proizvoda u sve zemlje sveta.
U periodu postojanja jevrejske hašmonejske države, grčki
uticaj veoma opada i ceo Izrael potpada pod jak jevrejski kulturološki
uticaj. Većina semitskih naroda Izraela u to doba prelazi
u judaizam i postaje sastavni deo jevrejskog naroda. Bili su to
pre svega Idumejci i Iturejci. Naziv ”Judeja”, koji je nekada bio
naziv samo jedne regije, tada postaje naziv cele države.
Ekonomsko stanje je uznapredovalo, i zavisilo je pre svega
od poljoprivrede i ribolova. Isto tako, procvetala je i trgovina,
ali i zanatstvo. Značajnu ulogu je imala i međunarodna trgovina.
Car, koji je morao biti iz jevrejske porodice Hašmoni, bio je
ujedno i Veliki sveštenik.
Zbog ovolikog blagostanja u odnosu na period rimske vladavine,
nezavisna država Judeja podstiče i kulturnu delatnost.
Naime, javljaju se velike prepisivačke škole (danas bismo to
nazvali štamparijama) koje se bave pre svega prepisivanjem
(umnožavanjem) biblijskog starozavetnog teksta, ali i prepisivanjem
(umnožavanjem) književnog stvaralaštva, zakona, pravilnika
i drugih važnih tekstova.
U periodu hašmonejske nezavisne države Judeje, umnožavanje
knjiga je zaista bio najpopularniji kulturološki fenomen
toga doba. Sa ove distance gledano, nakon nešto više od 2000
godina, stičemo utisak da se jevrejski narod ponašao kao da
zaista ima štampariju. Knjige su se umnožavale na sve strane,
prepisivači su radili svoj posao vredno i besprekorno. Može se
72
reći da se u to doba mnogi učeni Jevreji bave malom proizvodnjom
knjiga. Do te mere je prepisivanje bilo izraženo.
U periodu kada Rimljani na čelu sa Pompejom zauzimaju
hašmonejsku Judeju situacija se drastično menja. Rimska država
ostavlja Judeji jedan oblik autonomije, ali drastično smanjuje
njenu površinu. Njen jevrejski upravitelj je bio Hirkan II,
sa titulom etnarha (vladar iz naroda koji je porobljen). Rimljani
su nametnuli visoke poreze, pa je narod na čelu s Matatjom Antigonom
pokušao da obnovi nezavisnost Judeje.
Godine 37. p.n.e., Irod uspeva da Jevrejima ponovo oduzme
Jerusalim i tada Rimsko carstvo započinje jednu tešku torturu u
načinu vladanja nad Jevrejima. Irod od Rimljana dobija titulu
cara. Da bi se dodvorio vlastima u Rimu, Irod veoma žestoko
odgovara na svaki jevrejski narodni bunt. Obzirom da je bio
Jevrejin blizak Rimu, Irod se trudio da uvek i po svaku cenu
zatre svaki ostatak hašmonejske države. Pošto nije bio iz svešteničke
porodice, nije mogao biti izabran u zvanje Velikog
sveštenika, pa je na taj položaj postavljao uvek ljude koji nisu
imali ništa zajedničko sa hašmonejskom prošlošću.
Iako je bio veoma svirep vladar, zaslužan je za veliku izgradnju
Jerusalima i drugih gradova. Irod je voleo da oko sebe
okuplja Jevreje pridošle iz dijaspore - naročito one iz Vavilona
i helenizirane Jevreje iz ostatka Rimskog carstva. Oni su bili
drugačiji od Jevreja Izraela i lako je mogao s njima manipulisati
pod izgovorom pred narodom, da je navodno blizak sa
Jevrejima.
Irod i Rim uopšte, ostavili su u ruke ”sanhedrina” (vrhovni
jevrejski sud u Jerusalimu) mnoge odluke iz oblasti vere. Jevrejski
narod je sanhedrin priznavao za vrhovnu vlast. Činili su
ga predstavnici svešteničkog staleža, ali i pismoznalci ili soferimi
(književnici), koji su u stvari bili predstavnici fariseja. Na
čelu sanhedrina stajao je Veliki sveštenik (kao što je rečeno,
postavljen od strane Iroda).
73
Rimljani su pokušavali da se približe Jevrejima, da bi pridobili
volju naroda. U tome nikako nisu uspevali. Tako je recimo
u Jerusalimu bilo zabranjeno izlagati kipove, jer jevrejska
religija to nije dozvoljavala, iako je izlaganje kipova bilo veoma
svojstveno rimskoj mnogobožačkoj religiji.
74
ZNAČAJ OTKRIVANJA KUMRANSKIH
RUKOPISA
Gotovo da ne postoji otkriće novijeg doba koje je bilo tako
značajno kao pronalazak kumranskih pećina i sakrivenih ćupova,
a najvažniji doprinos su rukopisi i fragmenti starozavetnih
knjiga. Kumranski spisi pokazuju jezičke karakteristike i duhovna
strujanja i očekivanja starog veka. Vrednost pronađenih
spisa sastoji se i u tome što oslikavaju važno izraelsko istorijsko
razdoblje, a pre svega što odaju duhovno i političko stanje
doba u kojem se pojavio Isus.
Pronalazak biblijskih tekstova gotovo svih biblijskih knjiga
igra neizmerno značajnu ulogu u prilog verodostojnosti biblijske
poruke. Pronađeni su tekstovi koji su više od 1000 godina
stariji od tada postojećih starozavetnih biblijskih rukopisa i ističe
se visoka podudarnost tih starih i kasnijih poznatih rukopisa.
Komentarisanje nekih biblijskih mesta od strane pripadnika kumranske
zajednice pokazuje kako su ih oni razumevali.
Otkrića oko 600, što celih spisa, što različitih fragmenata,
podstakla su celokupnu kulturnu javnost da se ozbiljnije pozabavi
kumranskim rukopisima. Nalazi se nadovezuju na tragični
završetak kumranske zajednice iz 2. veka p.n.e. pa do vremena
kada je Vespazijan nakon razorenja Jerusalima išao na osvajanje
Jerihona i oblasti oko Mrtvog mora (od 61. do 70. godine),
što će X Rimska legija završiti kod Masade, zadnjeg jevrejskog
utvrdjenja (72. godine). Neki pripadnici kumranske zajednice
su pobegli tamo, a mnogi su pobijeni od strane Rimljana.
Očigledno je da su stanovnici Kumrana računali na upad
rimske vojske pa su spise koje su imali dosta stručno zaštitili u
glinene ćupove koje su onda sakrili u okolne pećine. Na taj na75
čin su ti spisi, barem znatan deo, ostali sačuvani sve do pronalaženja
1947. godine.
I kasnije pronađeni novčići svedoče da su u vreme drugog
jevrejskog ustanka protiv Rimljana (od 132. do 135. godine) u
Kumranu bili utvrdili sledbenici velikog borca Bar Kohbe kojeg
su njegovi istomišljenici smatrali Mesijom. U to vreme
Kumran je ponovo i konačno bio ne samo fizički uništen, nego
je i duhovno nestao sa svetske pozornice.
Digitalni model grada Kumrana u kojem su živeli članovi
esenske zajednice
Kumran je najsenzacionalnije i najveće biblijsko otkriće.
Godinama se kumranski rukopisi istražuju, objavljuju i još se
na njima radi. Do 1960. godine vladao je posebni zanos, ali se
kasnije menjaju vlasnički odnosi najveće zaostavštine između
Jordana i Izraela, te se počelo odugovlačiti s preostalim objav76
ljivanjem. Naime, entuzijazam na istraživanjima se gasio, prevelika
očekivanja su splasnula.
Prava naučna istraživanja su naporna, dugotrajna i traže velika
ulaganja. Rad na rukopisima je počeo da se kritikuje, i
retko ko od naučnika je uopšte želeo da se dalje upušta u istraživanja.
Nalazima je počelo da se pristupa neozbiljno, senzacionalistički,
čak su se kumranski nalazi koristili i za diskreditaciju
Biblije i religije uopšte.
Bilo je pokušaja i iskaza da je u Kumranu zapravo otkriveno
i hrišćanstvo p.n.e. O Isusu se počelo nagađati kao o reinkarnaciji
Učitelja pravednosti koji je uzoran, mudar i napaćen lik.
Tako su povezivali muku Učitelja pravednosti i Isusa Hrista.
Zbog obrednih obroka u Kumranu, koji se mogu pronaći u
nekim nebiblijskim kumranskim tekstovima, počelo se govoriti
o nekoj prethodnoj Poslednjoj večeri zajednice.
Među pronađenim biblijskim rukopisima najčešće su zastupljeni
Peta knjiga Mojsijeva i Knjiga proroka Isaije, koje i Novi
zavet najčešće navodi. Tu su rukopisi gotovo svih biblijskih
knjiga. Takođe je prisutan deuterokanonski tekst, koji jevrejski
Sinod u Jamneu, kako smo već rekli, za razliku od katoličkog
hrišćanstva, nije preuzeo u svoj kanon. Tu je detaljni komentar
Habakuka, veoma cenjen u apokaliptičkoj literaturi.
Od nebiblijske i tipično kumranske literature otkriven je
”Red zajednice”. Tu je ”Pravilnik rata za sinove svetla” i ”Himne
Učitelja pravednosti”. U Kumranu se sačuvao i florilegijum
(zbir cvetića) biblijskih mesijanskih mesta.
U svetu je odavno prošlo vreme senzacija oko predhrišćanstva.
Takođe se stručnjaci više ne bave polaznim i opštim pristupom
kumranskim otkrićima i njihovim spisima. Kumranska
biblioteka je objavljena i pristupačna u savremenim sredstvima
komunikacije.
Posle pedeset i četiri godine dešifrovanja i polemika, dakle
2001. godine, objavljeni su ”Kumranski rukopisi” pod nazivom
”Otkrića u judejskoj pustinji”, u višejezičnom izdanju, objedi77
njeni su svi tekstovi sa svitaka pronađenih u pećinama. U
pariskoj knjižari ”La Prokir” ljubitelji knjige sa dubljim džepom
još tada su mogli da kupe ”Otkrića u judejskoj pustinji” po
ceni od 4.300 evra. Svaki tom knjige sadrži tekstove na hebrejskom
ili aramejskom, prevedene na engleski ili francuski sa
fotografijama svitaka.
Osim toga, uspostavljena je i ustanova Međunarodnog udruženja
za Kumranske studije (engl. IOQS) koja je održala svoja
četiri kongresa. Danas se Kumranskim spisima pristupa kao bogatoj
riznici za istančano tekstualno proučavanje pojedinih starozavetnih
biblijskih knjiga i mesta, apokrifnih i komunitarnih
spisa (koje su pisali članovi esenske zajednice).
Osim novozavetne vremenske blizine, značajna je i mesna,
jer Kumran se nalazi nadomak Vitlejema i Jerusalima. Jedno
skorašnje važno predavanje Emila Pueha iz Jerusalima govori o
doprinosima apokaliptičkih i mudrosnih kumranskih spisa u eshatologiji
starog judaizma. Biblijska mudrosna književnost je u
stvari zadnji deo biblijskog literarnog stvaralaštva, a apokaliptika
pripada većim delom vanbiblijskoj literaturi.
78
STANOVNICI KUMRANSKIH PEĆINA
I NJIHOVA RELIGIJA
Nad stanovnicima Kumranskih pećina krije se veo tajne. Pre
svega, novi članovi zajednice, nakon jednogodišnje kandidature
i dvogodišnje pripreme obavezivali su se da neće odavati tajne
zajednice i da neće neovlašćeno posredovati u širenju njenog
učenja drugima. Sve u svemu, vidi se i postojanje određene tajnovitosti
koja je trebalo da bude zaštićena, čak i po cenu života.
U Kumranu su se nastanili eseni. Kod samog imena neki su
pojam tumačili kao ”oni koji ćute”, tj. to bi bili oni koji kriju
određene tajne i ne smeju ih saopštiti drugima. Pojam ”eseni”
ipak se obično tumači od aramejske reči ”hasen” sa značenjem
”sveti”, odakle se kasnije razvio pojam ”hasidi”, što znači ”pobožnici”.
Ova esenska Zajednica se potom odvojila od službenog jerusalimskog
judaizma i u pustinji se organizovano, disciplinovano
i pobožno pripremala za period rata i konačnu pobedu dobrih
nad zlima. Misterioznost kumranskog sveta osvetlio je John
J. Collins sa Univerziteta u Jejlu, predavanjem ”Misterioznost
Boga, Stvaranje i eshatologija u Kumranskim pravilima rata i
Knjizi Mudrosti”.
Eseni su očekivali više značajnih ljudi: Mesiju sveštenika
Arona i izraelskog mesiju, Davidovog potomka Izraela. Prorok
će pripremiti put i uvesti Mesiju sveštenika i Mesiju kralja.
Mesija sveštenik i kralj potiču iz jevrejskog sinonimnog paralelizma
kojeg su uzimali doslovno: ”Od Jakova zvezda izlazi, od
Izraela žezlo se diže” (4. Mojsijeva 24,17).
79
Pripadnici esenske religiozne struje verovatno su crpeli takva
očekivanja iz biblijskog teksta o Mojsiju: ”Podignuću im
proroka između njihove braće, kao što si ti” (5. Mojsijeva 18,
18). Nakon Mojsijeve smrti, tekst otvara nadu kako će Bog podići
proroka poput njega. Mesija se, prema Natanovom obećanju,
očekivao iz Davidove loze (2. Samuilova 7,12-16). Aronov
Mesija je opet povezan sa svešteničkom institucijom u Izraelu
koja je u kasnom judaizmu igrala značajnu ulogu.
Štaviše, u Kumranskim spisima se daje prednost Aronovom
svešteničkom Mesiji koji treba prvi da uđe na eshatološki zbor
celog Izraela. Mesijansko očekivanje u Kumranu obradio je
Hajnc Jozef Fabri iz Bona.
Kumranska zajednica se temelji na svešteničkim obrednim
pranjima, beloj odeći i životom u zajednici. Karakteriše se i
davidovskim mesijanizmom, čime se odbacuju velikosvešteničke
kompentencije toga vremena. I konačno, postoji i pokretačka
proročka dimenzija mesijanizma. Tako Kumran delom
prihvata biblijski, ali gradi i svoj vlastiti mesijanizam.
Bog je, prema kumranskim svedočanstvima, čuvar istine. Za
Dan suda Bog, prema kumranskim svedočanstvima, obećava
ljudima zajedništvo dobrih i srećno zemaljsko stanje. Kumran
istražuje tajne mudrosti koja je bez Boga nedostupna, skrivena i
samo njemu rezervisana. Jedini on zna put do nje. Kumran u
skladu sa kasnojevrejskom mudrošću veoma ceni Zakon (Toru).
Uočava se takodje prisustvo dualizma, beg od sveta, isključivanje
i izolacionizam. Tako kumranski spisi čuvaju pre svega
Božju reč i tumače je na svoj ljudski način odvajanjem od sveta
i opredeljenjem za izabrane i dobre.
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JEVREJSKA APOKALIPTIČKA
LITERATURA
Definicija i osnovne karakteristike
Prema ”Rečniku stranih reči i izraza”, odrednica ”Apokalipsa”
predstavlja grčku reč sa značenjem ”objava, otkrovenje... ”.
Isti rečnik ovu odrednicu povezuje u prvi mah sa novozavetnim
delom ”Otkrovenje Jovanovo”, što je svakako i opravdano prema
opštem utisku koji se stiče čitanjem navedenog dela.
Na nama je sada da istražimo kakvi su to utisci koji se stiču
čitanjem ovoga dela, odakle karakteristike ovoga dela vode poreklo,
i u koju se istorijsku tačku mogu svrstati. Isto tako,
pokušaćemo da istražimo i druga dela koja su po svom sastavu
slična navedenom, istraživaće se i uticaj tih drugih njemu
sličnih dela na njega samog, uzimajući namerno navedeno delo
(”Otkrovenje Jovanovo”) samo kao mnogima već poznat
primer jednog posebnog pravca u književnosti.
Apokalipsa kao pojava, kao književno delo ili pak kao način
razmišljanja, rezultat je nastanka interesantne društvene pojave,
inače karakteristične za teške okolnosti kojima određeni narod
biva okružen, najčešće označavanim kao ”apokaliptika”. Izraz
”apokaliptika” se obično odnosi na granu jevrejske književnosti,
mada se može primeniti i na književnosti drugih naroda koje
imaju slične karakteristike u stilu pisanja, temi pisanja i načinu
razmišljanja. Apokaliptikom, kao književnom vrstom, služe se
naročito, kako će se to videti i kasnije u ovom tekstu, raniji
proroci. Njome prorok objavljuje tajne budućih vremena i teši
one koji su u patnjama ovoga vremena ukazujući im na nagradu
u budućem svetu.
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Apokaliptičke objave proroci su najčešće dobijali u vizijama
ili u simboličkim snovima. A kao tumači takvih snova obično
su se pojavljivali anđeli kao Božji posrednici. Ipak, danas najviše
proučavana, stoga i najpoznatija apokaliptika, zapravo je
jevrejska apokaliptička literatura, koja će biti i glavna tema
ovog poglavlja.
Prema navodima većine leksikona i rečnika, ”apokaliptika”
je, sažeto, grana književnosti koja prikazuje u obliku simbola,
slike čudesnih, tajanstvenih vizija budućnosti, čak slike budućeg
božjeg carstva i dolazak od Boga određenog spasitelja na
Zemlju, koji će je spasti u jednom momentu. Osnovna karakteristika
apokaliptike jesu slike čudesa koje se opisuju na poseban
način, a koje su rezultat najčešće, lične imaginacije opisivača.
Važna karakteristika apokaliptike je svakako i to da ona odiše
jakom proročkom osnovom. Proroštvo je podsticaj, ali ne i cilj
apokaliptike. Svakako da je proroštvo samo sredstvo da se ukaže
na ono što će se dogoditi.
Vreme nastanka i istorijske okolnosti u periodu
nastajanja jevrejske apokaliptike
Apokaliptična književna vrsta počela se razvijati u Izraelu
kada je prestajalo proročanstvo. Bilo je to predmakabejsko doba,
period vladavine prvo Asiraca, a potom Grka. Svoj vrhunac
apokaliptika doživljava u periodu od 200. godine p.n.e. do 200.
godine n.e. Najstarije zapisano štivo sa karakteristikama apokaliptike
predstavljaju šest poglavlja Knjige proroka Danila (Danilo
7-12).
Prema najnovijim naučnim otkrićima, do kojih se došlo analizom
Kumranskih rukopisa, naučnici su došli do zaključka, a
sa time se većina naučnika i složila, da se Knjiga proroka Danila
datira na VI-V vek p.n.e. Upravo se period nastanka apokaliptike
stoga poklapa sa navedenim datumom.
Svakako da su za razumevanje razloga nastajanja apokaliptike
od velike važnosti istorijske okolnosti u ovom periodu, na82
ročito u periodu cvetanja apokaliptike, što se odigralo, kako je
već navedeno, od II veka p.n.e. do II veka n.e.
Danilova knjiga je napisana verovatno u Vavilonu, tokom
boravka Jevreja, kao i samog autora Danila. Odakle jevrejski
narod u Vavilonu? Posle razorenja Samarije 722. g. p.n.e., izraelski
izgnanici raseljeni su po zapadnim asirskim provincijama
(Gozan u severnoj Siriji), i po istoku, u Midiji. Judejski zarobljenici
su raseljeni u samoj Vaviloniji. Nakon 586. g. p.n.e. i
vavilonskog osvajanja Judeje, događa se još jedno veliko odvođenje
Jevreja, i to u srednju i južnu Mesopotamiju. Već u prvoj
deceniji boravka u Vavilonu, pojavljuje se jedan od najistaknutijih
proroka - Jezekilj, izdanak jevrejske svešteničke porodice.
Njegove proročke besede odlikuju se velikom pesničkom obdarenošću
i izuzetnom uverljivošću.
Ideali proroka iz ovog perioda postaju jasniji, produbljeniji i
u narodu prihvaćeniji. Tako se s vavilonskim ropstvom vezuje
dotad najkrupniji prelom u religioznoj svesti jevrejskog naroda.
Pojava velike pretnje Vavilonu, persijskog cara Kira (539. godine
p.n.e.) probudila je veliku nadu u jevrejskom narodu u
skoro spasenje. To se i ostvaruje nakon Kirovog osvajanja Vavilona,
u vidu njegovog dekreta, kojim dozvoljava Jevrejima
povratak u domovinu. I ne samo to, već i obnovu hrama u Jerusalimu.
Narod počinje sa povratkom, mada određene grupe oklevaju,
pa čak i ostaju u Vavilonu. Većina povratnika naselila se u severnoj
Judeji. U domovini ih zatiču Samarićani, koji koče normalan
razvoj povratka, kao i obnovu ognjišta, pa čak i samog
Hrama. Obnova Hrama je obustavljena sve do dolaska Darija
na vlast, na osnovu čije je naredbe Hram završen (516. godine
p.n.e.).
Agej, Zaharija i Malahija bili su poslednji predstavnici proročkog
pokreta u jevrejskom narodu toga doba koji su začeli
Amos i Isaija.
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U istoriji Judeje prelomni trenutak predstavljala je godina
458. p.n.e., kada je prispela nova grupa povratnika iz Vavilona.
Na čelu ove nove grupe stajao je Jezdra, koji je sa sobom nosio
ništevan, povelju izdatu od cara Artakserksa, a koja je bila
svojevrsna nova dozvola za povratak Jevreja u Judeju i
punomoć Jezdri da zakone Tore objavi kao načela građanskopravnog
ustrojstva Judeje.
Godine 445. p.n.e. Astarkserks šalje Nemiju, Jevrejina sa
svoga dvora, te ga postavlja za namesnika Judeje. Njihovi
dnevnici - Knjiga Nemijina i Knjiga Jezdrina, uvršćeni su u
biblijski kanon. Zajedničkim naporima Jezdra i Nemija reformišu
zastranjenu jevrejsku religiju i način života, dovodeći ih u
prvobitan oblik, uokviren Božjim načelima.
Život naroda u Judeji u ovom periodu svakako da karakterišu
izuzetne teškoće i problemi izazvani pre svega stranom
vlašću, ali i konstantnim napadima suseda na malobrojno novodoseljeno
jevrejsko stanovništvo.
Do IV veka p.n.e. Izrael se nalazio u oblasti uticaja istočnih
carevina - Asirije, Vavilonije, Egipta i Persije. Nakon četvrtog
veka p.n.e. Izrael se zajedno sa susednim zemljama nalazio pod
uticajem kulture nastale u Heladi. Godine 332. p.n.e., grčki vojskovođa
Aleksandar Makedonski osvaja Izrael. Njegova smrt
323 godine p.n.e. izazvala je u istočnim zemljama mnogobrojne
ratove među njegovim naslednicima - Dijadosima, koji su se
sukobljavali oko nasledstva.
Izrael je tada u nekoliko mahova prelazio iz ruku u ruke naslednika
Aleksandra Makedonskog, što je dosta naškodilo njenim
žiteljima. Od 301. godine p.n.e., kako je pala pod vlast egipatskog
cara Ptolomeja I zemlja je do 200. godine p.n.e. bila
zavisna od ptolomejske dinastije, a njena istorija istog razdoblja
tesno povezana sa egipatskom.
Godine 200. p.n.e. Sirija uzima vlast nad prostorom Izraela, i
to na čelu sa carem Antiohom III. Blagonaklon odnos prema
jevrejskom življu od strane Sirijaca traje kratko, do dolaska na
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vlast Antioha IV, koga će u Izraelu dočekati raskol među Jevrejima:
onih koji su za helenizaciju i hasida koji su protiv nje.
Usled manje pobune dela jevrejskog naroda, Antioh IV ukida
sve verske slobode istom, uz određivanje upravo Hrama za
oltar paganskom bogu Zevsu. Ovaj će postupak izazvati burnu
reakciju Jevreja, što će dovesti do velikog narodnog ustanka
pod vođstvom Jude Makabejca iz roda Hašmonejaca.
Već 164. godine p.n.e. oltar u Hramu biće ponovo posvećen
Bogu. Ustanak će rezultirati obnavljanje samostalnosti jevrejske
države, pod vladavinom jevrejske dinastije Hašmonejaca
(Hašmonaim). Jedina pozitivnost, s tačke gledišta jevrejskog
naroda u uspostavljanju samostalne države, biće širenje njenih
teritorija, jer je samostalna država ipak bila pod snažnim uticajem
tada već veoma moćnog Rimskog carstva.
Česta smena careva, značajna nestabilnost u zemlji i ugroženost
u vojnom smislu sa svih strana, rezultat su nepovoljne
sociološke situacije u zemlji. Od obnavljanja državnosti (oko
166 p.n.e.) pa do njenog svršetka (63. p.n.e.) jevrejskom državom
vlada deset jevrejskih careva, što je mnogo za period od
sto godina. Ipak, ovaj stogodišnji period mira, uticaće na relativno
solidni razvoj poljoprivrede, zanatstva i trgovine u zemlji.
Samim tim stvoriće se i uslovi za razvoj misli i pisane reči.
Najvažniji u razvoju duhovnosti biće fariseji, sadukeji i
književnici. Oni su ti koji će izneti sav teret duhovnog razvoja u
jevrejskom narodu u periodu od tri veka (100 godina p.n.e. –
oko 200. godine naše ere). Uticaj Rima postaje sve jači, naročito
političko-vojni, što jevrejski narod teško podnosi, tako da
se, iako slaba, hašmonejska država Jevreja odlučuje za veliki
rat protiv Nabatejaca i Rima, pod vođstvom poslednjeg hašmonejskog
cara Aristobula II.
Svakako da je ovaj rat bio izgubljen i da je doneo još veće
probleme napaćenom narodu. Rim tada nameće svoju vlast, doduše
preko svojih namesnika - Jevreja po nacionalnosti, sa marionetskim
osobinama, iz hašmonejske dinastije takođe.
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U ovom momentu jevrejske istorije javlja se Irod, sin Antipatera,
prijatelja hašmonejske porodice, rimskog prokuratora u
Izraelu. Iako dosta progonjen od strane vlasti, uspeo je uz
pomoć Rima da u samom Rimu bude imenovan za judejskog
cara, 37. g. p.n.e.
Irod je bio vladar izuzetno diktatorskog karaktera, mada je
za svoju zemlju učinio dosta pozitivnog. Gradio je dosta, a
obnovio je čak i Hram, raširio državu gotovo do davidovskih
granica. Sve to mu nije pomoglo da dobije podršku svoga (jevrejskog)
naroda.
Tokom vladavine Iroda, rodio se i Isus Hrist. U narodu su se
osnaživala mesijanska očekivanja, naročito usled svesnosti naroda
da mu je vlast u potpunosti marionetska - sve je u rukama
Rima, nema nezavisnosti, razvoj je samo prividan. Vrhunac pritisaka
bio je uvođenje cenzusa svojevrsnog popisa stanovništva
u cilju razrezivanja poreza.
Ubrzo zatim, 4. godine p.n.e. Irod će umreti, a vlast će naslediti
njegovi sinovi i to: Arhelaos, Filip i Irod Antipas. Njihova
vladavina će kratko trajati, a teritorije će prelaziti u nadzor
različitih rimskih prokuratora. U Judeji naročito i to najpre:
Koponije, Ambivije, Rufije, Valerije i na kraju Pilat.
Mržnja naroda prema rimskoj vlasti je bila toliko velika da
će čitav Izrael odisati snažnom energijom promena, što će kasnije
rezultirati velikim narodnim ustankom protiv rimske vlasti,
koja se odlikovala čestim smenama na prestolu Izraela.
Ekstremistička grupa u Jerusalimu organizovala je prve napade
na rimske legije. Iako veoma uspešni u borbama protiv
rimske vojske, usled stranačkih trvljenja, narod nije uspeo da
oslobodi zemlju.
Jerusalim je potpuno kapitulirao 70. godine naše ere. Tada
Izrael postaje nezavisna carska rimska provincija pod nazivom
Judeja. Preživeli Jevreji vremenom počinju da se okupljaju oko
svojih duhovnih vođa - književnika i fariseja. U Jamniji se raz86
vija rabinska škola, gde se na osnovu Tore, sakupljaju usmena
predanja, koja se kasnije zapisuju pod nazivom Mišna.
Rimski car 135. godine naše ere naređuje izgradnju novog
mnogobožačkog hrama na mestu starog jevrejskog. Isti car zabranjuje
obrezivanje Jevreja. Narod nemogavši da istrpi ovakve
pritiske, diže ustanak protiv vlasti pod vođstvom Simona bar
Kohbe. Rezultat ustanka je gotovo potpuni progon Jevreja iz
domovine.
Jerusalim je postao rimska kolonija u koju nije smeo ući ni
jedan Jevrejin. Ovim se završava sveopšta patnja jevrejskog
naroda na prostoru Izraela, ali ne i van njega.
Načini i razlozi nastajanja jevrejske apokaliptičke
literature
Pojava proroka Jezekilja jedan je od dokaza da je u Vavilonu
u svesti jevrejskog naroda postojalo rašireno mišljenje da je
progonstvo kolektivna kazna za grehe otaca, da je težak život
naroda prouzrokovan upravo time. Tuga, patnja i bol u narodu,
bili su uzrok povećane duhovnosti kao i češćim imaginacijama
pojedinaca.
Proročki pokret, svojom pojavom i razvojem, oslikava želju
naroda za oslobođenjem. Prorok Natan se recimo, može smatrati
ideološkim prethodnikom svih onih koji su bili protiv institucionalne
monarhije. Ipak ni Natan ni Ilija nisu bili teoretičari,
već je njihovo ogorčenje bilo upereno protiv pojedinaca, protiv
nekih činjenica i konkretnih događaja. Tako se rani proroci isključuju
iz uticaja na jevrejsku apokaliptiku.
Za razliku od ranih proroka, pozni proroci vrše celokupno
preispitivanje ljudskih odnosa. Oni se ne osvrću na prolazne
slučajeve, nego ulaze u strukturu ljudske i društvene prirode.
Zahvaljujući njihovoj nezavisnosti prema bilo kojoj posebnoj
istorijskoj sadržini, njihova su proročanstva dobila neprolaznu
vrednost. Stoga se opšti pristup događaju oseća i u apokaliptici,
te se nameće zaključak jačeg uticaja poznih proroka na nju
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samu, što je i bliže logici stvari s obzirom na vremensku distancu
ranih proroka i pojave apokaliptike.
Jenjavanjem proročkog pokreta javljaju se mističke knjige,
kao posledica navedenih uzroka, koje su predskazivale ne samo
kompletnu svetsku političku kataklizmu, već i prevrat u kosmosu,
koji će eventualno izmeniti sadržaj cele vaseljene.
Prema istorijskim događajima koji su potresali jevrejski živalj
u Izraelu od vremena proroka do potpunog izgnanstva u
periodu Rimljana, jasno je da je narod živeo u potpunom nemiru
i bez nade u realnu budućnost. Stoga se javljaju mesijanske
ideje u misli koje vremenom bivaju sve izraženije.
Autor Allegro navodi čak da je pojava lažnih mesija bila
toliko učestala, da se narod gotovo više nije ni obazirao na njih.
I ne samo to, opisani način života dovešće do apokaliptičkog
načina razmišljanja među učenim Jevrejima.
Šta je onda to što je oblikovalo jevrejsku apokaliptiku? Šta
je to što je dovelo do njenog stila i načina izražavanja? Šta je
inicijalni element za nastajanje iste? Teolog Milik je pišući o
ovoj temi skrenuo pažnju identifikacijom geografske lokacije
od naročite važnosti za jevrejsku apokaliptiku. To je Abel Majkin,
koji je po svemu sudeći smešten blizu jednog od izvora
Jordana, nad kojim su dve veoma oštre kosine brda Hermon.
Naročita priroda mesta koja je obuzimala maštu jevrejskih apokaliptičara
dovodila ih je do komunikacije sa nebom, najčešće
prividne - na vrhu Hermona, i s paklom - u dubokom izvoru
koji je vodio u utrobu zemlje iz koje je isticao Jordan. Na to
mesto se odnose mnogi važni događaji sa uticajem na ljudske i
anđeoske sudbine. Tu se i Levi molio i imao nebeske vizije
pošto je pao u dubok san (Levijev testament 2,3-5).
U periodu Makabejaca, kao što je već rečeno, javlja se
pokret hasidim (pravedni, pobožni). Ovaj pokret se očuvao sve
do danas. Ipak, u određenom momentu (130. godine p.n.e.) od
ovog pokreta nastaju još dva nova - fariseji i sadukeji. Izbegavali
su mešanje u političke poslove, već su se većinom bavili
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izučavanjem Tore i usmenom predajom, a fariseji naročito. Politička
propast jevrejskog naroda nije za njih predstavljala veliki
problem. Verovali su više u Toru i njoj pridavali daleko
veći značaj.
Sva tri pokreta, kako stari, tako i dva novonastala, imali su
uticaj na nastajanje jevrejske apokrifne književnosti. Mnogi
elementi iz načina razmišljanja ove tri grupacije mogu se pronaći
u ovoj književnoj vrsti. Neki od njih su: ”Važnost
Mojsijevog zakona”, ”Tora iznad svega”, ”Poštovanje proročke
misli”, ”Mesija stiže”, ”Strašni sud”, ”Dani užasa - Armagedon
na kraju sveta, nakon kraja odabrani ostaju u životu”...
Isto tako, književnici (knjigoznalci, pismoznalci, soferimi),
iako nastali još u Solomonovom dobu, poznavanjem Tore i predavanjem
nauke Tore narodu, utiču na širenje eshatoloških misli
i ideja među življem, pogotovo u periodima društveno- ekonomskih
kriza. I ne samo to, duhovne krize u narodu izazvane
ugnjetavanjima raznih osvajača domovine Jevreja, naročito podstiču
književnike na još jači rad ”od vrata do vrata” šireći tako
nadu u spasenje svakoga ponaosob, ali ako, i samo ako, bude
želeo da taj određeni pojedinac uđe u Carstvo Božje, predviđajući,
a na osnovu proročkih pisanja iz Tore i opšteg stanja u
zemlji, teške dane pakla koji će Zemlju snaći.
Imajući u vidu sve navedene činioce i situacije koje su postojale
u Izraelu, i van njega, tokom dva do tri veka p.n.e. i isto
toliko nakon njega, pojava apokaliptičke književnosti predstavljala
bi logičan sled događaja, logičnu posledicu u razvoja
jevrejske misli toga doba.
Osnovne karakteristike jevrejske apokaliptike
Nakon sažetog osvrta na istorijske okolnosti u Izraelu i njegovoj
okolini, kao i na društveno-ekonomsku situaciju toga
doba na istom području, ali i na duhovne činioce koji su tada
obitavali u narodu nazire se sadržaj jevrejskih apokaliptičkih
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knjiga. Apokaliptika je književni oblik nastala iz proročanstava,
tako da se može reći da ona označava i proročanstvo.
Autori apokaliptike obično uzimaju ime neke poznate i važne
ličnosti, iako ne preciziraju u svojim delima i ne nameću
isključivo da su doista te ličnosti i napisale tekst. Dakle, imenom
autora, stvarni autor želi privući pažnju na tekst, ne obmanjivati
javnost, mada ako mora birati između nečitanosti teksta i
laganju o autorstvu, pravi autor bira lažno predstavljanje autorstva,
samo da bi tekst bio čitan. Autor često biva opsednut
starinom napisanog teksta, te često lažno predstavlja tekst nekoliko
vekova starijim nego što jeste. Bilo je autora koji su se
predstavljali lično, ne krijući svoje autorstvo.
Vreme i mesto pisanja je najčešće nemoguće odrediti. Autor
je često takve stvari ostavljao nedorečenima, i to iz više razloga.
Pre svega, ako autor krije svoje autorstvo, ide mu u prilog
da ne pominje vreme i mesto pisanja. Isto tako, ako želi tekst
predstaviti mnogo starijim nego što stvarno jeste, apsurdno bi
mu bilo da pominje mesto i vreme pisanja. Isto tako, autor je
vodio računa da ne iznosi određeni sekundarni podatak (”da se
ne otkrije”) na osnovu kojeg bi se moglo utvrditi vreme i mesto
pisanja. Svakako da je bilo i onih koji su tačno navodili podatke
o ovome.
Mesijanstvo u apokaliptičkim knjigama gubi na primarnosti.
Primaran je Bog, koji donosi novo doba i novo ustrojstvo. U
nekim se apokaliptičkim knjigama Mesija ni ne pominje, mada
se ne može reći da je mesijanska ideja iščezla iz ove literature.
Mesija je samo gurnut u drugi plan. Sve radnje čini sam Bog,
nekada samo preko Mesije koji će ”tek” doći. Naprotiv, mesijanstvo
je tu i gotovo da predstavlja osnovu, a nekada samo pozadinu
sadržaja.
Božanske tajne apokaliptika opisuje u vizijama koje videlac
(vizionar) opisuje jezikom uobičajenim za ovu književnu vrstu.
Tako se s tim u vezi javljaju simboli, brojevi i tome slično. Karakteristični
su puni brojevi, celi brojevi. 7 je broj potpunosti,
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broj savršenstva. Polovina od toga bila bi suprotna Bogu (tri i
po). Šest je broj za jedan manji od sedam, broj Sotone. Broj 12,
kao 12 meseci u godini, rezultat je apokaliptičke simbolike,
zatim četiri strane sveta, četiri godišnja doba, prvi put se javljaju
kod apokaliptičara, iako Izrael odlikuju samo dva godišnja
doba...
Apokaliptiku svakako odlikuju i razna natprirodna stvorenja,
koja povećavaju simbolizam kao karakteristiku, povećavaju
doživljaj koji se javlja kod čitaoca i utisak užasa koji će doći za
neznabošce i nevernike.
Šta je ono što razlikuje apokaliptiku od proroštva? Egzistencija
pojedinca nakon smrti, a ne egzistencija čitavog naroda, još
je jedna od karakteristika koja se javlja u apokaliptici, za
razliku od proroštva. Proroci crpe ideje iz prošlosti i iz nje izvlače
pouke, dok apokaliptičari bivaju više okrenuti ka budućnosti.
Nova ideja u apokalipsi čini je umnogome različitom od
proroštava – nada u besmrtnost Božjih sledbenika – pravednih
Jevreja.
Apokaliptika se kao književna vrsta negovala ne samo kod
Jevreja i judaizmu, već ponešto i među prvim hrišćanima. Stoga
je jedino novozavetno delo apokaliptičkog karaktera -
Otkrivenje Jovanovo.
Kumran i apokaliptika
Kumransko vreme predstavlja vreme apokaliptičke apokrifne
literature kao što su ”Enohova knjiga”, ”Mojsijevo vaznesenje”
i ”Knjiga jubileja” koje kao štivo pisano u vreme krize
gradi svoju tajnovitu poruku paralelno s kumranskim stvaralaštvom.
Na prelazu vremena, mudrost ostaje jer apokaliptička
previranja su samo privremena i na pomolu je mesijansko eshatološko
verovanje. Njemu je podređen govor o misterijama i
pravi put u razlikovanju duhova.
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U govoru o blaženstvima iznenađuje da su starozavetni, posebno
psalamski makarizmi tj. blaženstva, koja u Novom zavetu
zauzimaju veoma važno mesto jer su okrunjena programskim
govorom na Gori (Matej 5. poglavlje) o carstvu Božjem i
zajedništvu s proslavljenim Hristom (Otkrivenje 19), jedva prisutna
kod asketski disciplinovanog života u kumranskoj zajednici.
Uočava se prisutan dualizam, beg od sveta, isključivanje i
izolacionizam. Novi zavet, nasuprot tome, širi univerzalnu mesijansku
veru i nadu. Tako kumranski spisi čuvaju, pre svega,
Božju reč i tumače je na svoj ljudski način, odvajanjem od sveta
i opredeljenjem za izabrane i dobre.
Poznatija jevrejska apokaliptička dela
Knjiga Enohova predstavlja kompilaciju proročanstava i
spisa koji su pripisani Enohu. Podeljeni su u pet delova. Celo
delo danas postoji samo u etiopskom prevodu. Prema Harringtonu,
Knjiga Enohova predstavlja prikaz religioznih, moralnih,
mesijanskih, apokaliptičnih i eshatoloških strujanja u judaizmu
neposredno pred početak hrišćanstva. Pisana je delom
hebrejski, delom aramejski. Smatra se da knjiga potiče iz 170-
60. g. p.n.e. Pronašao ju je putopisac Bruss u Etiopiji 1775. na
etiopskom jeziku. Kasnije, 1886. godine, u grobnici jednog
koptskog monaha kod Ahmina u Egiptu, pronađene su i prve 32
glave na grčkom jeziku.
Enohova knjiga sadrži 110 glava. Pored uvoda i epiloga deli
se na pet delova i to: a) deo o padu anđela - anđeoski deo, b)
mesijanski deo – govor u slikama, c) astronomsko-fizički deo,
d) istorija čoveka od postanka do svršetka mesijanskog carstva,
e) utešni deo – uteha za svoju porodicu i za sve stanovnike
zemlje.
Ono što je primetno u ovoj knjizi jeste da propagira nastupanje
mesijanskog carstva - iznenada i silovito. U isto vreme
pisac Knjige Enohove ne veruje kako bi zemaljska sredina
mogla biti pogodno tle za ustoličavanje carstva Božjeg.
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Biblijska kritika smatra da je ovo kompilacija više knjiga
skupljenih pod Enohovim imenom, a ne jedno originalno delo.
Uz to se misli i da su je napisali izraelski Jevreji na jevrejskom
jeziku. Prema T. Radoviću, od svetih otaca crkve za ovu knjigu
su znali Irinej, Kliment Aleksandrijski, Origen i Tertulijan. Jeronim
i Avgustin je odbacuju kao apokrifnu, što je i razumljivo.
Knjiga obiluje parabolama, izrekama i pričama. Uticala je na
prvu hrišćansku crkvu, te se zaključuje da pojedini delovi u današnjem
obliku potiču od hrišćana, u smislu da je neki hrišćanin
dodao neke delove.
Knjiga Enohovih tajni (slovenski Enoh) je tipični apokaliptički
spis, u kojem Enoh iznosi objavu, koja mu dolazi sa putovanja
kroz sedam nebesa. Osim toga, Enoh opisuje stvaranje
sveta i otkriva tajne budućnosti. Smatra se da je knjigu napisao
neki izraelski Jevrejin ili možda pak Jevrejin preobraćen u
hrišćanstvo. Pisana je na grčkom jeziku, verovatno u I veku.
Predstavlja samostalno delo u odnosu na Knjigu Enohovu. Interesantno
je da je ova knjiga prevedena na staroslovenski i da je
taj prevod sačuvan do danas.
Treća knjiga Enohova je zapravo rabinska kompilacija iz
III ili IV veka. Donekle je važna za proučavanje jevrejskog
misticizma. Naročito je doprinela na razvoju kabalistike.
Zavet 12 patrijaraha je knjiga sa manjim apokaliptičkim
elementima, nastala najverovatnije u periodu od II – I veka
p.n.e. Knjiga opisuje kako se dvanaest Jakovljevih sinova oprašta
pred smrt od svojih sinova, te se tako proriče sudbina
dvanaest plemena. U celini, štivo predstavlja raspravljanje o
moralu, i svedočanstvo visokog morala koji je nadahnjivao jevrejsko
moralno držanje.
Pojedini stručnjaci smatraju (Charles, Lagrange) da ”Zavet
12 patrijaraha” sadrži i delove koje su dodali hrišćani. Milik
pak smatra da je čitavo delo nastalo u ranoj crkvi, a da su samo
temelji jevrejski (judaistički). Danas je sačuvana samo na grčkom
jeziku.
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Solomonovi psalmi predstavlja knjigu psalama veoma sličnih
nama poznatim psalmima iz biblijske knjige Psalmi Davidovi,
prema stilu i načinu izražavanja autora. Pisani su izvorno
na jevrejskom jeziku, ali su sačuvani samo na grčkom i sirskom.
Smatra se da potiču iz I veka p.n.e., i to najverovatnije u
periodu od 63. do 48. god. p.n.e., u vremenu Pompejevog osvajanja
Jerusalima. Tertulijan ih je osudio kao jeretičke psalme.
Lako je primetno farisejsko poreklo ovih psalama, naročito
ako se obrati pažnja na njihovo učenje o vaskrsenju, slobodnoj
volji i mesijanskoj nadi. Prvi je u Evropi ove psalme izdao jezuita
La Gerda 1626. godine.
Mojsijevo vaznesenje se sastojalo iz dva dela: a) Mojsijev
zavet u kojem se proriče sudbina jevrejskog naroda, i b) Mojsijevo
Jevanđelje. Pisanje knjige je trajalo verovatno od 3. godine
p.n.e. do 70. godine nove ere. Prema Harringtonu, delo je
napisano na hebrejskom jeziku, nakon smrti Iroda Velikog. Isto
tako, Harrington smatra da je knjiga esenskog porekla. U samoj
knjizi se oseća nacionalizam autora, naglašava se poštovanje
Zakona i suprotstavljanje sadukejima. Knjiga je u XVIII veku
prvi put izdana u Evropi i to na latinskom jeziku.
Treća knjiga Jezdrina (Vulgatina Četvrta knjiga Jezdrina)
se sastoji iz tri različita dela u kojima se opisuju vizije
Jezdre, i to otkrivanja budućnosti. Knjiga je prvobitno bila napisana
na hebrejskom jeziku, ali je ostala sačuvana samo u prevodima
na latinskom, etiopskom, sirijskom, jermenskom i arapskom
jeziku. Hrišćani su ovo delo dobro poznavali i upotrebljavali.
Smatra se da je knjiga pisana nakon razorenja Hrama 70.
godine. Sastoji se od 16 poglavlja i sadrži Jezdrine navodne
vizije u Vavilonu, i to sedam vizija. Jezdra prikazuje razgovore
s Bogom o nevoljama i patnjama jevrejskog naroda, kao i nadu
i veru naroda u teškim vremenima. Svakako da Jezdra nije autor.
Zbog sadržine, bila je cenjena kod crkvenih otaca (Varnava,
Kliment Aleksandrijski, Kiprijan...)
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Baruhova apokalipsa (Sirijski Baruh) je verovatno napisana
kada i Treća knjiga Jezdrina. U prilog tome govori i to da
se kod Baruhove apokalipse oseća uticaj ovog dela. Podeljena
je na sedam delova. Sadrži otkrivenja data Baruhu u vreme razorenja
Jerusalima 586. godine p.n.e. Ne sadrži naročite elemente
o Božjem carstvu. Misli su više okrenute ka nebu, a ne
ka zemlji. Osnovna ideja ove apokalipse je duhovno, a ne telesno
vaskrsenje. Pisana je izvorno na aramejskom ili hebrejskom
jeziku, ali je sačuvana samo na sirijskom jeziku, koji je
priređen na temelju grčkog prevoda.
Ovde treba pomenuti i ”Grčku apokalipsu”, koja potiče iz II
veka kao samostalno delo. U njoj se govori o Baruhu kojeg anđeo
vodi do petoga neba, gde mu Bog otkriva svoje tajne. Ova
knjiga je delimično sačuvana na grčkom i staroslovenskom jeziku.
Treća knjiga o Makabejcima predstavlja delo koje govori
o periodu progonstva aleksandrijskih Jevreja za vreme vladavine
Ptolomeja IV. U njoj se opisuje čudesno izbavljenje Jevreja
od pokolja koji je bio pripreman. Delo je verovatno napisano
pre 70. godine nove ere. Smatra se da je napisano da bi ohrabrilo
Jevreje u vreme progona pod Kaligulom.
Četvrta knjiga o Makabejcima je napisana s ciljem da pokaže
nadmoć razuma nad strastima. Predstavlja zapravo filozofsku
raspravu o razumu, na primeru Eleazara i sedmoro braće iz
”Druge knjige o Makabejcima”. Smatra se da je knjiga napisana
od strane nepoznatog Jevrejina u I veku, u cilju bodrenja
Jevreja da ne pokleknu, verovatno pre razorenja Jerusalima, i to
na grčkom jeziku. Jevsevije i Jeronim pripisuju knjigu Josifu
Flaviju, što je samo pretpostavka.
Manašeova molitva je knjiga nadahnuta pokorničkim psalmom
iz 2. Dnevnika 33,11-13, gde se kralj Manaše kaje za grehe
i moli se Bogu. Delo je verovatno napisao neki helenizirani
Jevrejin početkom hrišćanske ere. Ono je veličanstven primer
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bisera jevrejske duhovnosti. Latinski prevod ovog dela se pojavljuje
u Vulgati kao dodatak.
Aristejevo pismo je spis koji bi želeo biti pismo Aristeja,
koji je bio Ptolomejev činovnik. Knjiga donosi legendarni izveštaj
o nastanku Petoknjižja na grčkom jeziku, kojeg su prevele
72 starešine, pozvani za te potrebe iz Jerusalima. Ovaj prikaz
nastanka Septuaginte povod je bio za uzdizanje jevrejske
mudrosti i Mojsijevog zakona, kao i za isticanje nadmoći jevrejstva
nad paganskom filozofijom i moralom. Ovo pismo je
verovatno delo jevrejske propagande u Aleksandriji, a nastalo
je oko 100 godina p.n.e.
Sibilinska proročanstva. Od V veka p.n.e. Grčkom i Azijom
su kružila proročanstva koja su se pripisivala grčkoj proročici
Sibili. Aleksandrijski Jevreji su u tome videli uspešno
pomagalo za svoju propagandu. Tako su i ovi od II veka p.n.e.
pisali ”Sibilinska proročanstva”, puštali ih u javnost i tako širili
jevrejska verovanja. Hrišćani su ovu praksu nastavili, tako da
zbirka od 12 knjiga ”Sibilinskih proročanstava”, koja je do danas
sačuvana, predstavlja hrišćansko uverenje. U ovoj zbirci su
samo neke knjige jevrejskog porekla - verovatno treća knjiga
koja predstavlja skup odvojenih fragmenata iz II veka p.n.e.,
zatim četvrta knjiga (oko 80. godine p.n.e.), peta knjiga (125.
godine nove ere). Čak su ove knjige bile i prerađivane od strane
nekog hrišćanina.
Knjige o Adamu (objavljene pod raznim naslovima). Osnova
im je jevrejska, ali su kasnije prerađena u hrišćanskom ili
gnostičkom duhu. Sačuvane su u verziji na grčkom, latinskom i
slovenskom prevodu.
Vaznesenje Isaije predstavlja dva samostalna dela, i to
”Mučeništvo Isaije” i ”Apokalipsa Isaije”. Obe su knjige verovatno
napisane do 150. godine nove ere. Sačuvane su potpuno
samo na etiopskom jeziku. Prvi deo opisuje kako je Isaija
navodno prestrugan po naredbi cara Manasije, a drugi proro96
kovu viziju o Hristu, raspeću i vaznesenju. Radnja koja se opisuje
dešava se za vreme vladavine cara Jezekije.
Jevanđelje po Tomi je nezavisna zbirka govora, nastala sredinom
I veka nove ere. Karakteriše je dosledna gnostička interpretacija
Isusovih govora. Sačuvana je koptska verzija iz Nag
Hamadija, Egipat. Sadrži 6 paralelnih priča o Carstvu Božjem.
Po stilu i radnji, veoma je slična Jevanđelju po Mateju, uz opsežnije
primenjen apokaliptički stil.
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UTICAJ APOKALIPTIČKE JEVREJSKE
KNJIŽEVNOSTI NA NAČIN RAZMIŠ-
LJANJA U ISUSOVOM VREMENU
Većina naučnika se slagala i slaže se u tome, da je jevrejska
apokaliptika uticala na hrišćansku misao i to višestruko. Ono
što se na osnovu pregleda primarne i sekundarne, kako jevrejske
tako i hrišćanske literature može na prvi mah zaključiti
jeste da su u većini slučajeva naučnici, komentatori i analizeri
hrišćanstva bili u pravu. Naime, nada u vaskrsenje, i uopšte pojava
takve ideje u jevrejskom narodu nije došla slučajno, niotkuda.
Ako se dobro prouči Knjiga proroka Isaije, naročito
Isaija 26,19, lako se uočava da je još u njegovom periodu,
Božjom rukom dovedena među narod, ova ideja svakako postojala.
Isto tako, Danilo 12,2, vođen Božjim nadahnućem, dolazi
do ideje vaskrsenja.
Međutim, ideja vaskrsenja se naročito razvija u periodu cvetanja
apokaliptike. Težak život naroda, kako smo to mogli videti
u istorijskom delu, čini narod još prijemčivijim za prilaženje
skupovima ovakvih misli. Stoga je mnogim Jevrejima,
svakako ne svim, bilo lako da primi Hrista, koji je naročito
propagirao vaskrsenje, kao veliku Božju istinu.
Isto tako, ideja o Carstvu Božjem, koja se proteže još iz postegipatskog
perioda, u vremenu apokaliptike posebno jača.
Mogli smo videti više tipova stavova i prihvatanja ideje o
Carstvu Božjem: univerzalistički vid – Jeremijinog tipa (svi bez
obzira na nacionalnu pripadnost), etnički vid – Jezekiljevog tipa
(samo Jevreji), vid Danilove apokaliptike (duhovni smisao),
novo učenje apostola Pavla, kao četvrti i najsavremeniji tip,
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skup najvernijih i najstvarnijih, ujedno i najboljih elemenata iz
prethodna tri vida, s opštim utiskom da je takav savršeni način
mišljenja o Carstvu Božjem samo mogao nastati pod direktnom
Božjom intervencijom.
Ideje o strašnom sudu, koje su u hrišćanstvu takođe prisutne,
su apokaliptičkog karaktera i porekla. Tako Marko 13 ili Matej
22-25 sadrže ovakve elemente, apokaliptičke misli toga doba.
Jedina razlika, opet, između ovih navedenih apokaliptika i ostalih
čestih, sadržanih gotovo u svakoj jevrejskoj apokaliptici je
što Marko i Matej ove ideje navode u svom pravom obliku, od
Isusa prorečene, Božjim Duhom vođene. Iako su slične po karakteru,
iako vode identično poreklo, ipak jevrejske i hrišćanske
ideje o strašnom sudu razlikuju se u jednoj, najvažnijoj stvari, a
to je svakako nadahnutost od Boga.
Pošto smo govorili o geografskom elementu koji igra važnu
ulogu u apokaliptici – planini Hermon, dobro bi bilo napomenuti
još neke elemente apokaliptike koji su uticali na način razmišljanja
u Isusovom periodu, samim tim i na hrišćanstvo. Ime
Petros, koje Isus daje Simonu, na aramejskom jeziku je Kefa,
što znači ”stena”. U Mateju 16, i to u jednom kumranskom zapisu
istog dela Jevanđelja, svakako se pominje priznavanje
Hristovog Mesijanstva od strane Petra. U navedenom fragmentu
nedostaje (ne vidi se) reč za planinu, koja bi prema mišljenju
naučnika (Milik, de Gol...) mogla biti reč kefa. Upravo je
ta reč upotrebljavana za planinu u gotovo svim apokaliptikama
toga doba, te bi eventualno bilo normalno za očekivati tu reč i
na ovom mestu. Ta planina mogla bi biti zaista Hermon, koja bi
simbolisala Crkvu, ali i mesto čudnog kontakta pakla, zemlje i
neba u malom. Kanjon je pakao, sama planina zemlja, vrh njen
doseže do neba. Prema ovoj reči, planina – kefa (petar) jasno se
vidi obrazac jevrejske apokaliptike iz Hristovog doba i njen
uticaj na nastajanje Crkve.
Drugi novozavetni način razmišljanja otelotvoren u fizikamentu,
koji je naveden u Mateju 17, preobražavanje Isusa na
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visokoj planini, za koju se odavno misli da je Hermon, takođe
ima direktne veze sa tradicionalnom apokalipsom. Isus se na
planini pojavljuje pred Petrom i još dvojicom učenika u sjaju
svoje slave i vidi se kako razgovara sa mesijanskim prethodnicima
Mojsijem i Ilijom. Tako je očita koncepcija Božjeg otkrovenja
na ovoj naročitoj svetoj planini, što se u potpunosti
uklapa u dobro formiran apokaliptički tradicionalni obrazac.
Iako je uticaja apokaliptike na razmišljanje u Isusovom dobu
bilo veoma mnogo, iako je to bio period njenog vrhunca, mora
se zaključiti jedno – apokaliptika u Novom zavetu, njeni
elementi u mnogim novozavetnim knjigama i Otkrivenje Jovanovo,
jedina je apokaliptika koja se može uzeti za ozbiljno.
Ostale će poslužiti kao interesantna književnost, izuzetna za
proučavanje hebrejskog jezika, istorije i filozofije.
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KUMRANSKI TEKSTOVI OTKRIVENI
U PEĆINAMA
Kao što smo rekli, u Kumranskim pećinama otkriveno je
dosta biblijskih i nebiblijskih tekstova. Na ovom mestu ćemo
navesti određeni broj otkrivenih tekstova, a neke od njih čak i
predstaviti. Svici su otkrivani u pećinama. Pogledajmo pre svega
spisak svih tih pećina kao i najvažnije tekstove otkrivene u
njima:
Pećina br. 1
Pećina br. 1 je otkrivena 1947. godine. U njoj su pronađeni
važniji kumranski i biblijski spisi. Neki od njih su:
- 1QIsaa (kopija Knjige proroka Isaije)
- 1QIsab (druga kopija Knjige proroka Isaije)
- 1QS (Pravila Zajedništva) cf. 4QSa-j = 4Q255-64, 5Q11
- 1QpHab (Pešer Habakuka)
- 1QM (Svitak Ratnika) cf. 4Q491, 4Q493
- 1QH (Himne zahvalnice)
- 1QapGen (deo 1. Knjige Mojsijeve)
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Pećina br. 1, Kumran, Izrael
Pećina br. 2
Pećina 2 je otkrivena u februaru 1952. U njoj je pronađeno
oko 300 fragmenata iz 33 manuskripata, uključujući Knjigu Jubileja
i Mudrosti Ben-Siraha.
102
Pećina br. 2, Kumran, Izrael
Pećina br. 3
Pećina br. 3 je otkrivena u martu 1952. Ova Pećina je sadržavala
14 manuskripata uključujući Knjigu Jubileja i poznati
Bakarni Svitak. Postoje dokazi da su se u ovoj pećini čuvali
zlato, srebro, bakar, aromatična ulja i svakako svici.
103
Pećina br. 3, Kumran, Izrael
Pećina br. 4
Pećina broj četiri otkrivena je u avgustu 1952. godine. Analizirana
je od strane Geralda Lankestera Hardinga, Roland de
Voa i Józefa Milika. Pećina broj četiri se zapravo sastoji od dve
pećine (4a i 4b). U ovoj pećini pronađeno je preko 15.000
fragmenata iz 500 različitih tekstova.
Pećina 5 i 6
Pećine 5 i 6 otkrivene su takođe 1952. godine, odmah nakon
Pećine 4. Pećina 5 sadržala je oko 25 manuskripata, dok je Pećina
6 sadržala fragmente od oko 31 manuskripta.
Pećine 7–9
Pećine 7-9 su jedinstvene po tom osnovu što su jedine pećine
koje su pristupačne tako što se mora proći kroz naselje Kumran.
Uklesane su u južni deo Kumranskog platoa. Arheolozi su
104
otkrili pećine 7-9 godine 1957, ali nisu pronašli mnogo fragmenata,
najverovatnije zbog visokog stepena erozije koja za
sobom ostavlja samo plitke jame od čitavih pećina. Pećina 7 je
sačuvala više od dvadesetak komada grčkih dokumenata, uključujući
7Q2 (Pismo Jeremije), 7Q5 (što je postalo predmet
mnogih špekulacija) i grčku kopiju svitka Enoh.
Pećina 8
Pronađeno je 5 fragmenata: 1. Knjiga Mojsijeva (8QGen),
Psalmi (8QPs), Tefilin - fragmenti (8QPhyl), i Mezuza
(8QMez) i Himna (8QHymn). U pećini 8 je takođe pronađeno
nekoliko kutija tefilina i kutija sa kožnim predmetima, lampama,
ćupovima...
Ćupovi pronađeni u pećini broj 8
Pećina 9
Pronađeni su mali komadi neidentifikovanih fragmenata nekih
spisa.
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Pećina 10
Pronađen je samo jedan kameni predmet sa natpisom na sebi.
Pećina 11
Pećina 11 otkrivena je 1956. godine. U njoj je pronađen 21
tekst, od kojih su neki bili poprilično dugi. Svitak Hrama je tako
nazvan zato što je više od polovine teksta u vezi sa izgradnjom
Hrama u Jerusalimu, koji je upravo ovde pronađen. To je
najduži svitak ikada pronađen. Dužine je 8,75 m. Svitak Hrama
je otkriven od strane Jigel Jadina. Takođe u ovoj pećini, kao
rezultat iskopavanja, pronađen je fragment Malkicedeka
(11q13) i kopija Knjige Jubileja.
Pećina br. 11, Kumran, Izrael
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PRONAĐENI SPISI
Obzirom da su u Kumranu pronađeni biblijski i nebiblijski
tekstovi, napravićemo podelu kumranskih rukopisa upravo tako,
i o svakom važnijem spisu dati nekoliko osnovnih karakteristika:
NEBIBLIJSKI KUMRANSKI RUKOPISI
Ove nebiblijske tekstove takođe možemo podeliti u tri grupe.
Prva grupa bi bila apokrifna grupa, druga je grupa nesektaških
tekstova i treća grupa bi se sastojala od sektaških tekstova.
APOKRIFNA GRUPA KUMRANSKIH RUKOPISA
Isus Sirah
Knjiga Isusa Siraha je apokrifna knjiga (pseudoepigrafa),
dakle ulazi u sastav samo pojedinih ne-kanonskih Biblija, o čemu
smo već govorili u ovoj knjizi. Knjiga Sirahova predstavlja
zbirku jevrejskih mudrosti, koju su stvorile grupe mudraca organizovane
u škole mudrosti, koje su bile raširene među Jevrejima
toga doba. Obzirom da je cela sačuvana na drugim jezicima
i da predstavlja deo pojedinih ne-kanonskih Biblija, može
se pogledati u takvim izdanjima Biblije.
Pored Knjige Isusa Siraha u Kumranu je otkriveno još mnogo
fragmenata iz oko petnaest drugih knjiga mudrosti, koje mogu
posvedočiti o velikom intelektualnom životu Jevreja toga
doba.
107
Tobija
Ova knjiga je većim delom na aramejskom jeziku, otkrivena
je u fragmentima. Smatra se da je napisana nešto pre Makabejskog
ustanka. U knjizi je reč o pobožnom Jevrejinu koji se zvao
Tobija i njegovom sinu koji je navodno dobio dar da može isceljivati
bolesne ljude. I ova se knjiga može pogledati u nekim
izdanjima ne-kanonskih Biblija, jer predstavlja pseudoepigraf.
Fragment iz Tobijine knjige, Kumran, Izrael
Enoh
Postoje tri spisa Enoha i oni se označavaju uglavnom kao
Enoh I, Enoh II i Enoh III. Međutim, samo je Enoh I napisan u
starozavetnom dobu, Enoh II je iz kasnijeg perioda, dok je
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Enoh III srednjevekovni spis. Enoh I je bio poznat iz nekih izdanja
ne-kanonske Biblije jer je pseudoepigraf, a stariji tekstovi
su nađeni na etiopskom jeziku (gotovo cela knjiga) i u Egiptu
na grčkom jeziku (u delovima). Enoh I sadrži pet delova: Knjiga
čuvara, Alegorije, Knjiga astronomskih spisa, Knjiga snova i
Enohova poslanica, ali sadrži i druge delove. Prvobitno je napisan
na aramejskom jeziku u periodu Drugog hrama. Ovo književno
delo se bavi poreklom i uništenjem zla, ulogom anđela i
demona u životu ljudi i novim dobom koje dolazi.
Fragment iz Enohove knjige, Kumran, Izrael
Knjiga Jubileja
Ova knjiga bila je poznata uglavnom indirektno, preko prevoda.
Fragmenti Knjige Jubileja pronađeni u Kumranu dokazuju
da je ova knjiga izvorno napisana na hebrejskom jeziku. Nas109
tala je tokom perioda Drugog Hrama. Govori o otkrovenju koje
je Mojsije dobio od anđela na Sinajskoj gori i o zlu koje će biti
uništeno. Predstavlja svojevrsnu sublimaciju Tore. U Kumranu
je ukupno pronađeno 14 svitaka (kopija) ove knjige. Kao i
Enoh, tako i Knjiga jubileja pokazuje izrazite eshatološke tendencije.
Knjiga Jubileja kaže, između ostalog, da će u jevrejskom
društvu toga vremena započeti promene nabolje tek kada
”deca počnu da izučavaju Toru (Zakon), i kada počnu da se drže
zapovesti, i kada se ljudi vrate na put pravednika” (23:26).
Apokrifno Postanje
Apokrifno postanje je pronađeno u pećinama 1 i 4. Ima ga u
brojnim fragmentima. Napisano je na aramejskom jeziku. Mastilo
kojim je pisano dosta ga je oštetilo pa su mnogi redovi nečitljivi,
mada se pokušavalo čitanje tih redova pomoću metode
spektralnog prikazivanja. Ovaj spis je zapravo parafraziranje
glavnih događaja opisanih u Postanju. Prema stilu kojim je pisan,
očigledno je da je namenjen širokim narodnim masama,
svakako za žitelje vremena u kojem je nastao. Svojim jednostavnim
jezikom i stilom pisanja približavao je radnju opisanu
u Postanju (1. Knjizi Mojsijevoj) običnom čoveku.
GRUPA NESEKTAŠKIH TEKSTOVA
Svitak Hrama
Pretpostavlja se da je napisan negde u IV veku p.n.e. Nije
napisan od strane sektaške kumranske zajednice, ali je sadržao
neke karakteristike privlačne za ideologiju esena. U Kumranu
su pronađena dva primerka ovog teksta. Jedan primerak je svitak
dug devet metara iz pećine broj 11, a drugi je u nekoliko
manjih fragmenata. Govori o idealnom Hramu koji treba izgraditi
i urediti, o žrtvama koje bi tamo trebalo žrtvovati, zapravo
o novom jevrejskom caru i novoj jevrejskoj državi i slično. Isto
110
tako, pisci ovog svitka, a po rečima koje se mogu u njemu
pročitati, videli su ga kao svojevrstan nastavak Tore. Neki naučnici
smatraju da su pisci Svitka Hrama želeli da sačuvaju
dodatnu građu i tekstove koji nisu ušli u Toru u periodu Jezdrine
reforme. Ova tvrdnja se može dokumentovati i jezikom i
stilom koji je korišćen u Svitku Hrama. Jezik i stil su potpuno
tradicionalni i nalik samoj Tori.
Fragmenti drugog primerka Svitka Hrama, Kumran, Izrael
Kalendarski spisi
Mnogi spisi pronađeni u Kumranu predstavljaju zapravo
praktične priručnike u vezi sa verskim zakonima i njihovom
primenom. Takvi su i kalendarski spisi. Inače, eseni Kumrana
111
su koristili solarni kalendar. Svici govore o napadima na esene
od strane njihovih jevrejskih protivnika, jer su se koristili pogrešnim
solarnim kalendarom.
Kalendarski spisi, Kumran, Izrael
Pesme za Šabatnu žrtvu
Mnogo je fragmenata koji sačinjavaju tekstove o liturgijskom
životu i bogosluženju. Najbolje sačuvan primerak je spis
Pesme za Šabatnu žrtvu, poznat još i kao Anđeoska liturgija. U
Kumranu je otkriveno devet rukopisa (kopija). U ovu liturgiju
je uključeno trinaest himni (pesama). Svaka himna počinje naznakom
koja pokazuje kada treba da bude korišćena. Na primer:
”Pesma žrtvovanja za prvi Šabat, četvrtog dana prvog meseca.”
Interesantno je napomenuti da veliča ideje posredništva između
čoveka i Boga, pa tako govori o anđelima, koji predstavljaju
upravo te posrednike.
112
Deo svitka Pesme za šabatnu žrtvu, Kumran, Izrael
Bakarni svitak
Bakarni svitak je pronađen u pećini broj 3. Sadržaj ovog
svitka je urezan na bakarnu ploču, za razliku od svih drugih
spisa koji su pisani na pergamentu ili papirusu. Obzirom da je
ovaj svitak zapravo bio u vidu rolne prepolovljene na dva dela,
proces otvaranja svitka je bio usporen radi zaštite od oštećivanja.
Napokon je odlučeno da se svitak iseče na trake, obradi i
pročita. Tim Rolana de Voa je primetio da ovaj svitak ima veoma
veliki značaj u razumevanju života esenske zajednice u
Kumranu. Svitak je napisan na kasnom hebrejskom jeziku, kako
u smislu samog jezika tako i što se hebrejskog pisma tiče.
113
Ovaj svitak sadrži spisak od šestdeset i četiri predmeta, uglavnom
dragocenosti i rukotvorina iz Hrama i mesta gde su te dragocenosti
sakrivene. Smatra se da su eseni, pre nego što je
Hram uništen od strane Rimljana, mnogo dragocenosti iz njega
sakrili po Judejskoj pustinji. Danas, međutim, nema ničega na
mestima popisanim u bakarnom svitku, mada mnoga mesta još
nisu otkrivena i identifikovana.
Jedno vreme su stručnjaci odbacivali ovaj svitak kao svojevrsnu
antičku šalu ili fantaziju, jer je u njemu popisano neverovatno
mnogo blaga. Recimo, pominje se po nekim naučnicima
60, a po nekim i 200 tona zlata, srebro bakar i drugi dragoceni
metali u ogromnim količinama.
Jedna traka isečenog bakarnog svitka, Kumran, Izrael
114
GRUPA SEKTAŠKIH TEKSTOVA
Pravilnik zajedništva
Pronađen je u pećini broj 1, solidno očuvan. Sadrži nekoliko
nizova pravila kojih se pridržavala zajednica esena. Još deset
fragmenata je pronađeno u pećini broj 4 i dva u pećini broj 5,
što svedoči o važnosti ovog dokumenta za esene.
Deo Pravilnika zajedništva, Kumran, Izrael
Na čelu hijerarhije esenske zajednice se nalazio ”učitelj”, a
Pravilnik zajedništva je za njega bio svojevrsni priručnik
pomoću kojeg se regulisalo pristupanje zajednici i određivao
statut zajednice. Evo jednog odlomka iz Pravilnika zajedništva:
115
”N(a svima koji dobrovoljno pristu)paju životu (večnom, po
Pravilni)ku Zajedništva, je da traže Boga (svim srcem i svom
dušom), da čine dobro i pravo pred Njim, kako je to zapovedio
preko Mojsija i preko svojih slugu, proroka i da vole sve koje je
izabrao i da mrze sve koje prezire, i da se udalje od svakog zla,
a da prilaze svemu dobrom i da postupaju istinito i pravedno i
zakonito, u zemlji, a da ne idu više tvrdoga srca i bludnih očiju,
čineći sve što je zlo, i da dovedu sve spremne da postupaju po
Božijim zakonima...”
Disciplinski priručnik
Ovaj spis govori o ciljevima i svrsi esenske zajednice, a potom
o pravilima prijema u zajednicu. Ove odredbe upravljaju
svim aspektima zajedničkog života članova esenske zajednice.
Osim ovoga, sadrži i propise za rukovođenje sastancima saveta.
Spis se završava detaljnim nabrajanjem svih pravila i spiskom
kazni za nepoštovanje istih (smanjenja obroka, privremeno ili
totalno isključivanje iz zajednice i slično).
Zapisano je i to da će ova pravila važiti sve dok se ne pojavi
novi prorok i dvojica mesija: Mesija Aronov i Mesija Izraelov.
Interesantno je dvojno mesijanstvo, karakteristično za kumranske
esene, ali i za judaizam uopšte. Čak se može napraviti i paralelizam
sa Mojsijem i Aronom, i Jovanom Krstiteljem i Isusom
Hristom. Jer prema hrišćanstvu, najavljivani Isus, kroz celi
Stari zavet, i najavljivani Jovan Krstitelj, dolaze obojica - Jovan
Krstitelj kao preteča Isusa Hrista.
116
Deo disciplinskog priručnika, Kumran, Izrael
Damaški dokument
Damaški dokument predstavlja najstariji kodeks koji je zajednica
esena napravila. Pronađeno je samo nekoliko dugačkih
fragmenata u pećinama broj 4, 5 i 6. Damaški dokument je složeni
spis sastavljen od više tekstova. Veliki deo ove knjige je
napisan pre Pravilnika zajedništva. Bavi se nastankom esenske
zajednice i posebno novim savezom sa Bogom sa određenim
izabranicima koji su napustili Judejsku pustinju i na neko vreme
se preselili u Damask. Knjiga daje i obimno teološko tumačenje
istorije drevnog Izraela. I pre nego je Damaški dokument
pronađen u Kumranu, znalo se za ovu knjigu jer je jedna njena
kopija pronađena u Egiptu u jednoj sinagogi.
117
Jedan od fragmenata Damaškog dokumenta, Kumran, Izrael
Ratni svitak (rat sinova svetlosti protiv sinova tame)
Solidno očuvan spis, pronađen je u pećini broj 1, kao i nekoliko
fragmenata njegovih kopija pronađenih u pećini broj 4.
Smatra se da je nastao 167. godine p.n.e., ali i da je nešto prepravljan
kasnije, dolaskom Rimljana. Ratni svitak se bavi eshatološkim
ratom koji će se navodno voditi tokom završnih četrdeset
godina ”poslednjeg vremena”, a borba se opisuje na nerealan
način.
Mnogi naučnici smatraju i da je ovo delo zapravo ratni plan
u slučaju napada na esensku zajednicu. Svitak opisuje i to da u
slučaju rata, glavni borci treba da budu 40-ogodišnjaci i 50-
ogodišnjaci, dok mlađi treba da budu pozadinci, što je veoma
interesantno za vojnu istoriju i vojne nauke.
118
Evo jednog citata iz Ratnog svitka:
”A o(vo je knjiga pravila) rata. U početku digoše ruku sinovi
svetla da bi načeli sudbinu sinova tame, Belijaalove vojske,
Edomove čete, Moavove čete i Amonovih sinova i vojske žitelja
Palestine (Filisteje) i četa Kitejaca (Grka) asirskih i kršilaca
saveza koji ih pomažu. Sinovi Levijevi i sinovi Jehudini i
sinovi Benijaminovi, prognani u pustinju, boriće se protiv njih
sa svim svojim četama u povratku sinova svetla iz progonstva u
pustinji naroda da bi se nastanili u pustinji Jerusalima. I posle
rata će se podići odatle na sve odrede Kitejaca u Egiptu. I u
njegovo predodređeno doba izaćiće da se u velikom gnevu bori
protiv kraljeva severa, te neka mu bes polomi i uništi rog…”
Deo Ratnog svitka, Kumran, Izrael
119
Nova zakonska pravila Tore
Sastoji se od šest fragmenata. Jedan sadrži kalendar za Šabat,
ostali se bave spornim pitanjima jevrejskog zakona ili halahe,
kao i bračnim pravilima. Prema sadržaju, pretpostavlja se
da je tekst bio upućen prvosvešteniku ili nekome veoma važnom
u Hramu, što ukazuje na činjenicu da je ovaj tekst bio upućen
na sadukejsko jevrejsko sveštenstvo. Sadržaj ovog teksta
dosta je doprineo utvrđivanju identiteta i istorije kumranske zajednice.
Deo Novih zakonskih pravila Tore, Kumran, Izrael
Pešer Avakum
Predstavlja tumačenje knjige proroka Avakuma. Pored ove,
postoji i dosta drugih knjiga Pešera (tumačenja) pronađenih u
Kumranu. Ovaj pešer je najočuvaniji. On se odnosi na događaje
u ranoj istoriji kumranske zajednice. U njemu se opisuje sukob
između ”učitelja pravednosti” i njegovog suparnika ”zlog sveš120
tenika”. Spis pominje i dolazak Kitejaca (Grka), agresivnog
naroda koji će se pojaviti sa mora i kazniti sveštenike Hrama u
Jerusalimu.
Dva stupca Pešer Avakuma, Kumran, Izrael
Pešer Naum
Postoji samo jedan fragment, otkriven u pećini broj 4. U njemu
se daju prava imena istorijskih ličnosti - Antioh i Demetrij.
Pešer Naum govori o dvema političko-religijskim grupama, koje
su postojale u Judeji u tom periodu. Prema mišljenju mnogih
stručnjaka verovatno je reč o farisejima i sadukejima.
121
Fragment Pešer Nauma, Kumran, Izrael
Zahvalnice
Ovaj spis je zbirka himni zahvalnica, koji je pronađen u pećini
broj 1 uz nekoliko fragmenata u pećini broj 4. Loše je očuvan,
pa stoga nije bilo moguće odrediti tačan broj himni koje je
sadržavao. Verovatno ih je bilo između 25 i 40. Ove himne po
svom stilu podsećaju na biblijske psalme. Pretpostavlja se da je
deo ovih himni napisao lično ”učitelj pravednosti”. Ove himne
su korišćene od strane esenskih vernika za lične i grupne molitve.
Evo jednog citata iz zbirke Zahvalnica:
”... 23. A ti mi se pojavi u snazi svojoj, i ne pokrij sramotom
lica
24. Svih onih koji su pozvani uz mene,
koji su određeni zajedno za savez Tvoj,
pa me slušaju oni koji hode putem srca Tvoga,
i postaviće se pred Tebe
25. u družinu svetih. A ti ćeš im pokazati njihovo pravo
čoveka i pravednima istinu…”
122
Himne zahvalnice, deo, Kumran, Izrael
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BIBLIJSKI KUMRANSKI RUKOPISI
Za čitavu ljudsku istoriju i budućnost ovo su najvažniji spisi
ikada pronađeni. Dokumentovali su verodostojnost Biblije. Originalan
tekst svih ovih spisa možemo nabaviti u svakoj knjižari
ili od prijatelja u obliku Svetog Pisma tj. Biblije. Pogledajmo
tabelu koja će nam pokazati koliko je kopija svake od biblijskih
knjiga pronađeno u Kumranu:
Knjiga Broj nađenih kopija u
Kumranu
5. Knjiga Mojsijeva 39
1. Knjiga Mojsijeva 18
2. Knjiga Mojsijeva 18
Psalmi 39
Isaija 22
3. Knjiga Mojsijeva 17
4. Knjiga Mojsijeva 12
Danilo 8
Jezekilj 7
Jeremija 6
I i II Samuilova 4
Knjiga o Jovu 4
Pesma nad pesmama 4
Ruta 4
Plač Jeremijin 4
Sudije 3
I i II Knjiga o carevima 3
Isus Navin 2
124
Priče Solomonove 2
Knjiga propovednika 2
Jezdra i Nemija 1
I i II Dnevnika 1
Pronađene kopije su sve identične današnjim Biblijama. Postoje
minimalne razlike (pravopis, pogrešno prepisano slovo,
druga reč kao sinonim i slično), o čemu je već bilo reči. U ovoj
knjizi ćemo uzeti jednu od pronađenih biblijskih knjiga, analizirati
je, uporediti sa kasnijim jevrejskim masoretskim tekstom
koji nam je oduvek bio dostupan i sa prevodom tog teksta na
naš jezik. Analiza i rezultati mogu se pogledati u okviru naslova
narednog poglavlja ”Glavni dokazi verodostojnosti Biblije”.
Na ovom mestu će se dati samo par fotografija pojedinih
biblijskih svitaka koji su otkriveni:
Levitska knjiga
Knjiga psalama (delovi)
125
Danilo - fragment
Knjiga o sudijama - fragment
126
GLAVNI DOKAZ AUTENTIČNOSTI
BIBLIJE
Jedan od najočuvanijih i najvećih tekstova iz Kumrana, nađen
je, kao što smo već rekli, u pećini broj 1. U ovoj knjizi ćemo
napraviti analizu jednog dela ovog teksta. Cilj je da proverimo
da li je tekst iz Knjige proroka Isaije, koji mi danas
imamo na skoro svim svetskim jezicima, u Bibliji približan,
udaljen ili identičan tekstu koji je pronađen u Kumranu. Svitak
se sastoji od mnoštva napisanih stubaca. Svakako da je na
nekim mestima materijal na kome je pisano oštećen, da ponegde
nedostaju slova.
Uzeta su prva četiri stupca jer ta četiri stupca imaju sve pozitivne
i negativne fizičke karakteristike jednog tipičnog prosečno
očuvanog teksta iz Kumrana. Analiza je rađena preko sedam
godina. Evo analize, rezultata i zaključka:
Na strani 127 nalazi se fotografija prvog stupca Knjige
proroka Isaije nađene u Kumranu. Isti deo Knjige proroka
Isaije iz masoretskog teksta (teksta Biblije koji smo imali do
otkrića u Kumranu) na hebrejskom jeziku glasi:
1) חֲזוֹן יְשַׁעְיָהוּ בֶן אָמוֹץ אֲשֶׁר חָזָה עַל יְהוּדָה וִירוּשָׁלָ םִ | בִּימֵי עֻזִּיָּהוּ יוֹתָם )
אָחָז יְחִזְקִיָּהוּ מַלְכֵי יְהוּדָה: ( 2) שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמַיִם וְהַאֲזִינִי אֶרֶץ כִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר | בָּנִים
גִּדַּלְתִּי וְרוֹמַמְתִּי וְהֵם פָּשְׁעוּ בִי: ( 3) יָדַע שׁוֹר קֹנֵהוּ וַחֲמוֹר אֵבוּס בְּעָלָיו | יִשְׂרָאֵל
לֹא יָדַע עַמִּי לֹא הִתְבּוֹנָן: ( 4) הוֹי גּוֹי חֹטֵא עַם כֶּבֶד עָוֹן זֶרַע מְרֵעִים בָּנִים
מַשְׁחִיתִים | עָזְבוּ אֶת יְהוָה נִאֲצוּ אֶת קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל נָזֹרוּ אָחוֹר: ( 5) עַל מֶה תֻכּוּ
עוֹד תּוֹסִיפוּ סָרָה | כָּל רֹאשׁ לָחֳלִי וְכָל לֵבָב דַּוָּי: ( 6) מִכַּף רֶגֶל וְעַד רֹאשׁ אֵין
בּוֹ מְתֹם פֶּצַע וְחַבּוּרָה וּמַכָּה טְרִיָּה | לֹא זֹרוּ וְלֹא חֻבָּשׁוּ וְלֹא רֻכְּכָה בַּשָּׁמֶן:
7) אַרְצְכֶם שְׁמָמָה עָרֵיכֶם שְׂרֻפוֹת אֵשׁ | אַדְמַתְכֶם לְנֶגְדְּכֶם זָרִים אֹכְלִים אֹתָהּ )
וּשְׁמָמָה כְּמַהְפֵּכַת זָרִים: ( 8) וְנוֹתְרָה בַת צִיּוֹן כְּסֻכָּה בְכָרֶם | כִּמְלוּנָה בְמִקְשָׁה
127
Fotografija prvog stupca Knjige proroka Isaije nađene u
Kumranu.
128
כְּעִיר נְצוּרָה: ( 9) לוּלֵי יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת הוֹתִיר לָנוּ שָׂרִיד כִּמְעָט | כִּסְדֹם הָיִינוּ
10 ) שִׁמְעוּ דְבַר יְהוָה קְצִינֵי סְדֹם | הַאֲזִינוּ תּוֹרַת אֱלֹהֵינוּ לַעֲמֹרָה דָּמִינוּ: )
עַם עֲמֹרָה: ( 11 ) לָמָּה לִּי רֹב זִבְחֵיכֶם יֹאמַר יְהוָה שָׂבַעְתִּי עֹלוֹת אֵילִים וְחֵלֶב
מְרִיאִים | וְדַם פָּרִים וּכְבָשִׂים וְעַתּוּדִים לֹא חָפָצְתִּי: ( 12 ) כִּי תָבֹאוּ לֵרָאוֹת פָּנָי |
מִי בִקֵּשׁ זֹאת מִיֶּדְכֶם רְמֹס חֲצֵרָי: ( 13 ) לֹא תוֹסִיפוּ הָבִיא מִנְחַת שָׁוְא קְטֹרֶת
תּוֹעֵבָה הִיא לִי | חֹדֶשׁ וְשַׁבָּת קְרֹא מִקְרָא לֹא אוּכַל אָוֶן וַעֲצָרָה: ( 14 ) חָדְשֵׁיכֶם
וּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם שָׂנְאָה נַפְשִׁי הָיוּ עָלַי לָטֹרַח | נִלְאֵיתִי נְשֹׂא: ( 15 ) וּבְפָרִשְׂכֶם כַּפֵּיכֶם
( אַעְלִים עֵינַי מִכֶּם גַּם כִּי תַרְבּוּ תְפִלָּה אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ | יְדֵיכֶם דָּמִים מָלֵאוּ: ( 16
רַחֲצוּ הִזַּכּוּ הָסִירוּ רֹעַ מַעַלְלֵיכֶם מִנֶּגֶד עֵינָי | חִדְלוּ הָרֵעַ: ( 17 ) לִמְדוּ הֵיטֵב
18 ) לְכוּ נָא וְנִוָּכְחָה דִּרְשׁוּ מִשְׁפָּט אַשְּׁרוּ חָמוֹץ | שִׁפְטוּ יָתוֹם רִיבוּ אַלְמָנָה: )
יֹאמַר יְהוָה | אִם יִהְיוּ חֲטָאֵיכֶם כַּשָּׁנִים כַּשֶּׁלֶג יַלְבִּינוּ אִם יַאְדִּימוּ כַתּוֹלָע כַּצֶּמֶר
יִהְיוּ: ( 19 ) אִם תֹּאבוּ וּשְׁמַעְתֶּם | טוּב הָאָרֶץ תֹּאכֵלוּ: ( 20 ) וְאִם תְּמָאֲנוּ
21 ) אֵיכָה הָיְתָה לְזוֹנָה קִרְיָה וּמְרִיתֶם | חֶרֶב תְּאֻכְּלוּ כִּי פִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר: )
נֶאֱמָנָה | מְלֵאֲתִי מִשְׁפָּט צֶדֶק יָלִין בָּהּ וְעַתָּה מְרַצְּחִים: ( 22 ) כַּסְפֵּךְ הָיָה לְסִיגִים |
סָבְאֵךְ מָהוּל בַּמָּיִם: ( 23 ) שָׂרַיִךְ סוֹרְרִים וְחַבְרֵי גַּנָּבִים כֻּלּוֹ אֹהֵב שֹׁחַד וְרֹדֵף
שַׁלְמֹנִים | יָתוֹם לֹא יִשְׁפֹּטוּ וְרִיב אַלְמָנָה לֹא יָבוֹא אֲלֵיהֶם:
24 ) לָכֵן נְאֻם הָאָדוֹן יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲבִיר יִשְׂרָאֵל | הוֹי אֶנָּחֵם מִצָּרַי וְאִנָּקְמָה )
מֵאוֹיְבָי: ( 25 ) וְאָשִׁיבָה יָדִי עָלַיִךְ וְאֶצְרֹף כַּבֹּר סִיגָיִךְ | וְאָסִירָה כָּל בְּדִילָיִךְ:
26 ) וְאָשִׁיבָה שֹׁפְטַיִךְ כְּבָרִאשֹׁנָה וְיֹעֲצַיִךְ כְּבַתְּחִלָּה | אַחֲרֵי כֵן יִקָּרֵא לָךְ עִיר )
הַצֶּדֶק קִרְיָה נֶאֱמָנָה:
Knjiga proroka Isaije 1,1- 1,26 (prevod Đure Daničića)
1 Utvara Isaije sina Amosovog, koju vide za Judu i za Jerusalim
za vremena Ozije, Joatama, Ahaza i Jezekije, careva Judinih.
2 Čujte, nebesa, i slušaj, zemljo, jer Gospod govori: Sinove
odgojih i podigoh, a oni se okrenuše od mene.
3 Vo poznaje gospodara svog i magarac jasle gospodara
svog, a Izrailj ne poznaje, narod moj ne razume.
4 Da grešnog naroda! Naroda ogrezlog u bezakonju! Semena
zlikovačkog, sinova pokvarenih! Ostaviše Gospoda, prezreše
Sveca Izrailjevog, odstupiše natrag.
5 Što biste još bili bijeni kad se sve više odmećete? Sva je
glava bolesna i sve srce iznemoglo.
129
6 Od pete do glave nema ništa zdravo, nego uboj i modrice i
rane gnojave, ni isceđene ni zavijene ni uljem zablažene.
7 Zemlja je vaša pusta, gradovi vaši ognjem popaljeni: vaše
njive jedu tuđini na vaše oči, i pustoš je kao što opustošavaju
tuđini.
8 I osta kći sionska kao koliba u vinogradu, kao senica u
gradini od krastavaca, kao grad opkoljen.
9 Da nam Gospod nad vojskama nije ostavio malo ostatka,
bili bismo kao Sodom, izjednačili bismo se s Gomorom.
10 Čujte reč Gospodnju, knezovi sodomski, poslušajte zakon
Boga našeg, narode gomorski!
11 Šta će mi mnoštvo žrtava vaših? - veli Gospod. Sit sam
žrtava paljenica od ovnova i pretiline od gojene stoke, i ne marim
za krv junčiju i jagnjeću i jareću.
12 Kad dolazite da se pokažete preda mnom, ko ište to od
vas, da gazite po mom tremu?
13 Ne prinosite više žrtve zaludne, na kad gadim se, a o
mladinama i subotama i o sazivanju skupštine ne mogu podnositi
bezakonja i svetkovine.
14 Na mladine vaše i na praznike vaše mrzi duša moja, dosadiše
mi, dodija mi podnositi.
15 Zato kad širite ruke svoje, zaklanjam oči svoje od vas, i
kad množite molitve, ne slušam, ruke su vaše pune krvi.
16 Umijte se, očistite se, uklonite zloću dela svojih ispred
očiju mojih, prestanite zlo činiti.
17 Učite se dobro činiti, tražite pravdu, ispravljajte potlačenog,
dajite pravicu sirotoj, branite udovicu.
18 Tada dođite, veli Gospod, pa ćemo se suditi: ako gresi
vaši budu kao skerlet, postaće beli kao sneg: ako budu crveni
kao crvac, postaće kao vuna.
19 Ako hoćete slušati, dobro zemaljsko ješćete.
20 Ako li nećete, nego budete nepokorni, mač će vas pojesti,
jer usta Gospodnja rekoše.
130
21 Kako posta kurva verni grad? Pun beše pravice, pravda
nastavaše u njemu, a sada krvnici.
22 Srebro tvoje posta troska, vino tvoje pomeša se s vodom.
23 Knezovi su tvoji odmetnici i drugovi lupežima: svaki miluje
mito i ide za darovima: sirotoj ne daju pravice, i parnica
udovička ne dolazi pred njih.
24 Zato govori Gospod, Gospod nad vojskama, silni Izrailjev:
Aha! Razračunaću se sa protivnicima svojim, i osvetiću
se neprijateljima svojim.
25 I okrenuću ruku svoju na te, i sažeći ću troske tvoje da te
prečistim, i ukloniću sve olovo tvoje.
26 I postaviću ti opet sudije kao pre, i savetnike kao ispočetka:
tada ćeš se zvati grad pravedni, grad verni.
Fizičke karakteristike kumranskog teksta
Stubac sadrži 29 redova relativno očuvanog teksta. U donjem
levom uglu nalazi se veće oštećenje koje obuhvata završetke
redova od 23-29. Time se gube poslednje reči teksta navedenih
redova, osim u redu broj 23, koji je kraći. U redovima
1, 2, 4, 21, 22 primetne su mrlje, koje takođe ometaju prepoznavanje
pojedinih slova ili reči u celini. Primetno je i nekoliko
manjih oguljenih delova i sličnih oštećenja, koji takođe ometaju
prepoznavanje teksta, pojedinih slova pre svega (početak 21.
reda, kraj 9. i 12. reda).
Važnije karakteristike kumranskog, i razlike između
kumranskog (K) i masoretskog (M) teksta
Red 2: Poslednja reč: K= postoji član HE koji se nalazi u M.
Red 3: Šesta reč: K= reč je delom izbrisana, ali sadrži jedno
mem, kao u M= weromamtiy, te se verovatno ne radi o razlici.
Sedma reč: K= hemah (oni), M= hem. Deveta reč: K= biy (u
meni), što se na ovom mestu poklapa u potpunosti sa M, ali će
ova reč često u K imati alef kao nastavak.
131
Red 4: Deveta reč: K= hitbonen, nejasno je usled mrlje.
Red 6: Sedma reč: K= dalet je nejasno u reči od (još).
Red 7: Treća reč: K= dawah, M= daway (iznemogao, nemoćan,
bolan...), razlika je pravopisna, nema promene značenja.
Deveta reč: K= biy (u meni), M= bo (u njemu). Ovde se već
značenje menja, prema smislu, verovatno je greška u K.
Red 9: Sedma reč: M= šemama (napuštenost, praznina, pusto
mesto), K= šemamo, šamemu (napustio ga je, ispraznio ga je
ili pak napustili su, ispraznili su...). Ovde dolazi do promene u
značenju. Prema smislu rečenice, verovatno je greška u K. Osma
reč: K= aleyah (nad njom, na njoj, njome...), reč je verovatno
umetnuta, u M ne postoji, umetanje je logično, kako ide
uz glagol naveden u K. S obzirom na ovu umetnutu reč, zaključuje
se da je verovatno pred njom upotrebljen glagol u množini,
3. lice, sa već navedenim značenjem: ”napustili su, ispraznili
su”.
Pretposlednja reč: K= izostaje he u reči ke-mapekat (kao
obaranje, kao prevrat, kao pustošenje), što je u M pravilno navedeno,
dakle sa he (ke-mahpekat). U izgovoru ove reči glas he
ne utiče naročito, tako da je greška u K razumljiva. Ipak, kasnije
je neko dodao nedostajuće he iznad reči.
Poslednja reč: nedostaje slovo reš u reči zariyim (stranci,
tuđinci), usled oštećenja.
Red 10: Osma reč: K= necura (opsednuta, zauzeta). Isaija
samo na ovom mestu koristi navedenu reč da bi dobio značenje
”opsednuta, zauzeta”. Možda zato što želi najaviti (prorokovati)
Nazaret, Mesiju i sl.
Red 12: Prve dve reči: Oštećene su i teško ih je pročitati.
Prema M, u pitanju su reči šim u devar (čujte reči, čujte govor).
Šesta reč: K= we aziynu (i poslušajte: glagol se ne može svrstati
ni u jednu gramatičku kategoriju, stoga je verovatno greška).
M= ha aziynu (poslušajte: imperativ hifil glagolske grupe,
u množini). Poslednje dve reči: prema M trebale bi da budu
132
lamah liu (zašto, zašto meni, šta će mi), ali su vidljivi samo
mem i xe u reči lama.
Red 14: Poslednja reč: K= zot (ta, ova, u ženskom rodu,
odnosno to, ovo, kako se često može kod nas prevoditi, pošto
hebrejski ne poznaje srednji rod.) U K je zamenica pogrešno
zapisana, bez slova alef, što je kasnije iznad reči dodato.
Nedostajanje slova alef ne menja izgovor, stoga je greška
pravopisna, te razumljiva.
Red 15: Druga i peta reč: K= u obema rečima dodat je predlog
lamed čega u M nema.
Red 16: Sedma reč: K= wa acaratah (i njeno okupljanje, i
njena skupština sa sufiksom za pripadnost 3. licu ženskog roda),
M= waacarah (i skupština, i okupljanje, dakle bez sufiksa).
Prema smislu, greška ne mora biti ni u M, niti u K.
Red 18 i 19: Poslednja reč u 18. i prva u 19. redu: K= dodaje
dve reči više kraju petnaestog stiha Isaijine knjige. K= ecba
oteykem - kao jedna reč (aramejski: vaši prsti) i K= be'awon (u
bezakonju). Obe reči se nalaze u masoretskom tekstu i predstavljaju
problem s obzirom da je svitak nastao oko 100. p.n.e.
Možda je problem i u izvoru Isaije kojeg je koristio prepisivač
našeg svitka.
Red 19: Treća i četvrta reč: K= dodaje veznik vav obema,
čega u M nema. Greška u K je stilskog karaktera, te se i ne može
smatrati pravom greškom.
Red 20: Sedma reč: K= upotrebljava drugačiji pravopis u
odnosu na M u reči ya'tom (siroče)
Red 21: Treća reč od kraja linije: K=kešeniy (kao purpuran,
predlog - kao - uz pridev u muškom rodu jednine) M= kešeniyim
(kao purpurni, predlog - kao - uz pridev u muškom rodu
množine).
Red 22: Druga reč: K= primena drugačijeg pravopisa u ovoj
reči, dodavanjem slova alef.
133
Red 23: Četvrta reč: K= dodat je predlog be (u) reči herev
(mač), tako da K u ovom slučaju koristi instrumental za razliku
od M.
Red 25: Treća reč: K= kayu (oni su, bili su), M=hayah (on
je, bio je).
Red 26: Druga reč: K= kulam (svi, svi oni), M= kulo (celog,
njega celog). Treća reč: K= ohevey (koji vole, koji traže, koji
idu za… ), M= ohev (koji voli, koji želi, koji ide za...). Peta reč:
K= navedena u množini, M= navedena u jednini. Sedma reč:
K= navodi ovu reč kao u prethodnom slučaju sa alef.
Red 28: Četvrta reč: K= we'anaqem (i osvetiću se) M=
we'anaqamah (kohortativ sa značenjem ”zaista ću se osvetiti”,
dakle sa pojačanim značenjem). Možda je u M umetnut kohortativ.
Na strani 134 nalazi se fotografija drugog stupca Knjige
proroka Isaije nađene u Kumranu. Isti deo Knjige proroka
Isaije iz masoretskog teksta na hebrejskom jeziku glasi:
עִיר לָךְ יִקָּרֵא ,כֵן-אַחֲרֵי :כְּבַתְּחִלָּה וְיֹעֲצַיִךְ ,כְּבָרִאשֹׁנָה שֹׁפְטַיִךְ וְאָשִׁיבָה כו
וְשֶׁבֶר כח .בִּצְדָקָה ,וְשָׁבֶיהָ :תִּפָּדֶה בְּמִשְׁפָּט ,צִיּוֹן כז .נֶאֱמָנָה ,קִרְיָה--הַצֶּדֶק
אֲשֶׁר מֵאֵילִים ,יֵבֹשׁוּ כִּי כט .יִכְלוּ ,יְהוָה וְעֹזְבֵי :יַחְדָּו ,וְחַטָּאִים פֹּשְׁעִים
,וּכְגַנָּה :עָלֶהָ נֹבֶלֶת כְּאֵלָה ,תִהְיוּ כִּי ל .בְּחַרְתֶּם אֲשֶׁר ,מֵהַגַּנּוֹת--וְתַחְפְּרוּ :חֲמַדְתֶּם
שְׁנֵיהֶם וּבָעֲרוּ :לְנִיצוֹץ וּפֹעֲלוֹ ,לִנְעֹרֶת הֶחָסֹן וְהָיָה לא .לָהּ אֵין מַיִם-אֲשֶׁר
.מְכַבֶּה וְאֵין ,יַחְדָּו
ב פרק ישעיהו
וְהָיָה ב .וִירוּשָׁלָ םִ ,יְהוּדָה-עַל ,אָמוֹץ-בֶּן יְשַׁעְיָהוּ ,חָזָה אֲשֶׁר הַדָּבָר א
וְנָהֲרוּ :מִגְּבָעוֹת ,וְנִשָּׂא ,הֶהָרִים בְּרֹאשׁ יְהוָה-בֵּית הַר יִהְיֶה נָכוֹן ,הַיָּמִים בְּאַחֲרִית
בֵּית-אֶל יְהוָה-הַר-אֶל וְנַעֲלֶה לְכוּ וְאָמְרוּ ,רַבִּים עַמִּים וְהָלְכוּ ג .הַגּוֹיִם-כָּל ,אֵלָיו
-וּדְבַר ,תוֹרָה תֵּצֵא מִצִּיּוֹן כִּי :בְּאֹרְחֹתָיו וְנֵלְכָה ,מִדְּרָכָיו וְיֹרֵנוּ ,יַעֲקֹב אֱלֹהֵי
חַרְבוֹתָם וְכִתְּתוּ :רַבִּים לְעַמִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ ,הַגּוֹיִם בֵּין וְשָׁפַט ד .מִירוּשָׁלָ םִ יְהוָה
134
Fotografija drugog stupca Knjige proroka Isaije nađene u
Kumranu.
135
עוֹד יִלְמְדוּ-וְלֹא ,חֶרֶב גּוֹי-אֶל גוֹי יִשָּׂא-לֹא--לְמַזְמֵרוֹת וַחֲנִיתוֹתֵיהֶם ,לְאִתִּים
{פ} .מִלְחָמָה
כִּי--יַעֲקֹב בֵּית עַמְּךָ ,נָטַשְׁתָּה כִּי ו .יְהוָה בְּאוֹר ,וְנֵלְכָה לְכוּ--יַעֲקֹב ,בֵּית ה
כֶּסֶף אַרְצוֹ וַתִּמָּלֵא ז .יַשְׂפִּיקוּ ,נָכְרִים וּבְיַלְדֵי :כַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים וְעֹנְנִים ,מִקֶּדֶם מָלְאוּ
ח .לְמַרְכְּבֹתָיו קֵצֶה וְאֵין ,סוּסִים אַרְצוֹ וַתִּמָּלֵא :לְאֹצְרֹתָיו קֵצֶה וְאֵין ,וְזָהָב
וַיִּשַּׁח ט .אֶצְבְּעֹתָיו עָשׂוּ לַאֲשֶׁר ,יִשְׁתַּחֲווּ יָדָיו לְמַעֲשֵׂה :אֱלִילִים ,אַרְצוֹ וַתִּמָּלֵא
,יְהוָה פַּחַד מִפְּנֵי ,בֶּעָפָר וְהִטָּמֵן ,בַצּוּר בּוֹא י .לָהֶם ,תִּשָּׂא-וְאַל :אִישׁ-וַיִּשְׁפַּל ,אָדָם
,לְבַדּוֹ יְהוָה וְנִשְׂגַּב :אֲנָשִׁים רוּם ,וְשַׁח ,שָׁפֵל ,אָדָם גַּבְהוּת עֵינֵי יא .גְּאֹנוֹ וּמֵהֲדַר
{פ} .הַהוּא בַּיּוֹם
-כָּל וְעַל יג .וְשָׁפֵל נִשָּׂא-כָּל ,וְעַל :וָרָם--גֵּאֶה-כָּל עַל ,צְבָאוֹת לַיהוָה יוֹם כִּי יב
הֶהָרִים-כָּל ,וְעַל יד .הַבָּשָׁן אַלּוֹנֵי-כָּל ,וְעַל :וְהַנִּשָּׂאִים הָרָמִים ,הַלְּבָנוֹן אַרְזֵי
חוֹמָה-כָּל ,וְעַל :גָּבֹהַּ מִגְדָּל-כָּל ,וְעַל טו .הַנִּשָּׂאוֹת הַגְּבָעוֹת-כָּל ,וְעַל :הָרָמִים
גַּבְהוּת וְשַׁח יז .הַחֶמְדָּה שְׂכִיּוֹת-כָּל ,וְעַל :תַּרְשִׁישׁ אֳנִיּוֹת-כָּל ,וְעַל טז .בְצוּרָה
כָּלִיל ,וְהָאֱלִילִים יח .הַהוּא בַּיּוֹם ,לְבַדּוֹ יְהוָה וְנִשְׂגַּב :אֲנָשִׁים רוּם וְשָׁפֵל ,הָאָדָם
,גְּאוֹנוֹ וּמֵהֲדַר ,יְהוָה פַּחַד מִפְּנֵי--עָפָר וּבִמְחִלּוֹת ,צֻרִים בִּמְעָרוֹת וּבָאוּ יט .יַחֲלֹף
אֱלִילֵי וְאֵת ,כַסְפּוֹ אֱלִילֵי אֵת ,הָאָדָם יַשְׁלִיךְ ,הַהוּא בַּיּוֹם כ .הָאָרֶץ לַעֲרֹץ ,בְּקוּמוֹ
בְּנִקְרוֹת לָבוֹא כא .וְלָעֲטַלֵּפִים פֵּרוֹת לַחְפֹּר ,ֹתלְהִשְׁתַּחֲו לוֹ-עָשׂוּ אֲשֶׁר--זְהָבוֹ
.הָאָרֶץ לַעֲרֹץ ,בְּקוּמוֹ ,גְּאוֹנוֹ וּמֵהֲדַר ,יְהוָה פַּחַד מִפְּנֵי--הַסְּלָעִים וּבִסְעִפֵי ,הַצֻּרִים
Knjiga proroka Isaije 1,26 - 2,21 (prevod Đure Daničića)
26 I postaviću ti opet sudije kao pre, i savetnike kao ispočetka;
tada ćeš se zvati grad pravedni, grad verni.
27 Sion će se otkupiti sudom, i pravdom oni koji se u nj vrate.
28 A odmetnici i grešnici svi će se satrti, i koji ostavljaju
Gospoda, izginuće.
29 Jer ćete se posramiti od gajeva koje želeste, i zastideti se
od vrtova koje izabraste.
30 Jer ćete biti kao hrast kome opada lišće i kao vrt u kome
nema vode.
136
31 I biće junak kao kučine i delo njegovo kao iskra, i oboje
će se zapaliti, i neće biti nikoga da ugasi.
2. poglavlje
1 Reč koja dođe u utvari Isaiji sinu Amosovom za Judu i za
Jerusalim.
2 Biće u potonja vremena gora doma Gospodnjeg utvrđena
uvrh gora i uzvišena iznad humova, i sticaće se k njoj svi narodi.
3 I ići će mnogi narodi govoreći: Hodite da idemo na goru
Gospodnju, u dom Boga Jakovljevog, i učiće nas svojim putevima,
i hodićemo stazama Njegovim. Jer će iz Siona izaći zakon,
i reč Gospodnja iz Jerusalima.
4 I sudiće među narodima, i karaće mnoge narode, te će raskovati
mačeve svoje na raonike, i koplja svoja na srpove, neće
dizati mača narod na narod, niti će se više učiti boju.
5 Dome Jakovljev, hodi da idemo po svetlosti Gospodnjoj.
6 Ali si ostavio svoj narod, dom Jakovljev, jer su puni zala
istočnih i gataju kao Filisteji, i mili su im sinovi tuđinski.
7 I zemlja je njihova puna srebra i zlata, i blagu njihovom
nema kraja; zemlja je njihova puna konja, i kolima njihovim
nema kraja.
8 Puna je zemlja njihova idola; delu ruku svojih klanjaju se,
što načiniše prsti njihovi.
9 I klanjaju se prosti ljudi, i savijaju se glavni ljudi; nemoj
im oprostiti.
10 Uđi u stenu, i sakrij se u prah od straha Gospodnjeg i od
slave veličanstva Njegovog.
11 Ponosite oči čovečje poniziće se, i visina ljudska ugnuće
se, a Gospod će sam biti uzvišen u onaj dan.
12 Jer će doći dan Gospoda nad vojskama na sve ohole i
ponosite i na svakog koji se podiže, te će biti poniženi,
13 I na sve kedre livanske velike i visoke i na sve hrastove
vasanske,
137
14 I na sve gore visoke i na sve humove izdignute,
15 I na svaku kulu visoku i na svaki zid tvrdi,
16 I na sve lađe tarsiske i na sve likove mile.
17 Tada će se ponositost ljudska ugnuti i visina se ljudska
poniziti, i Gospod će sam biti uzvišen u onaj dan.
18 I idola će nestati sasvim.
19 I ljudi će ići u pećine kamene i u rupe zemaljske od straha
Gospodnjeg i od slave veličanstva Njegovog, kad ustane da
potre zemlju.
20 Tada će baciti čovek idole svoje srebrne i idole svoje
zlatne, koje načini sebi da im se klanja, krticama i slepim miševima,
21 Ulazeći u raseline kamene i u pećine kamene od straha
Gospodnjeg i od slave veličanstva Njegovog, kad ustane da
potre zemlju.
Fizičke karakteristike kumranskog teksta
Druga fotografija sadrži biblijski tekst proroka Isaije, i to
1,26 - 2,21. Tekst sadrži 29 čitljivijih redova u odnosu na prethodnu
fotografiju. U donjem delu, počeci redova 21-29 se ne
vide, usled potpunog odstranjivanja dela svitka. Dva slova u prva
dva reda nisu vidljiva usled rascepa na pregibu. U prvom
redu u poslednjoj reči mem se može videti. U drugom redu,
takođe u poslednjoj reči, loše je vidljivo slovo bet. Najveća
greška na ovom delu svitka uočava se u poslednjem delu devetog
stiha i u celom desetom. Isto tako, nedostaju i tri reči u
stihu 2,2, u redu broj 10, kada se K uporedi sa M ili nekim
drugim uobičajenim tekstom. Nakon petog reda, nalazi se šesti
kratak red u kojem su samo dve reči. Njime se završava prvo
poglavlje, a u sledećem počinje drugo. Time su dva poglavlja
Knjige proroka Isaije odvojena. Osim navedenih karakteristika,
značajno je pomenuti i to da se na nekoliko mesta javljaju naknadne
oznake kojima se označavaju greške u svitku.
138
Važnije karakteristike kumranskog, i razlike između
kumranskog (K) i masoretskog (M) teksta
Red 1: počinje krajem 26. stiha čiji je početak na kraju prethodnog
stupca. Četvrta i peta reč: K= yiqre'u lah (zvaće te - K
koristi paal glagolsku grupu).
Red 4: Poslednje četiri reči: K= 'ašer'eyn mayiym lah (u kojoj
nema vode). M= 'ašer mayiym 'eyn lah (isto značenje, s tim
da je u ovakvom načinu izražavanja stil poetski).
Red 5: Druga i četvrta reč (s desna): K= u obema rečima koristi
sufiks za označavanje pripadnosti i to u drugoj reči za pripadnost
trećem licu množine muškog roda (njihov junak), a u
četvrtoj reči za drugo lice muškog roda u množini (vaše delo,
vaš rad). M= koristi jedninu u drugoj reči, bez dodavanja sufiksa
za pripadnost (junak), dok u četvrtoj reči koristi sufiks za
pripadanje trećem licu muškog roda jednine (njegov rad, njegovo
delo).
Red 10: Posle treće reči: K= izostavlja tri reči koje se uobičajenom
tekstu, kao i u M nalaze. U pitanju su tri sledeće reči:
'el har yhwh (ka gori Gospodnjoj, prema planini Gospodnjoj).
Red 12: Druga reč: K= daje reč više (beyn - između, među).
M ne daje ovu reč. Značenje se time ne menja. Peta reč: K= takođe
daje reč više (et - predlog za akuzativ), čime se takođe ne
menja značenje ovog dela Isaije 2,2, s tim što je K verzija ipak
gramatički ispravnija.
Red 18: Četvrta reč s leva: K= 'iyš (čovek), i to je poslednja
reč u devetom stihu. M dalje daje još četiri reči u istom stihu,
kao i ceo deseti stih, kojeg u K nema.
Sledeća reč u K, nakon navedene je: we'eyney (i oči, a oči),
koja je zapravo prva reč jedanaestog stiha.
Moguće je da je prepisivač (pisar ovog kumranskog svitka)
ovde napravio pauzu u radu, te pogrešno nastavio. Na kraju ove
linije, iznad poslednje reči primećuje se mrlja. Možda je to oznaka
za mesto sa greškom.
139
Red 19: Prva reč s desna: K= reč je slabo vidljiva, naročito
njen početak. Međutim, pažljivom rekonstrukcijom prepoznaje
se reč tišpalnah (vi ćete biti unižene, ponižene), što je drugo
lice imperfekta ženskog roda množine. M= na ovom mestu koristi
reč šaal (on je unižen, ponižen), što je treće lice perfekta u
muškom rodu. Čini se da K daje gramatički bolje rešenje, kako
su - oči - ženskog roda. M kao da ovaj glagol koristi u odnosu
na reč čovek, a ne na reč oči.
Red 21: Treća reč: Ovo je dobar primer za način pisanja grafeme
he, koja u kumranskim tekstovima često izgleda gotovo
identično grafemi alef.
Redovi 22-29 su na počecima oštećeni. Prema M dopisane
su reči koje nedostaju.
Na strani 140 nalazi se fotografija trećeg stupca Knjige
proroka Isaije nađene u Kumranu. Isti deo Knjige proroka
Isaije iz masoretskog teksta na hebrejskom jeziku glasi:
,גְּאוֹנוֹ וּמֵהֲדַר ,יְהוָה פַּחַד מִפְּנֵי--הַסְּלָעִים וּבִסְעִפֵי ,הַצֻּרִים בְּנִקְרוֹת לָבוֹא כא
בַמֶּה-כִּי :בְּאַפּוֹ נְשָׁמָה אֲשֶׁר ,הָאָדָם-מִן לָכֶם חִדְלוּ כב .הָאָרֶץ לַעֲרֹץ ,בְּקוּמוֹ
.הוּא ,נֶחְשָׁב
,כֹּל :וּמַשְׁעֵנָה ,מַשְׁעֵן ,וּמִיהוּדָה מִירוּשָׁלַ םִ מֵסִיר ,צְבָאוֹת יְהוָה הָאָדוֹן הִנֵּה
וְקֹסֵם ,וְנָבִיא שׁוֹפֵט :מִלְחָמָה וְאִישׁ ,גִּבּוֹר ב .מָיִם-מִשְׁעַן ,וְכֹל ,לֶחֶם-מִשְׁעַן
וְנָתַתִּי ד .לָחַשׁ וּנְבוֹן ,חֲרָשִׁים וַחֲכַם וְיוֹעֵץ :פָנִים וּנְשׂוּא ,חֲמִשִּׁים-שַׂר ג .וְזָקֵן
:בְּרֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ בְּאִישׁ אִישׁ ,הָעָם וְנִגַּשׂ ה .בָם-יִמְשְׁלוּ ,וְתַעֲלוּלִים :שָׂרֵיהֶם ,נְעָרִים
שִׂמְלָה ,אָבִיו בֵּית ,בְּאָחִיו אִישׁ יִתְפֹּשׂ-כִּי ו .בַּנִּכְבָּד ,וְהַנִּקְלֶה ,בַּזָּקֵן הַנַּעַר ,יִרְהֲבוּ
,לֵאמֹר הַהוּא בַיּוֹם יִשָּׂא ז .יָדֶךָ תַּחַת ,הַזֹּאת וְהַמַּכְשֵׁלָה :לָּנוּ-תִּהְיֶה קָצִין ,לְכָה
כִּי ח .עָם קְצִין ,תְשִׂימֻנִי לֹא :שִׂמְלָה וְאֵין לֶחֶם אֵין ,וּבְבֵיתִי ,חֹבֵשׁ אֶהְיֶה-לֹא
עֵנֵי לַמְרוֹת ,יְהוָה-אֶל וּמַעַלְלֵיהֶם לְשׁוֹנָם-כִּי :נָפָל וִיהוּדָה ,יְרוּשָׁלַ םִ כָשְׁלָה
אוֹי :כִחֵדוּ לֹא הִגִּידוּ כִּסְדֹם וְחַטָּאתָם ,בָּם עָנְתָה פְּנֵיהֶם הַכָּרַת ט .כְבוֹדוֹ
.יֹאכֵלוּ ,מַעַלְלֵיהֶם פְרִי-כִּי :טוֹב-כִּי ,צַדִּיק אִמְרוּ י .רָעָה לָהֶם גָמְלוּ-כִּי ,לְנַפְשָׁם
מָשְׁלוּ וְנָשִׁים ,מְעוֹלֵל נֹגְשָׂיו עַמִּי יב .לּוֹ יֵעָשֶׂה ,יָדָיו גְמוּל-כִּי :רָע לְרָשָׁע ,אוֹי יא
.בִּלֵּעוּ אֹרְחֹתֶיךָ וְדֶרֶךְ ,מַתְעִים מְאַשְּׁרֶיךָ עַמִּי :בוֹ
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Fotografija trećeg stupca Knjige proroka Isaije nađene u
Kumranu.
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עַמּוֹ זִקְנֵי-עִם ,יָבוֹא בְּמִשְׁפָּט יְהוָה יד .עַמִּים לָדִין ,וְעֹמֵד :יְהוָה ,לָרִיב נִצָּב יג
תְּדַכְּאוּ (לָּכֶם-מַה) מלכם טו .בְּבָתֵּיכֶם הֶעָנִי גְּזֵלַת ,הַכֶּרֶם בִּעַרְתֶּם וְאַתֶּם :וְשָׂרָיו
.צְבָאוֹת ,יְהוִה אֲדֹנָי-נְאֻם :תִּטְחָנוּ עֲנִיִּים וּפְנֵי ,עַמִּי
,גָּרוֹן (נְטוּיוֹת) נטוות וַתֵּלַכְנָה ,צִיּוֹן בְּנוֹת גָבְהוּ כִּי יַעַן ,יְהוָה וַיֹּאמֶר טז
,אֲדֹנָי וְשִׂפַּח יז .תְּעַכַּסְנָה וּבְרַגְלֵיהֶם ,תֵּלַכְנָה וְטָפֹף הָלוֹךְ :עֵינָיִם וּמְשַׂקְּרוֹת
.יְעָרֶה פָּתְהֵן ,וַיהוָה :צִיּוֹן בְּנוֹת קָדְקֹד
יט .וְהַשַּׂהֲרֹנִים--וְהַשְּׁבִיסִים הָעֲכָסִים תִּפְאֶרֶת אֵת ,אֲדֹנָי יָסִיר הַהוּא בַּיּוֹם יח
הַנֶּפֶשׁ וּבָתֵּי ,וְהַקִּשֻּׁרִים וְהַצְּעָדוֹת הַפְּאֵרִים כ .וְהָרְעָלוֹת ,וְהַשֵּׁירוֹת הַנְּטִפוֹת
,וְהַמִּטְפָּחוֹת ,וְהַמַּעֲטָפוֹת ,הַמַּחֲלָצוֹת כב .הָאָף וְנִזְמֵי ,הַטַּבָּעוֹת כא .וְהַלְּחָשִׁים
בֹּשֶׂם תַחַת וְהָיָה כד .וְהָרְדִידִים ,וְהַצְּנִיפוֹת ,וְהַסְּדִינִים ,וְהַגִּלְיֹנִים כג .וְהָחֲרִיטִים
,פְּתִיגִיל וְתַחַת ,קָרְחָה מִקְשֶׁה מַעֲשֶׂה וְתַחַת נִקְפָּה חֲגוֹרָה וְתַחַת ,יִהְיֶה מַק
.יֹפִי ,תַחַת-כִּי :שָׂק מַחֲגֹרֶת
Knjiga proroka Isaije 2,21 - 3,24 (prevod Đure Daničića)
21 Ulazeći u raseline kamene i u pećine kamene od straha
Gospodnjeg i od slave veličanstva Njegovog, kad ustane da
potre zemlju.
22 Prođite se čoveka, kome je dah u nosu: jer šta vredi?
3. poglavlje
1 Jer gle, Gospod, Gospod nad vojskama uzeće Jerusalimu i
Judi potporu i pomoć, svaku potporu u hlebu i svaku potporu u
vodi,
2 Junaka i vojnika, sudiju i proroka i mudraca i starca,
3 Pedesetnika i uglednog čoveka, i savetnika i veštog umetnika
i čoveka rečitog.
4 I daću im knezove mladiće, i deca će im biti gospodari.
5 I činiće silu u narodu jedan drugom i svaki bližnjem svom;
dete će ustajati na starca i nepošten čovek na poštenog.
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6 I čovek će uhvatiti brata svog iz kuće oca svog govoreći:
Imaš haljinu, budi nam knez, ovaj rasap neka je pod tvojom rukom.
7 A on će se zakleti u onaj dan govoreći: Neću biti lekar, niti
imam kod kuće hleba ni haljinu, ne postavljajte me knezom
narodu.
8 Jer se obori Jerusalim i Juda pade, jer se jezik njihov i dela
njihova protive Gospodu da draže oči slave Njegove.
9 Šta se vidi na licu njihovom svedoči na njih, razglašuju
greh svoj kao Sodom, ne taje; teško duši njihovoj! Jer sami sebi
čine zlo.
10 Recite pravedniku da će mu dobro biti, jer će jesti plod
od dela svojih.
11 Teško bezbožniku! Zlo će mu biti, jer će mu se naplatiti
ruke njegove.
12 Narodu mom čine silu deca, i žene su im gospodari. Narode
moj! Koji te vode, zavode te, i kvare put hoda tvog.
13 Ustaje Gospod na parbu, stoji da sudi narodima.
14 Gospod će doći na sud sa starešinama naroda svog i s
knezovima njegovim, jer vi potrste vinograd, grabež od siromaha
u vašim je kućama.
15 Zašto gazite narod moj i lice siromasima satirete? Govori
Gospod, Gospod nad vojskama.
16 Još govori Gospod: Što se poneše kćeri sionske i idu
opruženog vrata i namigujući očima, sitno koračaju i zvekeću
nogama,
17 Zato će Gospod učiniti da oćelavi teme kćerima sionskim,
i otkriće Gospod golotinju njihovu.
18 Tada će Gospod skinuti nakit s obuće i vezove i mesečiće,
19 Nizove i lančiće i trepetljike,
20 Ukosnike i podveze i pojase i stakalca mirisna i oboce,
21 Prstene i počeonike,
22 Svečane haljine i ogrtače i privese i toboce,
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23 I ogledala i košuljice i oglavlja i pokrivala.
24 I mesto mirisa biće smrad, i mesto pojasa raspojasina,
mesto pletenica ćela, mesto širokih skuta pripasana vreća, i
mesto lepote ogorelina.
Fizičke karakteristike kumranskog teksta
Na levoj ivici stupca uočava se šav, koji je samo jedan od
mnogih u samom svitku. Da bi napravio svitak, pisar je morao
stranice kože ušiti jednu za drugu.Svaka stranica kože imala je
na sebi nekoliko napisanih stubaca, zapravo onoliko koliko je u
zavisnosti od veličine stranice od kože, moglo na nju stati. Tako
je svaka stranica od kože imala na sebi približno 3-4 stupca
teksta. Veliki Isaijin svitak se sastoji od 17 stranica kože. Na
svakoj od njih su tri ili četiri stupca teksta. Ovih 17 stranica su
međusobno povezane šavovima. Jedan od šavova, dakle, vidimo
i na ovoj slici uz levu ivicu teksta. Na ovoj strani (slici) primetno
je dodavanje određenih slova, na krajevima opet određenih
linija. Ovde dodaci pokazuju da je, usled ponovnog šivenja
te stoga i oštećenja krajeva pojedinih linija (redova), vršeno dopisivanje
oštećenih delova (slova ili cele reči). U ovom slučaju,
treba obratiti pažnju na vav kao dopisano slovo na kraju 25. reda.
Ova strana (slika) sadrži i praznine u tekstu, odnosno među
pojedinim rečima. Ove praznine se mogu uočiti u redovima (linijama)
1, 6, 10, 14, 15, 16, 25. Praznina u liniji 1 predstavlja
oznaku za završetak Isaije 2,21 i početak Isaije 2,22. Praznina u
liniji 6 je isto tako oznaka za završetak Isaije 3,3 i početak
Isaije 3,4. Praznina u liniji 10 razdvaja Isaiju 3,6 i 3,7. Praznina
u liniji 14, razdvaja stihove 9 i 10. Ona u liniji 15, razdvaja stihove
10 i 11. Ona u liniji 16, razdvaja 11 i 12. stih, u liniji 25,
razdvaja stihove 17 i 18.
Ova pojava je veoma interesantna u Velikom Isaijinom svitku,
pošto se podudara sa dosta kasnijim odvajanjem biblijskih
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knjiga na stihove. U liniji 6, i to na njenom kraju, nalaze se i
dve tačke, čije postojanje nije jasno. Ova strana (slika) sadrži i
korekcije pojedinih pogrešno prepisanih reči. Pogrešno prepisane
reči su označene tačkama ispod svakog njenog slova. U
petoj i šestoj liniji od dna uočavaju se ovakve ispravke. U petoj
liniji od dna, u tekstu stoji YHWH. Ova je reč označena tačkama
ispod svakog slova, a ispod nje je dopisana ispravka:
'adonay. U šestoj liniji od dna, slučaj je obrnut. Stoji: 'adonay, a
ispravljeno je na isti način u YHWH.
Praznina u drugoj liniji, označavajući novi paragraf, zapravo
predstavlja završetak druge glave. Narednim redom počinje treća
glava Isaijine knjige.
Važnije karakteristike kumranskog, i razlike između
kumranskog (K) i masoretskog (M) teksta
Red 3: Šesta reč: K=mesiyr (sklanja, uklanja - hifil glagolska
grupa, sadašnje vreme jednine). Oblik koji se u K navodi, ne
može se svrstati ni u jednu gramatičku kategoriju. Stoga se može
smatrati greškom.
Red 10: Treća reč: K= Navodi vav dok se u M ovo slovo ne
nalazi.
Red 16: Šesta reč: K= negaso (njegov tiranin) M= nogsayw
(njihovi tirani). U K se imenica ”deca” smatra jedninom, dok se
u M smatra množinom. I jedno i drugo navođenje, u hebrejskom
jeziku se u ovom slučaju gramatički mogu smatrati tačnim.
Red 17: Prva reč: M= me'ašreyha (tvoji vodiči, koji te vode...),
K= izostavlja alef kao drugi konsonant u ovoj reči. Rupa
na pergamentu oštetila je poslednju reč u ovoj liniji. Prema M,
lako ju je rekonstruisati, pogotovo što je lako vidljivo vav na
kraju reči. Verovatno je u pitanju reč: bile'u (prošlo vreme, treće
lice množine od glagola sa sledećim značenjima: progutati,
nestati, skrenuti, izgubiti se...)
Red 18: Četvrta reč: K= nedostaje vav koji se u M navodi.
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Red 23: Poslednja reč: K= be-ragleyhenah (u njihovim nogama,
na njihovim nogama - predlog u, na pred imenicom noga u
množini, sa dodatkom sufiksa za pripadnost trećem licu množine
ženskog roda.) M= be-ragleyhenah (dodat je sufiks za
pripadnost trećem licu množine muškog roda. Značenje je ipak
identično, s tim da je K tekst bolje prati strukturu rečenice.
Kako je ovakvo navođenje u hebrejskom dozvoljeno, ne može
se M navođenje smatrati greškom.
Red 26: Prva reč: K= navodi reč koja sadrži sin dok M=
navodi istu reč sa sameh.
Prema poznatim pravopisima, verovatno je M varijanta ispravna.
Treća reč: K= daje veznik vav, dok M ne daje.
Red 27: Prva reč: K= navodi reč sa reš, što je greška. Pisar
je možda želeo da napiše vav, ali to ipak nije lako uočljiva tvrdnja,
prema izgledu slova. Treća reč: K= navodi vav kao veznik,
što nije slučaj sa M.
Red 28: Prva reč: K= navodi vav kao veznik, što nije slučaj
sa M. Između poslednje i pretposlednje reči: K= ne navodi reč:
mitpahot (marame, pokrivala...), koja se u M svakako nalazi.
Red 29: Poslednja reč: K= we-yihyu (i biće, odnosno: bili
su) dok na istom mestu M= we-hayah (i biće). Pisar je upotrebio
pravo buduće vreme, dom M koristi buduće vreme dobijeno
od prošlog, kojem je dodat vav za vremensko napredovanje
(waw consecutivum). Ovakva greška se ne smatra suštinskom.
Na strani 146 nalazi se fotografija četvrtog stupca Knjige
proroka Isaije nađene u Kumranu. Isti deo Knjige proroka
Isaije iz masoretskog teksta na hebrejskom jeziku glasi:
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Fotografija četvrtog stupca Knjige proroka Isaije nađene u
Kumranu.
147
מִקְשֶׁה מַעֲשֶׂה וְתַחַת נִקְפָּה חֲגוֹרָה וְתַחַת ,יִהְיֶה מַק בֹּשֶׂם תַחַת וְהָיָה כד
:יִפֹּלוּ בַּחֶרֶב ,מְתַיִךְ כה .יֹפִי ,תַחַת-כִּי :שָׂק מַחֲגֹרֶת ,פְּתִיגִיל וְתַחַת ,קָרְחָה
.תֵּשֵׁב לָאָרֶץ ,וְנִקָּתָה :פְּתָחֶיהָ ,וְאָבְלוּ וְאָנוּ כו .בַּמִּלְחָמָה ,וּגְבוּרָתֵךְ
,נֹאכֵל לַחְמֵנוּ ,לֵאמֹר הַהוּא בַּיּוֹם ,אֶחָד בְּאִישׁ נָשִׁים שֶׁבַע וְהֶחֱזִיקוּ א
.חֶרְפָּתֵנוּ ,אֱסֹף--עָלֵינוּ שִׁמְךָ יִקָּרֵא ,רַק :נִלְבָּשׁ וְשִׂמְלָתֵנוּ
,וּלְתִפְאֶרֶת לְגָאוֹן הָאָרֶץ וּפְרִי :וּלְכָבוֹד ,לִצְבִי ,יְהוָה צֶמַח יִהְיֶה ,הַהוּא בַּיּוֹם ב
:לוֹ יֵאָמֶר ,קָדוֹשׁ--בִּירוּשָׁלַ םִ וְהַנּוֹתָר ,בְּצִיּוֹן הַנִּשְׁאָר וְהָיָה ג .יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְלֵיטַת
דְּמֵי-וְאֶת ,צִיּוֹן-בְּנוֹת צֹאַת אֵת ,אֲדֹנָי רָחַץ אִם ד .בִּירוּשָׁלָ םִ ,לַחַיִּים הַכָּתוּב-כָּל
מְכוֹן-כָּל עַל יְהוָה וּבָרָא ה .בָּעֵר וּבְרוּחַ ,מִשְׁפָּט בְּרוּחַ--מִקִּרְבָּהּ יָדִיחַ ,יְרוּשָׁלַ םִ
,כָּבוֹד-כָּל-עַל כִּי :לָיְלָה ,לֶהָבָה אֵשׁ וְנֹגַהּ ,וְעָשָׁן יוֹמָם עָנָן ,מִקְרָאֶהָ-וְעַל צִיּוֹן-הַר
.וּמִמָּטָר ,מִזֶּרֶם ,וּלְמִסְתּוֹר ,וּלְמַחְסֶה :מֵחֹרֶב ,יוֹמָם-לְצֵל תִּהְיֶה וְסֻכָּה ו .חֻפָּה
ב .שָׁמֶן-בֶּן בְּקֶרֶן ,לִידִידִי הָיָה כֶּרֶם :לְכַרְמוֹ דּוֹדִי שִׁירַת ,לִידִידִי נָּא אָשִׁירָה א
וַיְקַו :בּוֹ חָצֵב יֶקֶב-וְגַם ,בְּתוֹכוֹ מִגְדָּל וַיִּבֶן ,שֹׂרֵק וַיִּטָּעֵהוּ ,וַיְסַקְּלֵהוּ וַיְעַזְּקֵהוּ
,נָא-שִׁפְטוּ--יְהוּדָה וְאִישׁ ,יְרוּשָׁלַ םִ יוֹשֵׁב וְעַתָּה ג .בְּאֻשִׁים וַיַּעַשׂ ,עֲנָבִים לַעֲשׂוֹת
לַעֲשׂוֹת קִוֵּיתִי מַדּוּעַ :בּוֹ עָשִׂיתִי וְלֹא ,לְכַרְמִי עוֹד לַּעֲשׂוֹת-מַה ד .כַּרְמִי וּבֵין בֵּינִי
:לְכַרְמִי עֹשֶׂה אֲנִי-אֲשֶׁר אֵת ,אֶתְכֶם נָּא-אוֹדִיעָה וְעַתָּה ה .בְּאֻשִׁים וַיַּעַשׂ ,עֲנָבִים
יִזָּמֵר לֹא ,בָתָה וַאֲשִׁיתֵהוּ ו .לְמִרְמָס וְהָיָה גְּדֵרוֹ פָּרֹץ ,לְבָעֵר וְהָיָה מְשׂוּכָּתוֹ הָסֵר
כִּי ז .מָטָר עָלָיו מֵהַמְטִיר ,אֲצַוֶּה הֶעָבִים וְעַל :וָשָׁיִת ,שָׁמִיר וְעָלָה ,יֵעָדֵר וְלֹא
וְהִנֵּה לְמִשְׁפָּט וַיְקַו :שַׁעֲשׁוּעָיו נְטַע ,יְהוּדָה וְאִישׁ ,יִשְׂרָאֵל בֵּית ,צְבָאוֹת יְהוָה כֶרֶם
{פ} .צְעָקָה וְהִנֵּה לִצְדָקָה ,מִשְׂפָּח
וְהוּשַׁבְתֶּם ,מָקוֹם אֶפֶס עַד :יַקְרִיבוּ ,בְשָׂדֶה שָׂדֶה--בְּבַיִת בַיִת מַגִּיעֵי ,הוֹי ח
-יִהְיוּ לְשַׁמָּה ,רַבִּים בָּתִּים לֹא-אִם :צְבָאוֹת יְהוָה ,בְּאָזְנָי ט .הָאָרֶץ בְּקֶרֶב לְבַדְּכֶם
וְזֶרַע :אֶחָת בַּת ,יַעֲשׂוּ ,כֶרֶם-צִמְדֵּי עֲשֶׂרֶת ,כִּי י .יוֹשֵׁב מֵאֵין ,וְטוֹבִים גְּדֹלִים-
{ס} .אֵיפָה יַעֲשֶׂה ,חֹמֶר
וְהָיָה יב .יַדְלִיקֵם יַיִן ,בַנֶּשֶׁף מְאַחֲרֵי :יִרְדֹּפוּ שֵׁכָר ,בַבֹּקֶר מַשְׁכִּימֵי הוֹי יא
יָדָיו וּמַעֲשֵׂה ,יַבִּיטוּ לֹא יְהוָה פֹּעַל וְאֵת :מִשְׁתֵּיהֶם--וָיַיִן וְחָלִיל תֹּף ,וָנֶבֶל כִנּוֹר
יד .צָמָא צִחֵה וַהֲמוֹנוֹ ,רָעָב מְתֵי וּכְבוֹדוֹ :דָעַת-מִבְּלִי ,עַמִּי גָּלָה לָכֵן יג .רָאוּ לֹא
,וּשְׁאוֹנָהּ וַהֲמוֹנָהּ הֲדָרָהּ וְיָרַד :חֹק-לִבְלִי ,פִיהָ וּפָעֲרָה ,נַפְשָׁהּ שְּׁאוֹל הִרְחִיבָה ,לָכֵן
.בָּהּ וְעָלֵז
148
Knjiga proroka Isaije 3,24 - 5,14 (prevod Đure Daničića)
24 I mesto mirisa biće smrad, i mesto pojasa raspojasina,
mesto pletenica ćela, mesto širokih skuta pripasana vreća, i
mesto lepote ogorelina.
25 Tvoji će ljudi pasti od mača i junaci tvoji u ratu.
26 I tužiće i plakaće vrata njegova, a on će pust ležati na
zemlji.
4. poglavlje
1 I u ono vreme sedam će žena uhvatiti jednog čoveka govoreći:
Svoj ćemo hleb jesti i svoje ćemo odelo nositi, samo da
se zovemo tvojim imenom, skini s nas sramotu.
2 U ono vreme biće klica Gospodnja na slavu i čast, i plod
zemaljski na krasotu i diku ostatku Izrailjevom.
3 I ko ostane u Sionu i ko još bude u Jerusalimu, zvaće se
svet, svaki ko bude zapisan za život u Jerusalimu,
4 Kad Gospod opere nečistoću kćeri sionskih, i iz Jerusalima
očisti krv njegovu Duhom koji sudi i sažiže.
5 Gospod će stvoriti nad svakim stanom na gori sionskoj i
nad zborovima njenim oblak danju s dimom i svetlost plamena
ognjenog noću, jer će nad svom slavom biti zaklon.
6 I biće koliba, da senom zaklanja danju od vrućine i da bude
utočište i zaklon od poplave i od dažda.
5. poglavlje
1 Zapevaću sada dragom svom pesmu dragog svog o vinogradu
njegovom. Dragi moj ima vinograd na rodnom brdašcetu.
2 I ogradi ga, i otrebi iz njega kamenje, i nasadi ga plemenitom
lozom, i sazida kulu usred njega, i iskopa pivnicu u njemu,
i počeka da rodi grožđem, a on rodi vinjagom.
3 Pa sada, stanovnici jerusalimski i ljudi Judejci, sudite između
mene i vinograda mog.
149
4 Šta je još trebalo činiti vinogradu mom šta mu ne učinih?
Kad čekah da rodi grožđem, zašto rodi vinjagom?
5 Sada ću vam kazati šta ću učiniti vinogradu svom. Oboriću
mu ogradu, neka opusti: razvaliću mu zid, neka se pogazi:
6 Uparložiću ga, neće se rezati ni kopati, nego će rasti čkalj i
trnje, i zapovediću oblacima da ne puštaju više dažd na nj.
7 Da, vinograd je Gospoda nad vojskama dom Izrailjev, i
ljudi su Judejci mili sad Njegov; On čeka sud, a gle nasilja, čeka
pravdu, a gle vike.
8 Teško onima koji sastavljaju kuću s kućom, i njivu na njivu
nastavljaju, da već ne bude mesta i vi sami ostanete u zemlji.
9 Od Gospoda nad vojskama čuh: Mnoge kuće opusteće, u
velikim i lepim neće biti nikoga.
10 Jer će deset rala vinograda dati jedan vat, i gomer semena
daće efu.
11 Teško onima koji rane, te idu na silovito piće i ostaju do
mraka dok ih vino raspali.
12 I na gozbama su im gusle i psaltiri i bubnji i svirale i
vino, a ne gledaju na dela Gospodnja i ne vide rad ruku Njegovih.
13 Zato se narod moj odvede u ropstvo što ne znaju, i koje
poštuje gladuju, i ljudstvo njegovo gine od žeđi.
14 Zato se raširio grob i razvalio ždrelo svoje preveć, i sići
će u nj slava njegova i mnoštvo njegovo i vreva njegova i koji
se vesele u njemu.
Fizičke karakteristike kumranskog teksta
Ova stranica predstavlja prvu stranicu drugog pergamenta
Isaijinog svitka. Sadrži nekoliko oštećenja koja onemogućavaju
normalnu vidljivost poslednjih reči u prvom i drugom redu, te
se ove reči rekonstruišu na osnovu masoretskog teksta. Rascepi
i poderotine takođe onemogućavaju čitanje pojedinih slova, ali i
reči. Oni se mogu smatrati rezultatom dugotrajne upotrebe svi150
taka među Kumrancima. Otcepljeni donji desni ugao odneo je
sobom i nekoliko prvih reči poslednjih pet redova.
U redu broj 21 uočava se oznaka stavljena verovatno od samog
pisara, ili pak od strane nekog od kasnijih korisnika svitaka
u vidu latinične grafeme O. Razlog stavljanja ove oznake
je nejasan. Isto tako, na kraju reda broj 17 stavljena je oznaka u
vidu tačke. Četvrto poglavlje Isaijine knjige počinje prvom rečju
četvrtog reda. Peto poglavlje opet počinje prvom rečju dvanaestoga
reda. Red broj 22 je takođe početak novog paragrafa, s
tim da on nije početak narednog poglavlja već početak stiha 5,8
uobičajenog teksta. Red broj 26 takođe je dat kao početak novog
paragrafa, iako je samo početak stiha 5,11 a ne novog poglavlja.
Stranica sadrži i dve naknadne ispravke. Teško je utvrditi
da li je ispravke uneo sam pisar ili pak određeni korisnik
svitka. Prva ispravka se nalazi ispred prve reči u trećem redu.
Kao ispravka dodati su jod i vav da bi se reč pravilno upotrebila
prema mišljenju onoga ko je naveo ispravku. M na ovom mestu
daje gevurateh (tvoje junaštvo) dok K sa ispravkom daje
gevuray(iyt)eh ili što takođe može biti: gevuray(iyt)ha (u muškom
rodu). Čak i sa ispravkom, reč u K je pogrešno navedena
pošto se ne može svrstati ni u jednu gramatičku kategoriju. Bez
ispravke reč bi se mogla razumeti kao ”tvoji heroji”, što prema
smislu i poredeći sa M nije slučaj. Korisnik ili pisar želeo je da
ispravi reč prema uobičajenom tekstu, ali je ispravku pogrešno
napisao.
Možda je hteo tj. želeo svojom ispravkom reći da umesto jod
treba staviti vav. U tom slučaju ispravka bi bila u redu. Druga
ispravka se nalazi u prvoj reči u redu broj 4. Ova ispravka popravlja
nenamernu grešku - slučajno ispuštanje grafeme het iz
reči.
151
Važnije karakteristike kumranskog, i razlike između
kumranskog (K) i masoretskog (M) teksta
Red 1: Prva reč: je oštećena mada se može rekonstruisati na
osnovu M, naročito kako je poslednje njeno slovo dobro vidljivo.
Svakako, u pitanju je reč: tahat (umesto, ispod). Nakon
treće reči nalazi se prazan prostor, koji slučajno, ili ne, označava
mesto na koje treba da dođe reč koja se nalazi u M
(yihyeh-biće, ono će biti, treće lice muškog roda u budućem
vremenu), a razume se nedostaje u K.
Red 4: Poslednja reč: Pisar je izvršio nenamernu zamenu
mesta dva slova. Umesto kako to i M navodi: wesimlatenu (i
naše haljine), K= wesilmatenu. Zamenjeni su lamed i mem.
Red 6: Poslednja reč: u K je yehudah (Judeja), koja se nalazi
u M.
Red 9: Sadrži prazan prostor koji predstavlja razvijanje stihova.
Nakon prostora, prva reč predstavlja početak stiha 5 iz
četvrtog poglavlja Isaijine knjige. Treća reč od leva K=
wayivra' (treće lice muškog roda u budućem vremenu - stvoriće,
napraviće, uz vav konzekutivum, koje vraća buduće vreme
u prošlo, te dobijamo značenje: stvorio je, napravio je). M=
ubara' (treće lice muškog roda u prošlom vremenu sa veznikom
''i'' i značenjem - i stvorio je, i napravio je). Na taj način, oba
teksta (K i M) navode na različite načine, isto značenje date
reči.
Red 10: Nakon sedme reči: u K nedostaju 14 reči, koje se
nalaze u M. Ova greška označena je strelicom ispod sedme reči.
Strelica se nalazi u jedanaestoj liniji u praznom prostoru. Ova
greška je slučajna što se dokazuje time da su nedostajuće reči
one koje se nalaze između dve reči yomam (danju, za dan) koje
se u M nalaze u stihovima 5 i 6.
Red 12: Poglavlje 5, stih 1: Nakon prve reči u K nedostaje
na (zaista, hajde, molim).
Peta reč od kraja je prošlo vreme glagola ”biti” u trećem licu
muškog roda. U K je navedena sa alef na kraju, umesto sa he
152
kako je to uobičajeno u hebrejskom jeziku. Ovakav način zapisivanja
predstavlja aramejski uticaj.
Red 13: Peta reč: Takođe se navodi sa alef, što u M svakako
nije slučaj.
Red 15: Pretposlednja reč: K=bekarmiy (u mom vinogradu),
M= lekarmiy (mom vinogradu, ka mom vinogradu).
Red 16: Sedma reč: K= weyasa (glagol činiti, delati, praviti…)
naveden bez grlenog konsonanta ajin, verovatno kao nenamerna
greška, jer se ovaj konsonant po pravilu sam po sebi i
ne izgovara. M= waya'as - sa konsonantom ajin. Treća reč od
leva: K= koristi alef umesto ajin u reči 'atah (sada, ovog momenta...).
Pretposlednja reč: u K= navedena je bez finalnog he,
za razliku od M.
Red 17: Prva reč: K= navedena je sa finalnim he za razliku
od M (K='ethema: M='ethem, značenje je isto: vas). Ovakvi
duži oblici su česti, tako da se ubuduće neće navoditi, kako se
ne smatraju greškama. Mogu se uporediti sa dužim i kraćim
oblicima određenih zamenica kao u našem jeziku (vam - vama,
njega - ga, njih - ih...). Treća reč od leva: K= ba'er (gorući, koji
spaljuje, koji gori) M= leva'er (M koristi isti izraz ali ga gramatički
tačnije navodi, dodajući prefiks lamed).
Red 19: Treća reč od leva: K= kiy' (jer, zato što, da, da je...),
dok M navodi istu reč bez alef na njenom kraju, kako je to uobičajeno
u hebrejskom jeziku. Ovakav način zapisivanja navedene
reči je rezultat aramejskog uticaja.
Red 20: Treća reč od leva: K= lemišpah, M= mišpah (krvoproliće).
M ovu reč svakako pravilnije koristi u gramatičkom
smislu.
Red 22: Četvrta reč: K= izostavlja predlog u, na, sa... pred
imenicom bayit (kuća), što M svakako navodi. Ovo se izostavljanje
ne mora smatrati greškom mada je ipak pravilnije u datom
sklopu rečenice, upotrebiti predlog u, na, sa, kao što je to u
M, Isaija 5,8. Pretposlednja reč: predstavlja interesantnu razliku
između M i K. M= wehušavtem (i vraćeni ste, i postavljeni ste,
153
postavljeni ste da sedite...). K= weyisatem, što je verovatno samo
slučajna greška samog pisara, koji je ispustio slova: he i vet,
time pogrešno zapisao reč koja sama po sebi nema neko određeno
značenje.
Red 27: Četvrta reč: K= pa'alat - rad, radnja, delovanje -imenica
ženskog roda, koja sadrži i nastavak za genitivnu vezu sa
narednom rečju u tekstu. M= po'al - rad, radnja, delovanje -
imenica muškog roda. Pretposlednja reč: K= hibiytu - pogledati,
gledati, posmatrati - infinitiv, ali bez promene značenje
teksta u odnosu na M. M= yabiytu - pogledaće, gledaće, treće
lice muškog roda jednine u budućem vremenu.
NALAZ I REZULTAT
Ovaj primer prva četiri stupca Knjige proroka Isaije pokazao
nam je koliko je Kumranski tekst malo udaljen od masoretskog
hebrejskog teksta, time i od svih prevoda Biblije. Svakako da i
ostatak Knjige proroka Isaije pronađene u Kumranu prati isti
trend gotovo identičnosti sa masoretskim tekstom.
Sa ove vremenske distance nama je Knjiga proroka Isaije u
Bibliji došla onakvom kakva je bila od trenutka kada je napisana.
I tu nema razloga za mnogo rasprave. Razlike između kumranskog
(najstarijeg teksta Isaije koji danas možemo videti),
masoretskog teksta, Septuaginte, Vulgate i prevoda na sve svetske
jezike su do te mere male, da predstavljaju dokaz o verodostojnosti
biblijskog teksta.
Koji je to tekst sačuvan u svom izvornom obliku tokom
2500 - 3500 godina osim biblijskog? Razmislimo, mi imamo
danas tekst koji je izuzetno obiman, izuzetno zanimljiv, vrlo aktuelan,
a pisan je tako davno i još nije menjan, nego je ostao
onakav kakav je bio.
154
Zamislite, Isus onda, i mi danas, čitamo apsolutno identičan
Stari zavet. I svi pre Isusa, i svi nakon Isusa, čitali su isti tekst
kao i mi danas. To smo ovde, uzimajući Isaijin kumranski i masoretski
tekst kao uzorke, i naučno dokazali.
155
KONAČAN DOKAZ AUTENTIČNOSTI
BIBLIJE
Čitajući ovu knjigu, čitalac je imao prilike da se upozna sa
kratkom istorijom nastanka Svetog pisma i njegovih različitih
knjiga, naročito Starog zaveta, i sa načinima na kojima su ove
knjige došle do nas. Isto tako, moglo se saznati o važnosti hebrejskog
jezika i pisma kojim je napisan Stari zavet Biblije, ali i
pojedini delovi Novog zaveta, te se upoznati sa osnovnim osobenostima
hebrejskog jezika i pisma.
Posebno je dat osvrt na dokazivanje da je, recimo, feničko i
hebrejsko pismo izvor gotovo svih pisama sveta, što je odličan
dokaz da je hebrejski jezik sveti jezik jer se njegovo pismo proširilo
celim svetom.
Dalje, rasvetljena je mističnost otkrivanja Kumranskih rukopisa,
ali i svih biblijskih knjiga pronađenih u Kumranu. Isto tako,
čitalac se mogao upoznati sa jevrejskom apokaliptičkom literaturom
i kratkom istorijom i društveno političkom situacijom
i Izraelu u periodu kada su nastajali Kumranski rukopisi.
Potom se govorilo o poznatijim Kumranskim rukopisima ponaosob.
Na kraju je data analiza dela Knjige proroka Isaije koju
mi danas imamo u svakoj Bibliji prevedenu na skoro sve jezike
sveta, a koja je u celosti pronađena u Kumranu kao prepis originala.
Ovim smo dokazali nekoliko važnih stvari koje su bile nedoumica
sve do ovog trenutka. Naime, mi sada imamo dokaz
da je celokupno Sveto pismo danas identično Svetom pismu od
pre 2000 godina (Kumranski rukopisi), ali i da je celokupan
biblijski tekst koji je pronađen u Kumranu identičan tekstu koji
je pisan od ruke samog pisca, svake biblijske knjige (autograf).
156
Svakako da postoje minorne razlike, ali su one toliko male da
su sa ove vremenske distance od 2000 godina apsolutno nebitne.
Otkrivanjem kumranskih rukopisa Bog je želeo još jednom
da pokaže da je Njegovo pismo upravo Biblija, i da nam je On
lično poslao tu knjigu. Tu knjigu su tokom istorije prepisivali,
prevodili i štampali mnogi, ali su i pored toga uspeli da nam je
prenesu onakvom kakva je bila od kada je stvarana. Iz svega
ovoga proizilazi jedan veoma nametljiv zaključak: Ko god želi
može, čitanjem Biblije i življenjem po njoj, zajedno s Bogom
uživati u ovom, i sutra u onom životu.
157
BIBLIOGRAFIJA
1. Allegro, J. M: Discoveries in the Judean Desert of Jordan,
V. Qumran Cave 4 (snimci, transliteracije, prevodi), Oxford,
1956.
2. Biblia Hebraica.
3. D. Jurevič: ”Messianskie sborniki”, Moskva, 2000.
4. dr A. Birviš: ”Savremena načela prevođenja Svetog pisma”,
Beograd, Ikonos, 2002.
5. dr D. Glumac: ”Biblijska arheologija”, Beograd-Srbinje,
BFB, fototip, 1999.
6. dr George J. Brooke: ”Intertextual interpretacions in the
Dead Sea Scrools and the New Testament”, Orion, Jerusalim.
7. dr Siam Bhayro: ”The Dead Sea Scrools”, Christian-Witness,
2002.
8. dr Tihomir Radovanović: ”Istorija prevoda Sarog zaveta”,
Beograd, 1928.
9. Đ. Daničić: ”Stari zavet”, prevod na srpski jezik, izdanje
Biblijskog društva, Beograd, 1992.
10. E. ben Šošan: ”Milon ivri-ivri”, Jerusalim, 1976.
11. E. Verber: ”Kumranski rukopisi”, BIGZ, Beograd, 1983.
12. Encyclopaedia Britannica, volume 7, 1972: ”Dead sea
scrolls”.
13. J. Jeremias: ”Qumran et la Theologie”, Nouvelle Revue
Theologique 85 (1963).
14. M. Wise, M. Abegg & E. Cook: ”The Dead Sea Scrolls”,
A New Translation, San Francisko, 1996.
15. M. A. Hoselton: ”Dead Sea Scrolls”, London, 2000.
16. Paul Sumner: ”Messianic Text at Qumran”, Hebrew-
Streams, 1999.
158
17. Š. Etinger: ”Istorija Jevrejskog naroda”, Beograd, Ginko,
1993.
18. W. J. Harington: ”Uvod u Bibliju”, Zagreb, Kršćanska
sadašnjost, 1987.
19. W. J. Harington: ”Uvod u Novi Zavet”, Zagreb, Kršćanska
sadašnjost, 1987.
20. Grupa autora: ”The Apocrupha”, Chicago, 1946.
21. Powell Davies: ”Jesus and Old Testament”, New York,
1956.
22. dr M. Erdeljan: ”Opšti uvod u Sveto pismo Staroga zaveta”,
fototip, Beograd - Srbinje, 2000.
23. dr M. Moskovich: ”Apokaliptika, sifrut amenu”, Tel
Aviv 2001.
24. Ž. Stanojević: ”Hebrejsko srpski rečnik”, Rad, Beograd,
2000.
25. Gams, A.: Biblija u svetlu društvenih borbi. Beograd,
1988.
26. Gilbert M.: Jewish History Atlas. London, 1969.
27. Harrington, W.: Uvod u Stari zavet. Zagreb, 1977.
28. Kittel, R.: Bibblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia. Stuttgart,
1937.
29. Milin, D.: Starozavetna istorija. Novi Sad, 1994.
30. Prošić, T.: Poreklo Pashe. Novi Sad, 1998.
31. Šijaković, M., priređivač: Mitologija i religija starih Jevreja.
Beograd, 1990.
32. Šobajić, V.: Jevrejstvo i Izrael. - Skopje, 1982.
33. Badurina, A: Leksikon zapadnog hrišćanstva. Zagreb,
1979.
34. Danon, C: Zbirka pojmova iz Judaizma. Beograd, 1996.
35. Harrington, W: Uvod u Stari Zavjet. Zagreb, 1977.
36. Mandić, O: Leksikon judaizma i hrišćanstva. Zagreb,
1963.
37. Rebić, A: Prorok čovjek Božji. Zagreb, 1982.
159
O AUTORU
Željko Stanojević rođen je u Pančevu, 1974. godine. Osnovnu
i srednju školu završio u Pančevu. Studirao hebrejski
jezik i književnost u Izraelu i teologiju u Srbiji. Bavi se naučnoistraživačkim
radom od 1998. godine, naročito u oblasti leksikografije,
hebrejske gramatike, metodike nastave hebrejskog jezika
i starozavetne egzegeze, i egzegeze drugih drevnih jevrejskih
spisa. Vodio više škola hebrejskog jezika (ulpana) u Izraelu
za doseljenike iz Evrope, vodio Lektorat za hebrejski jezik i
književnost na Filološkom fakultetu u Beogradu. Zaposlen na
Internacionalnom univerzitetu u Novom Pazaru i na Institutu za
hebrejski jezik i književnost u Pančevu čiji je osnivač i direktor.
Autor je Hebrejsko-srpskog rečnika, Leksikona biblijskih imena
i analize uticaja hebrejskog jezika na slovenske jezike i više
drugih publikacija.
160
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Distibucija: Metaphysica, 011/292-0062
www.zakonizdravlja.com www.creation6days.com

 

 

 

SEMITICS ANDSLAVICS LANGUAGES

Western Semites and Semites in general

 

The tenth chapter of the first book of Moses is about Shem, one of the three Noah’s sons. Many nations have originated from him. Nowadays, these very nations are called Semites, according to the name of the abovementioned Noah’s son, whereas the languages they speak belong to the Semitic language group. According to this book, the Semites are- the Assyrians, who established Assyria, the Aramaeans, who established Aram, the Elamites who established Elam, the Lydians, who inhabited Lydia, the Jewish, who inhabited Canaan. Beside the abovementioned nations, there are other Semites as well- the Acadians, the Moabites, the Phoenicians (the Punics originated from them), the Achlamites, the Magdaites, the Syrians, the Nestorians, the Jacobites, the Samaritians, the Arabs, the Shavaites, the Ethiopians. However, according the newest research on history of the Semites, the Elamites and the Lydians should be excluded from this group, given that they were vassals of the Assyrians. Southern Arabia is considered to be the ancient homeland of the Semites, more precisely- the Arabian steppe.

 

In the fourth millennium BC, a huge wave of ancient Semites inhabited Mesopotamia and Babylonia, where they mixed up with the ancient inhabitants- the Sumerians. It is from here where a new branch of the so called Eastern Semites started to grow. Those ancient Semites who inhabited the areas on the South of Canaan, and further to the South, as well as the East of Canaan, form a group of Southern Semitic nations which encompasses the Arabs, the Ethiopians and other ancient Semites, who at the same period inhabited Canaan and blended with other nations who happened to live there, and that’s where some other nations appeared, such as Western Semites and North-Western Semites.

Western Semites:

Aramaeans, whose language was the official language of the whole Near East and Front Asia even a couple of centuries before Christ in the time of Persian rule in general.

Jews, who left behind significant religious, cultural and literary heritage to the world: The Old Covenant, Judaism in general, Talmud, Kabbalah, Zohar, The New Covenant, Christianity. They also indirectly affect the formation of Islam.

Phoenicians, later called Punics, teach the world about seamanship, merchandising, metallurgy, viticulture and what’s most important- they educated the world.

Some of the less known Western Semites are the Ugarites, the Nestorians, the Jacobites, the Magdaites, the Samaritans.

 

Languages of all Western Semites develop in two directions:

1. From Old Aramaic developed:

- Eastern Aramaic- Nestorian, Jacobian, Babylonian Aramaic

- Western Aramaic- New Aramaic, Samaritian, Magdaic…

2. From Canaanic developed:

-Ancient Jewish (and further on from it- Jewish from Mishna, Jewish from Mikra, Hebrew- New Jewish, Ivrit)

-Moavic

-Phoenician (and Punic)

-Ugaritian

 

All Western Semites used similar alphabet which developed directly from Phoenician alphabet. All the versions of this alphabet contain at least twenty-two signs per twenty-two consonants with minor differences in the number of signs, especially when it comes to marking certain consonants at the end of the words. Although most of the alphabets don’t contain marks for vocals, at some point later on, Masoretes established vocal graphemes for the old Jewish language, in the period between 6th and 8th century. However, even the use of these graphemes is tightly connected to the texts from The Old Testament, texts with religious themes, poetry, dictionaries and later on- literature for children.

Between themselves, all Western Semitic languages have very similar phonetics i morphology of the words in general. Grammatical system is so similar that it’s almost shared by all Western Semitic languages. The emphasis here is primarily on inflexional and derivational morphology, less than on syntax. Similarity is especially reflected in the system of affixes, while the differences are mostly reflected at the level of vocalization. If the degree of similarity of Western Semitic languages were to be compared with the degree of similarity of, say, Southern Slavic languages, then, with Western Semitic languages, we would rather talk about dialects than completely and separately developed languages.

 

 

FOOTNOTES:

 

1. Noun “Shem” means “Name” in most Semitic languages and this is how etymology of words ‘Semite’ and ‘Semites’ is explained.

2. Dragan Milin- “The History of The Old Testament”, Novi Sad, 1994, page 13

3. Canaan, Hanaan or Hanan- the promised land, that God gave to Avram and his descendants. It extends from the west of river Jordan, on the south- from Egypt and on the north- from Syria. A part of this land will later on be named Palestine. Before Israelis, various tribes had inhabited this land, which were named after a mutual name- Hanaanites, i.e. Canaanites. (1. Mos 12:1-7)

4. The very word “Masorete” means “tradition” in Hebrew, thus the members of this Jewish scientific-religious movement would be called- traditionalists. They were primarily occupied with revision and copying of the Old Testament text. More information on Masoretes can be found in Dr Milos Erdeljan’s book called “A general Introduction to The Old Testament Scriptures”, Belgrade-Srbinje, 2000, pages 19-26.

 

 

Western Semitic nations and their contacts with the Balkan Peninsula and the old Slavs in general, until the appearance of Jesus Christ

 

In one of the greatest sources about history, language and alphabet of Northwestern Semites, “A book About a Book”, which gives a lot of data on Phoenicians, the +++opismenjivaci++, the story begins something like this- At about 400 km, by the se coast from Egypt, at the far east Mediterranean coast, lies Phoenicia. The area only about fifty miles long and ten miles wide, stretched on the slopes of the Lebanese mountains. On the same hills there were olives, figs, pomegranates, grapes, cedar, cypress... Phoenicians, people of Western Semitic origin, founded several cities in their country: Byblos, Beirut, Sidon, Tyre ... (Tyre is considered to be named after the island Tyros, nearby today's Bahrain, where many Semites probably originate from). There is some already known evidence that the Phoenicians began to deal with trade and seafaring since 2700 BC. These people’s homeland was the sea. During the period of their existence, they were known as the bravest and the best sailors around the Mediterranean and the ancient world in general, but also as the best traders of that time. They traded anything that could provide some kind of profit. In the first place, it was fish but also wine, cedar wood, porcelain, glass made of white sand, which they normally made on their own, metal, especially tin, silver, bronze, copper ... They dealt with trade of textile, in particular- the one purple-red in colour. (The name Phoenicians comes from the Greek word, "fenikas" which means: purple-red colour and or a kind of palm which produced this colour)
Travelling by sea, Phoenicians reached not only most of the Mediterranean region, but also Britain and the North and the East of Babylon. They circumnavigated Africa in year 600 BE, much earlier than the Portuguese. Certainly, the Phoenicians arrived to the Balkans. One of the best evidence for this is the Phoenician name saved in the toponym: Fenice, on the Adriatic coast in Southern Albania. As in the Balkans, in the area of ​​today's Israel, there are toponyms which have the exact same root, developed differently in the two language families-Semitic on one hand, and Slavic on the other, and we can certainly say that these toponyms were brought to the Balkans by the Phoenicians, or possibly later, by the Jews, or perhaps from the Balkans to the regions of Canaan, that is- to Middle East.

 Having reached certain areas, in order to make themselves secure position, they often used to establish colonies-cities- in Sicily, Corsica, Cyprus, Spain, and many other places on the Mediterranean coast. In these cities there is an abundance of multi-storey buildings with as many as 6 or 8 floors. This very fact is a part of evidence that the Phoenicians were the first teachers of architecture in the Mediterranean 2. They also engaged in piracy, enslaved women and children they used to encounter during their travels and sold them as slaves. Men, on the other hand, were used as the rowers on their boats (see- row). It is known that, from their homeland, mostly to Mediterranean countries and thus indirectly to the whole world, they brought following animals: donkey, chicken, peacocks, pigeons, the following plants: fig, olive, vine, but also some knowledge of the nature and treatment of metals. Phoenicia existed independently until the invasion of the Assyrians in 8th century BC. The city of Tyre was unoccupied for the longest period, but later, in 668 BC, it fell into the hands of the Assyrian king, Ashurbanipal. At that moment, the Phoenicians began to disperse. Most of them came to the shores of today’s Tunisia, where they founded the city- Carthage. (This town was founded about 200 years earlier by a Phoenician princess, Dido. The name she gave to the capital was “Kart Hadasht” (twdx tri)- Carthage, which means "New City" in Phoenician. 4 Carthage was called Karchedon by the Greeks, and Carthago by Romans).
       According to Martin Gilbert, it was in this exact period (but also a bit earlier- from 722 BC and 586 BC), when there was a first displacement of the Jewish people to the regions of Egypt, Mesopotamia and Persia. According to the same author, having left Persia in around 359 BC, the Jews arrive to the coast of the Caspian Sea, very close to Ancient Slavs. According to this author, Jews lived on the shores of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and the Adriatic Sea, from as early as 500 BC. So, even then, the Jews could make a significant impact on the local population, in every sense, and even affect their language, which could have left a large number of words in the vocabulary of today's people who live in this area. What happened with the Phoenicians afterwards?

 

 

We can conclude that, during their resettlement, the Phoenicians arrived to the Balkans. In the sixth century BC, they found the Peonians, which was mentioned in “The Iliad”. The Peonians lived on the territory of today’s Macedonia. Illyrians and Thracians also lived in the Balkans at that time. The Celts, believed to be descendants of the Hitties and the Amorites, the former inhabitants of today’s Syria, also came to the Balkans a little later.5 The Hittites and the Amorites, were described by the ancient Egyptians as massive, tall, of light skin and with blue eyes. All the elements from the languages of the above mentioned Balkan nations, which are passed on to the Slavs, may also be of Western Semitic origin due to trading and cultural contacts with the Phoenicians. Following this route, we could perhaps find out where nasal or muffled sounds in Slavic languages come from. It is known that the French got muffled sounds from the Celts, but the question is whether the Slavs got nasal and muffled sounds from Western Semites? Multitude of words set forth in this book can serve as evidence that there had been contact between the Western Semites and Slavs before Christ and that these two share some degree of homonymy that is expressed differently in the two language families: Slavic and Western Semitic (see- "Examples of common root consonants in Western Semitic and Slavic languages​​"). Most historians and theologians believe that the Slavs didn’t know anything about Christianity before the 6th century AD. In that case, how can we interpret the Prokop’s note from the sixth century AD, but so that the Slavs communicated with the people from the Middle East well before the occurrence of the above mentioned notes. (Prokop’s note says that, after the flood, Mestro began to rule and he was from the tribe of Ham, and after him- Jeremiah and Feosta whom, as implied in the note, the Egyptians called Svarog. Svarog is, by the way, an Old Slavic deity).

          Western Slavs’ contact with Semites doesn’t have to be necessarily attached to their arrival to the Balkans, near the Mediterranean. It is still possible that such contacts existed in the period when the Slavs lived in their ancient homeland. According to certain notes by Vladimir Mazuranic, Suflaj, Pisker and others, Dr Lavoslav Sik said that the Jews were settled in Yugoslav regions along with the South Slavs, from the Volga steppe and Caucasus. But the more likely that the contacts are exercised after the arrival of Slavs in the Balkans. The question is- did the Slavs really come to this area in ​​this era? According a historian from Dubrovnik, Mavro Orbinu, Slavs are descendants of Japheth (Noah's son), who first inhabited Cilicia, where they moved on to the north and reached Britain and Scandinavia. Later, around 1460 BC, they moved to the south and reached the Mediterranean coast. Giacomo Sergi, an Italian historian, points out that the Slavic civilization should be sought in the region of Europe long before the sixth century AD. Beside this, we should mention Herodotus who mentioned the Venetes (Vends) as Slavs. Dr Erdeljanovic states that the Slavs began inhabiting the Balkans in the first century after Christ.

            What happened to the Phoenicians after their displacement from Phoenicia? After founding Carthage, they were still known for their common occupations: seafaring and trade. They began to call themselves: the Punics. Yes, they were Punics, with whom the Romans had fought wars so many times. The important facts for us, emerged from these wars, are that the Punic commander Hanibal (libynx) and his army stayed in the Alps, that is, very close to the Balkans, during the year 218 BC. When an army passes over certain areas, their soldiers make children with indigenous women, leave various objects, weapons and tools, but also names of these objects, or perhaps animals, as well as various other things that they brought with them. Besides, when Rome completely defeated Carthage (whose population is, as noted above, of Western Semitic origin), Romans sold them as slaves (201 BC). All this indicates that Western Semitic words could certainly be heard at the Balkans 2300 years ago, and that as such, the words were left there, or on the other hand, were transferred to the Slavs later on. It can be that ancient Ancient Slavic and could hear the words in person, as stated by the abovementioned historians.

 At the golden period of Carthage, the Carthaginians sent expeditions throughout the whole Mediterranean and other European and African coasts. The expedition consisted of several thousand people. There are indications that the Carthaginians arrived even to America. In the last few years, much evidence for this claim has been found in America. As stated by the famous English historian and archaeologist George Rawlinson, the stone was found at Lake Massacre, with following words (using Phoenician alphabet) carved into it: mtr q ab (ab-qa matar –Let the clouds give rain!). The stone is believed to originate from somewhere between 400-300 BC. 7

On the Ohio River and at the around it, in the American Midwest, was found a colony of so-called Adenic culture, which is found to be a descendant and sequel of the Phoenician culture. The found elements of Adenic culture belong to the period of 500 BC, which coincides with the moment when the Phoenicians fled from the Assyrians out of Phoenicia. 7 Fleeing from the Assyrians, the Phoenicians could have also settled the coasts of Adriatic and Black Sea. Although physical evidence of these events is few, the presence of the Phoenicians and other Semites of Western Balkans, and possibly among the Slavs, is evident, no matter where they inhabited before Jesus Christ. Scylla once wrote that Cadmus, the son of the Phoenician king Agenor, educated the Illyrians who inhabited the region from Budva to Durres, around 360 BC 8, together with his wife, Harmonia. As Scylla stated, Cadmus and Harmonia were buried in Dubrovnik. This may be a piece of evidence of the presence of the Western Semites in the Balkans of BC era, and even the presence of their aristocracy. However, when it comes to Cadmus, he is mostly referred to as a mythical person, rather than historical.

 

+++Ovde mapa sa strane broj 6 iz knjige I mapa sa strane broj 10+++

 

At this point, we can mention the Amazonian women. Henry Sayce said that they were women from Cappadocia, warriors of Hittite origin 10, who founded the city of Ephesus and Smyrna. Many of their beliefs and customs, similar to those of the Canaanites and the Asyro-Babylonians, were transferred to Ephesus and Smyrna. In addition to customs and beliefs, they also transferred various words and words, especially those related to war and fighting. Regarding the Amazonian women, Strabo says that they also inhabited the Caucasus. Ravensky places them in the area between the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea. All these data can lead us to think that the Amazonian women, according to their movement, transferred certain words to Slavs in the Middle East. Their history is still not explored enough.

 

NOTES:

 

1. More detailed information in A HISTORY OF EXPLORATION AND DISCOVERY (THE SEARCH BEGINS), London, 1973, p. 37-50.

2. Zivko D. Petkovic- Semicani i Balkansko poluostrvo, Belgrade, 1926. p.4-8.

3. <<<<<<< >>>>>>>>> Book about the book,

4. There are some indications, submitted by the Israeli Academy of Western Semitic languages ​​(Avraham Even Shoshan: MILON IVRI-IVRI, Jerusalem, 1932), that this city was called: KART HADETIT: tyTdx trq, where the word KART means- village, town, city. This can also be found in Hebrew in the form:     (Kirja), whereas the word: HADETIT means the same as the above word: HADASHT , but in Phoenician.

5.  Z. D. Petkovic- Semicani i Balkansko poluostrvo, Belgrade 1926, p.20.

6. Petar D. Stojović- Slovenska mitologija, Belgrade, 1939.

7. Collins S. - "The ten lost tribes of Israel found ..." , Oregon, 1995. p.164. and forward.

8. In his book, Pismo Slovjensko (Zagreb, 1861), Franjo Racki states: "According to ancient Greek tradition, which is lost in the era of story-telling, Cadmus, an ancient teacher of the Phoenician alphabet in Europe, with his wife Harmonia, Thracian heroine, Dardan’s sister, expelled by ungrateful Thebans, who taugh reading and art, fled to Ilyrik to Enchel, who, according to Scylla, (about 360 BC) dwelt along the sea between Budva and Durres, i.e. in IIIyrik. In general words. He gained the throne, according to the oracle. Here, with his wife, he used to turn into a serpent, a symbol of wisdom. The antiquity placed their graves here, and in old Dubrovnik (Epidaurus), a cave of peculiar metamorphosis.

9. Samuel Elazar, Prilozi istoriji Jevreja u Bosni i Hercegovini ,The Jewish Almanac, 1971-1996, p.43.

10. The Hittites, or Arzawans, a mixture of nations from Asia Minor, moved from southern steppes of Russia and the Caucasus, about 2900 BC. They spoke Indo-European language. (Cavaignac 1936, Macqueen 1986, p 27)

11. Dr. Jovan Erdeljanovic, Osnovi etnologije, Belgrade, 1932.

 

CONTACTS OF WESTERN SEMITES AND (BALKAN) SLAVS AFTER JESUS CHRIST

 

 

            After Jesus Christ, the event that could be considered in the first place is precisely the displacement of the Jewish people from the territory of present-day Israel. The most massive displacement after Jesus begins somewhere around year 70 AD. Except for Babylon, the Jews then massively moved to Italy, Greece and Cyprus. Our famous historian Tihomir Djordjevic established, by logical series of events, that the Jews began to settle in the Balkans immediately after the destruction of the second temple, in year 76. Famous Roman general, Pompey the Great, having seized Palestine, takes king Aristobulus to captivity, together with his family and many other Jews. Soon after that, Jewish settlements were built in Rome. Even during the first century AD, there was a large number of Jewish settlements in Italy, Greece and Cyprus. The apostle Paul gave sermons in Greek cities: Athens, Thessaloniki and other places, in the Jewish synagogues. Jewish settlements soon appeared in the Balkans, especially because the Balkans and Palestine existed as a same state, under the rule of the Roman Empire, which makes it easier for the Jewish people, to deal with trade and the establishment of spiritual and cultural ties with the homeland. Settlements like these also existed in the days of Byzantium, medieval Serbia, Dalmatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Croatia. 11. A solid proof of early presence of Jews in the Balkans, after the advent of Christianity, might be found in oil lamps with Jewish features 12, found in Salona, Muc and Asseria in Dalmatia, which are dated from the second century AD. It would be interesting to mention that in Stobalj in Macedonia, under the Christian basilica, the remains of the Jewish sinagoge were found 11, which are dated from the third century AD. In the depot of unexhibited artifacts of the National Museum in Sarajevo, there is a cult clay lamp with a menorah imprinted on it, which was found near Capljina in Herzegovina, and dates from the fourth century AD 10 , being an excellent piece of evidence of the presence of Jews in the Balkans at that time. To this day, Jews have lived together with the Slavs.

 

+++Ovde mapa sa strane broj 15 iz knjige, koja je u stvari na dve strane+++

 

If, with interruptions, two territories reside in single state for more than 13 centuries 9, as is the case with the Balkans and Palestine, it is reasonable that there will be some kind of penetration of many linguistic elements (words and words) from one territory to another and vice versa. By this, I mean the influence of Western Semitic (Hebrew and Aramaic) words in the Slavic languages. However, later in the period of the supremacy of the Ottoman Turks, many Arabic words (i.e. Southern Semitic) entered the Slavic languages ​​via Turkish, being the inwordediary language. 7. Most often, these were words from Islamic wordinology. Given that Southern Semitic and Western Semitic languages majorly overlap, when it comes to phonology, we can thus understand the similarity of many Turkish loanwords of Arab origin with the words from Judaic wordinology and the Hebrew language in general, which are incorporated in the Serbian language. As Sobajic stated in his work 14, one part of Judaic captives from Palestine was taken to the area of ​​the upper Rhine and Danube by the Romans, after year 134 AD, to work on the construction of forts along the European borders of the Roman Empire, towards Germania. At some point later, these Jews descended towards the lower Danube, to areas close to the Balkans, as stated in the book of Jonatan Moshe- Ivri vihudim, Haifa, 1949, p. 248.

          According to a renowned Jewish author, Isaac Ben Zvi, the displacement of Jews from the Promised Land to Mesopotamia, and later to the broad areas between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea, all the way to the rivers Volga and Don, began several centuries before the Roman persecution of Jews to Italy, that is, in the period between the fifth and the second century BC. In this period, the Slavs were, as most of today's scientists claim, in their homeland, that is, very close to these areas which were, as stated, settled by Jews. This means that the contacts of Slavs and Jews during that time were inevitable. Later, having been displaced to the whole Central, Eastern and Southern Europe, which, as some scientists believe, initially started in the 4th century AD, the Slavs probably found quite a number of Jewish settlements in all of these parts of Europe, especially in the Balkans- an important crossroads of Jewish settling after year 134 AD and Roman persecution from Palestine. Having received Christianity, the Slavs got in touch not only with the Old Testament but also the entire Jewish spirituality- history, literature, religion, art, language, etc. Since then, the Slavs have adopted a large number of Hebrew and Aramaic words from the Scriptures of the Old Testament. Those were primarily personal names, toponyms from various ancient Near Eastern countries but also some other words.

 

After the fifth century AD, Jews massively populated Spain, France and Germany. At various times in these areas they were treated differently. Most of times, they were forced to displace. In 16th century AD, remarkable number of Jewish people was expelled from Spain. Most of them moved to North Africa 8, but many of them also came to the regions of Dalmatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Turkey, Greece and Albania, seeking refuge from the Ottoman Turks, with whom they were on good terms. The large influx of Jews to the Balkans in this period also affected language of the Slavs. Given that Spanish Jews spoke Ladino (Spanish with elements of Hebrew and Arabic), Jews brought many and words from that language to this region (Patishpan 2). The influence was reflected not only in the language but also in the culture. For example, the custom of serving the guests preserves originates from these people.

         Between the 8th and 10th century AD, the area between the Caspian and Black Sea got under the rule of the people originated from Persia and the Caucasus, who received the Jewish faith. They were the Khazars, who later merged with the surrounding nations, and thus with the Slavs. As there were many Jewish words in the language they spoke, some of those words were, naturally, adopted by the Slavs. Some scientists believe that the Khazars are a lost Semitic tribe. Khazari word kagan can be interpreted via Jewish word:     (Kohen) 3

It would be interesting to mention that in Duklja in Montenegro, in 1967, scientists excavated Roman necropolis, and in the grave no. 281, a Jewish menorah with seven candles was engraved on its northern wall. On its western and the eastern wall, there were stars of David. The tomb is dated from the 3-4 century AD. 4 Menorah painted on bricks was also found in Celarevo, which are dated from 8-9 century AD. 5 Our archaeologists interpret the existence of the menorah as a piece of evidence for presence of the Khazars in the Balkans. In order for this assumption to be correct, it must be borne in mind that Judaism was the official religion of the Khazar court and some part of Khazar people, so that the Khazars themselves brought a multitude of Jewish words to the Balkans, at least some religious words, perhaps the very word: "Menorah".

 

+++Ovde mapa sa strane 21 i 24 iz knjige, dakle dve strane+++

 

Aramaic people were also moving from their homeland. That’s why today there is a small number of Aramaic people, who are also the Western Semites, in Jerusalem, in the villages on the border of Syria and Israel, in Lebanon but also in Northern Mesopotamia, around Lake Urmia and in the Caucasus 6. Given that the Slavs have lived in the Caucasus from ancient times, they, of course, adopted some Aramaic words which are very similar to Phoenician and Hebrew.

 

+++Ovde mapa sa strane broj 25 iz knjige+++

 

NOTES:

 

1. In his book, Jevrejstvo i Izrael, Skopje, 1982, V. M. Sobajic states: "The Jews began to settle in the South Slavic countries in the early centuries AD. The first Jewish settlers who lived in the south of present-day Yugoslavia, were called Romaniotes. They were the descendants of the ancient Jewish communities of Rome and the Byzantine Empire, who gradually moved toward the north. Numerous and extensive Jewish community in Thessaloniki exerted influence on Sephardic Jews for centuries, and they moved to Macedonia, Bosnia and Serbia. "

2. As Milica Mihajlovic said in- Tradicionalna kuhinja Jevreja bivse Jugoslavije, Belgrade 1998. P. 16, PATISHPAN or PATISHPANJ (Serbian: sponge cake) is a corrupted form of the name of the Jewish "Spanish bread". Today’s cooks often refer to the dough for the cake by this word. This is actually a Ladino term: Pan di Spagna.

3. More detailed information can be found in: Prosić Tamara, Poreklo Pashe, Novi Sad, 1998.

4. Radmilo Petrovic, Menore iz Celareva, IPA MIROSLAV 1997,  p. 30

5. Radmilo Petrovic, Menore iz Celareva, IPA MIROSLAV 1997, p. 47

6.  <<<<<<<< >>>>>>>>>  vidi knjiga o knjizi

7.  More detailed information can be found in: Skaljic Abdulah- Turcizmi u srpskohrvatskom jeziku, Sarajevo 1989th

8. Many Jews of North Africa are actually descendants of the Phoenicians and Jews emigrated after the capture of Phoenicia and Northern Israel by the Assyrians. More detailed information in: Vojimir M. Sobajić- Jevrejstvo i Izrael, Skopje 1982,  p.50

9. During the reign of David and Solomon, empire of Judah stretched from the Sinai to the area near today’s Turkish border and springs of the Euphrates River. Two centuries after the collapse of Solomon's kingdom, Samaria was conquered by the Assyrians (722 BC) and the Kingdom of Judah by New Babylonian Empire (586 BC). After that, Palestine was ruled by the following conquerors: Persians (520-332), Greeks (Alexander the Great and his successors from the Ptolemaic dynasty and the Seleucides) - (332-63), Roman (63 BC-326 AD), Byzantium (326 - 638), Arabs (638-1072), Seljuk Turks (1072-1099), Crusaders (1099-1291), the Egyptian Mamelukes (1291-1517), Ottoman Empire (1517-1917), England (1917-1948).

10. Samuel Elazar, Prilozi istoriji Jevreja u Bosni i Hercegovini, The Jewish Almanac 1971-1996, Belgrade, p.38

11. Various authors, The times atlas of the Bible, London, 1987, p. 627

12. Various authors, The times atlas of the Bible, London, 1987, p. 627

13. Such words are not dealt with in this book, because their etymology is known. These words gravitate in Slavic languages ​​as Turkish loanwords of Arabic origin.

14. Sobajić, M., Jevrejstvo i Izrael, Skopje, 1982

 

Biblical books- language and alphabet

 

The Old Testament was written in Hebrew. To be able to follow the book until the end, first we have to learn a few things about the Hebrew language and alphabet. Hebrew is a Semitic language from the afro-asian language family spoken by six million people, mostly in Israel, some parts of the Palestine territories, USA and among Jewish communities worldwide.

The contemporary Hebrew language originates from the classical Hebrew which was used in writing the Old Testament 3300 years ago. Jews called this language Lashon ha-kodesh (“The sacred language“) because it was used for thw writing of holy books.

Like the other Semitic languages, Hebrew is a root language. This means that ecery idea is expressed with a root which usually consists of three consonants. For example, everything related to learning is marked with the root dml lmd. Then from this root various types of words develop. For example there is talmid – a student, talmud – studying/learning, lamad – he studied, jilmad – he will study, melumad – taught…

Knowing of this language is essential for anyone who is seriously interested in the Bible and religion so as to be able to penetrate into the depths of biblical secrets. That is the reason why we will add some other characteristics of Hebrew here which will be significantly beneficial to the reader of this book. Nouns have one suffix for masculine plural and one suffix for feminine plural. That is always the case. As far as plural is concerned, the same suffixes are also applied to adjectives and verbs. Apart from plural, there is also dual (grammatical number) like in some of the Indo-European languages such as Church Slavic and Slovenian. The system of verbs is very developed so there are seven groups of verbs and a larger number of sub-divisions or the so called gizras. There are only three tenses- Simple Past, Simple Future and Simple Present.  Often, by using a conjuction the future tense can be changed into the past and the past into the future, which is very common in the biblical context. There is no neuter gender which is a significant difference in comparison with the Indo-European languages. The syntax is specific so an adjective is always placed after a noun, a verb often takes the initial position in a sentence and the similar.

The language in which the Old Testament books were written was given different names: the Old Hebrew, Jewish, Canaan, Judeic, the Holy Language and in the end Hebrew. This ancient language, as we already said, belongs to the large Semitic language family and to be more precise to its northwestern branch. The fact that it is apart of the Semitic language family was found out as early as the XVIII century, when the famous german orentalist Eichhorn listed it in until that moment unmentioned and new language family, together with Arabian, Arameic and Amharic language. The name of this language family, new in science, imposed itself as most of the speakers of these languages are the descendants of Noah’s son Shem.

Semitic languages are divided according to their geographic distribution into three core branches: East Semitic, Northwest Semitic and South Semitic. Today science assumes one Ancient Semitic language which developed in, as we already mentioned, three basic directions so it produced a great number of interrelated languages.

East Semitic languages appeared through Akkadian, the oldest language of this branch, from which Assyrian and Babylonian developed.

South Semitic languages developed in two directions, more precisely on one side there was the Old Arabian and on the other Ge’ez language. From the Old Arabian South and North Arabic developed. South Arabic gave Sabaean, and the North counterpart produced literary Arabic and its numerous dialects. Ge’ez developed into many dialects on the one hand, and into Amharic (Ethiopian) language on the other.

Northwest Semitic languages represent, according to the number of languages the most diverse branch of the Semitic languages which includes the Hebrew language as well. This language branch also developed in two directions: 1. From the Old Hebrew language, Moabite, Phoenician, Punic and Ugaritic language developed, each on its own, and also jewish Miqra, Jewish Mishnah, Medieval Jewish and the New Jewish which is now called Hebrew. 2. From Ancient Aramaic East Arameic and West Aramaic languages developed. The East Aramaic language gave Mandaic, Syriac (with its eastern and western variant), ant the Aramaic language of Talmud. The West Aramaic gave the Aramaic language of Miqra and Aramaic Targum, Samaritan Aramaic and the New Aramaic.

THE HEBREW LANGUAGE is one of the oldest languages in the world. Its beginnings are related to the period of at least four thousand years ago. It had been spoken even before the arrival of the old Jews into the territories of Canaan, when it was the language of the ancient Semits in these lands. With the intrusion of Canaans, people of Hamitic origin, it was easily adopted by themselves as the language of the new homeland since when it was named the Canaan language. With the arrival of Abraham’s Jewish tribe to the territories of Canaan, the Jewish mother tongue (which was close to Aramaic) repressed the Canaan language and became the language of all Jewish tribes. This process of exchange was very easy and relatively quick, because of the extraordinary similarity between the mentioned languages. In the period of the First Temple, Hebrew was the official language of the Northern Kingdom- Israel and the Southern Kingdom- Judea (In Judea this language was also called Judaic). In this period the northern and southern dialects of this language developed and this language was used for writing many Old Testament books but also other literary works of the time. After the devastation of the first temple, Hebrew ceased to be the official language but instead it was replaced by Aramaic which became the official language of the Near East. However, Hebrew was still in use during the period of the second temple and after that until the end of the second century AD. In this period there was a strong influence of Aramaic on Hebrew which existed as the language of the Jewish people and especially as the language of sages. In this kind of Hebrew the wise literature of Mishne was written as well as the other books- Halaha, Midrash, etc. In the period of Amorites, Hebrew ceased to be used as a spoken language but it was replaced by Aramaic in that respect also. And so Hebrew became the language of religion and the holy writings, while Aramaic became the national language and the popular language.During the period of Jewish Diaspora, Hebrew was used as the language of holy books, language of prayers and language of literature. Jews in Diaspora used the languages of the host nations. With the advent of Zionism and awakening of the national awareness there appeared a need for getting the Jewish people closer to their language. Hebrew was always a live language even though its development in the period after Christ happend exclusively in written form. When the first Zionists came to Turkish Palestine in the end of IX century, they found Jewish communities which were settled there for centuries, especially in Jerusalem, Hebron, Safed and Tiberias. In those communities Hebrew was the language of sacred learning. In their houses they mostly used Arabic, Ladino or Jiddish. However, Hebrew represented a kind of a bridge between these communities while the European Jewish immigrants had to accept the pronunciation of the oriental Jews in order to understand each other at all. To point out the need for one language, a new immigrant decided to use only Hebrew among the members of his family. That man was Eliezer Ben-Yehuda (at first Perelmann, born in Lithuania in 1858, died in Jerusalem in 1922). The language process created at that moment spread from one to a hundred thousands of families. Even the remains of the extremely orthodox closed families spoke in their home with their children in Hebrew. To provide linguistic resources to his people E. Ben-Yehuda commenced a great project- composing a big comprehensive dictionary of Hebrew which was published in Berlin in 1908 (volumes 1-7). The work on the dictionary was continued after Ben-Yehuda’s death, under the leadership of N. H. Tur-Sinai who completed the dictionary in 1960 with the 18th chapter. Today Hebrew id the official language of the State of Israel, it is used by more than 6 million people in the world as a spoken language and by many pople as the language of religion.

THE HEBREW ALPHABET

The Hebrew alphabet consists of 22 letters used to write Hebrew. It is widely distributed in the Jewish Diaspora, so that several more languages like Jiddish, Ladino or Judeo-Arabic are also written with this alphabet.

Jews call it alefbet (because the first two letters are alef [א] and bet [ב]). The number of letters, the order of their appearance, their names as well as their phonetic values are equal to Aramaic alphabet because Jews and Arameans adopted the Phoenician alphabet during the end of the second millennium BC.

The contemporary alphabet used to write Hebrew was created in the third century BC form Aramaic which was used by Jews as early as the VI century BC. Before that they used the alphabet created from Phoenician in IX century BC. In religious writings, Samaritans still use this variant of the old alphabet.

All alphabets of Europe and many alphabets of Asia and Africa are interrelated by their origin. All of them originate from the Phoencian alphabet. Let’s observe on the following pages how come it happened that we today write in what is actually a Phoenician aplphabet adapted to our needs and what does that have to do with the Bible and the Qumran Manuscripts.

 FROM THE PHOENICIAN ALPHABET TO QUMRAN AND TOFAY’S CONTEMPORARY ALPHABET

 

In the West Semitic languages consonants represent the bearers of the meaning of a certain expression. Vocals change and affixes which can be either a consonant or a vocal are added. However, one, two, three or even four consonants in every Semitic language represent the bearers of an idea and with them a set of semantically related notions is expressed. All West Semits wrote exclusively with consonants. That means that only the consonants in a notion were written down and the vocals were assumed when reading the language familiar to its speaker. Today this is the case with Arabic and Hebrew but there are insignia for vocals which are used in dictionaries and holy writings as well as in studying these languages. In literature, press and writing vocals are not used. This tradition of not writing vocals dates back to the Phoenicians. Vocals were introduced only by Greeks which adopted the consonant signs from Phoenicians. Today it can often be heard that Phoenicians had made the world and by the same token Slavs literate, of course indirectly.

How exactly did this process unfold?

On the soil of Phoenicia, the Phoenician alphabet appears as a complete one i.e. without the developmental or transitional forms. This statement suggests a conclusion that the Phoenicians probably received a complete alphabet from some of the nations they frequently had contact with. There are many theories about the people from which the Phoenicians adopted their alphabet. However, as it seems, the most plausible is the theory about the Cretan alphabet. Ewans emphasizes that 12 of the 22 Phoenician signs have the same shape as the Cretan graphemes for the same sounds. Likewise, Snyder states that the sources of Phoenician alphabet should be sought exactly in the Cretan alphabet. It is considered that the alphabet was brought to Phoenicians in Phoenicia from Crete by Philistines. They were actually a people of Indo-European origin which migrated from the North into the areas of today’s Canaan and Phoenicia in the second millennium BC using the seaway and thus passing by Crete as well. The fact that Phoenicians started using an alphabet for trade bookkeeping and writing that was very similar to the Cretan alphabet exactly at the moment Philistines moved to their lands can serve as a proof that Philistines imparted the Cretan alphabet to Phoenicians.

An interesting similarity of the Vincha alphabet discovered in Vincha near Belgrade with the Phoenician alphabet should be mentioned here. The similarity lies in ten identical signs from the 22 in Phoenician. The Vincha alphabet existed as early as the fourth millennium BC, so there are indications that Cretans and therefore Phoenicians as well, indirectly recieved their alphabet exactly from the areas of today's Balkans. However, science will prove whether these assumptions are correct. The Old Jewish alphabet develops from the Phoenician alphabet, more precisely in the eighth century BC. The oldest inscription found in Paleo-Hebrew is the so called Gezer calendar.

.

 

 

 Apart from the Old Hebrew, the Phoenician alphabet gave also gave the Punic aplphabet which was used by Punics who were Phenicians that settled in Cartagena. Aramaic alphabet also originated from Phoenician alphabet. Jews adopted it as early as the fifth century BC and kept it slightly modified even today. The Phoenician alphabet is a precursor to the contemporary Arabic alphabet and also to many of the Indian alphabets. Furthermore, Ethiopian and many other alphabets in Africa and Asia evolved from the Phoenician alphabet. Hellens bring wheat, barley, horsebean, lentil, onion and garlic, goldsmithing, oil processing and wine making, glasswork, weight, length and time measurements, painting and writing from the Phoenicians to their lands in the ninth century BC.  Even the Greek name for boo: (biblos), originates from the name of the Phoenician city Biblos, because papyrus which the Greek bought from Phoenicians came primarily from this city. The Greek at first called papyrus »biblos« and afterwards books as well. That is how the holy writings were given the name of Bible.

 

 In the oldest of the Greek texts letters still have completely Phoenician shapes, there are no signs for vocals and the direction of writing is from right to left in the same manner West Semits do it even today (of course this applies to many other Semits, primarily concidering Arabs). The Greek even adopted the names of letters. Contemporary names of Greek letters have no meaning. Names of these letters in Greek mean nothing while in Hebrew, Aramaic and assumedly Phoenician they do. Some of them are:

Aleph-alpha Yodh-Iota

Beth-beta Kaph-Kappa

Gimel-Gamma Lamedh-lambda

Daleth-delta Mem-Mu

Zayin-Zeta Nun-Nu

Heth-Eta Pe-pi

 Teth-Theta Resh-Rho

 Taw-Tau

 

It is interesting to mention the meaning of Phoenician letters’ names in Phoenician itself, as well as in Hebrew which usually match. First of all Phoenician letters’ meaning interpretation provided by the German scientist Snyder should be mentioned who published whis information as early as the1920s. He believes that the sign aleph represents a head of a bull (see the chart), beth-labyrinth, gimel-an axe, daleth- a ruler, he-a tree, waw-a cane with spikes, zayin-a latch, heth-a field, teth-a wheel, yodh-and arm and hand, kaph-an open hand, lamedh-a year, mem-water, nun-a snake, samekh-a pillar, ayin-a vulva, pe-a spear, tsadi-a trident, qof-a penis of an animal, resh-a head, shin-a hill, door, and tav-a cross.

There are also other interpretations concidering the Hebrew alphabet, which are more acceptable today which were not based on the shape of the signs themselves, but on the names of consonants in West Semitic languages. The meaning attributed to beth is a house, daleth-doors, waw-a hook, ayin-an eye, pe-mouth, shin-a tooth, teeth, gimel-a camel, nun-a fish, heth-a barrier, fence, teth-a ball, clew, lamed-the cane of a teacher, samekh-a fish, or a prop…

 

 

Comparing (see the chart) of today’s Greek, Latin, old Phoenician and Hebrew letters (graphemes) shows the following similarities and differences between the mentioned orthographic systems:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. The Greek sign ALPHA is represented exactly with the Phoenician sign which is the first letter of Phoenician alphabet as well. In Greek it happened that the sharp angle formed by two straight lines of the same length is turned upwards unlike the Phoenician sign where the same angle follows the direction of writing- to the left. By comparing this Greek sign with the Hebrew sign aleph (a) to wich it corresponds with its position in alphabet and some phonetic traits, we can also notice some familiarities. Namely, the Hebrew sign retained the so called “horns” on the head of a bull, which existed both in Phoenician and in Proto-Canaan sign for the phoneme aleph. The Hebrew sign doesn’t have the horizontal line even though this horizontal line appeared even in Proto-Canaan symbol for the sound aleph which was dated back to the thirteenth century BC.

 

2. BETA- the grapheme Bet in the Greek alphabet is adjusted to the direction of writing from left to right with the so called “bellies” turned right. The Phoenician sign for the same sound also has a belly turned in the direction of writing- to the left, but the lower belly is not completely formed. The lower belly on this grapheme formed only with Greeks. The Aramaic-Hebrew sign b (beth), which corresponds to Greek beta is completely adjusted to the direction of writing to the left; it is simplified and there is no so called belly. The Cyrillic sign: »Б«, represents a fully copied Phoenician corresponding sign, adjusted to the direction of writing with one belly turned downwards as a unique form of a base.

 

3. GAMMA- this grapheme in the Greek aplphabet represents a completely copied grapheme for the consonant: gimel (see the chart). Of course, it is adjusted to the direction of writing in Greek, so the upper horizontal line is turned to the right i.e. to the direction of writing, while in Phoenician it is turned to the left also to the direction of writing. Aramaic-Hebrew grapheme for this consonant: g (gimel), is somewhat more stylized in a manner where the Phoenician sign is used for the base to which a short line to the left in the base of the sign was added. This kind of stylizing of this grapheme in Aramaic-Hebrew alphabet was noticed as early as the second century BC. Before that the sign was very much like the Phoenician one. The Latin grapheme C graphically stems from the Phoenician gimel, however the form this sign is slightly changed and resembles the Samaritan: G, adjusted to the direction of writing to the right.

 

4. DELTA- this Greek grapheme is completely represented with the Phoenician sign for the consonant: daleth. The Latin sign for the same sound is somewhat more round on the right side. The Aramaic-Hebrew sign: daleth (d) lost its triangular shape over time by lengthening the right side of this equilateral triangle. This lengthening was recorded as early as the seventh century BC in the alphabet of the Ancient Jews. During the development of this grapheme with Jews, there were periods when this grapheme resembled the Latin letter P. With the belly on the left side tha is with an extreme lengthening of the right side of the Phoenician sign in the shape of an equilateral triangle. Although some old Jewish inscriptions from the ninth century BC were discovered in which the sound dalet was written completely the same as the Greek delta, the final shape of the Aramaic-Hebrew sign for this phoneme consists of one short horizontal line positioned to the left compared to the so called base of the sign and a longer vertical line. The upper line slightly goes out of the line of the base as it can be seen in the above provided sign for consonant dalet in the Hebrew language.

 

5.EPSILON This Greek sign for the sound (vocal): E is represented with a somewhat modernized Pheonician sign for the sound: »he« (see »Hebrew pronunciation«). Namely, the Phoenician sign had the vertical line placed on the right side which was appropriate for the direction of writing. In the Greek and Latin variant, the vertical line in the sign, which in a way represents the base of the sign, is placed on the left side and by doing so this sign in the Greek-Latin case was ajdusted to the direction of writing. In the Indo-European languages this sign is used to denote a vocal while in the Semitic languages it represents the consonant: He. In the Aramaic-Hebrew variant of this sign (h) the base vertical line positioned to the right in Phoenician is preserved as well as one upper horizontal line. The middle line becomes vertical and separated from the upper horizontal one, while the bottom horizontal line is omitted. The separating of the bottom horizontal line was noticed in inscriptions on the Old Hebrew as early as the sixth century BC while its complete omitting happens only in the second century BC.

 

6.The West Semitic sign: VAV (w) The Greek alphabet does not have a corresponding sihn for this Phoenician and Armaic-Hebrew sign. In the Latin alphabet this simbol exists. Semi-circle which was placed on the base of the sign and turned up started turning to the right around the ninth century BC and more and more started resembling modern Latin sign: F, only turned to the right, adjusted to the direction of writing. As early as the seventh century BC the sign was almost identical to the Latin sign: F, only turned to the right. In Aramaic-Hebrew alphabet the two horizontal lines placed on the base are omitted and only a fraction of the first one is preserved, more precisely turned to the left that is to the direction of writing. In the fifth century BC both of the mentioned horizontal lines were completely omitted in the Aramaic alphabet which later transfers to the Hebrew alphabet as well.

 

7.The Greek sign: ZETA is represented by a modified Phoenician sign. The Phoenician sign consisted of two long horizontal lines between which one long vertical line was placed. In the tenth century BC in the Old Hebre alphabet the middle vertical line was shortened and slowly begins to be written diagonally compared to the two horizontal ones which almost do not change at all. In the Greek and Latin alphabet the middle line is placed completely diagonally in the sign for the sound: Z. The Aramaic-Hebrew alphabet preserved only the middle vertical line for this sound, with a small knob on its upper part turned to the left that is in the direction of writing.: z

 

8.ETA- this Greek sign is represented by a modified Phoenician sign: HET. Namely, as it can be seen in the chart, the Phoenician sign was represented with two vertical lines between which three short horizontal lines with space between them were placed. In the ninth century BC in the Old Hebrew alphabet, the third horizontal line was omitted so only the two remain. Somewhat later, these two lines blend into one and thus the sign for the sound: eta in Greek and H in Latin developed. The Aramaic-Hebrew sign for the sound: het (j) retains the two vertical and the first horizontal line from the Phoenician sign and the latter is placed on top of the two vertical lines so that it resembles the cyrillic letter: П. The complete modification of this Aramaic-Hebrew sign was recorded only in the second century BC.

 

9.THETA- this Greek sign represents a copied Phoenician sign, very little modified. The Phoenician sign: Teth, was represented by a circle in which there was a cross. The Greek sign is also represented by a circle but the cross is modified into one short horizontal line inside the circle. IN the Old Hebrew alphabet this circle slightly opened in order to be written easier and faster and on the place where the small opening ended astroke on the inside was written to denote the existence of a sign in the circle. This king of writing was recorded in writings in Old Hebrewdated back to the  fifth century BC. In the Aramaic-Hebrew variant of the same sign, a similar manner of writing to the Old Hebrew is preserved: f

 

10.IOTA- there are more or less reasonable doubts that this Greek and also Latin sign used for marking the sounds: I, J can be related to the Phoenician adn Old Hebrew sign for the sound: Yod. This kind of thinking is popular primarily because Phoenician and Old Hebrew signs for the mentioned sounds consist of, as you can see in the chart, a single vertical and two or three horizontal lines that cross the vertical line. This kind of development of the Greek and Latin grapheme is related to a simplifying of writing of the sign's base- the vertical line. In the Aramaic-Hebrew variant, there is a sign which is to somewhat shorter than the other signs and which is usually represented by a short line, which much later got the shape of a comma or a knob: y -this sign is used in Aramaic and Hebrew to mark the sound: Y, while the name of the sign itself is »Yod«.

 

11.KAPPA- this Greek and Latin sign is actually a somewhat modified Phoenician and Old Hebrew sign. Namely, the Phoenician sign had the shape of a small rake turned upwards with three prongs. Over time ( in the ninth century BC), the right prong of the rake was lengthend downwards so that the result was a sign resembling the Greek and Latin letter K but it was positioned with the prongs facing up. In the Greek and Latin alphabet the sign was adjusted to the direction of writing. In the Aramaic-Hebrew alphabet which is still used in the Hebrew language, the prongs changed into a thick and short horizontal line which on its rigth end has a line downwards that is a vertical line that bends to the left i.e. in the direction of writing parallelly with the upper line: k. It is used to denote sounds: kaph (K) and haph (H).

 

12.LAMBDA- the Greek sign used to mark the sound: L, is almost a copied Phoenician sign for the same sound. Namely, the Phoenician sign had the same shape as the Greek lambda ( like the cyrillic: Л) but it was turned with its opening to the right that is towards the point from which the writing started in the Phoenician language. One side in the Phoenician sign was usually slightly longer than the other one. The Latin sign seems to originate from the Old Hebrew sign for the sound: L. In the ninth century BC the Old Hebrew sign resembled the Latin one, but the bottom shorter line was turned to the right and it was not perpendicular to the vertical line. It can be said that the sign looked like Latin: J turned to the right. The Aramaic-Hebrew sign: lamed, obtains its final shape in the second century BC. Namely, the longer line from the Phoenician sign lengthens even more and it is placed vertically; the short line continues downwards in a zig-zag move. Only later in the modern alphabet was this sign represented exactly by this stroke and the second vertical line which is the base of the signn becomes shorter:

 

13.MI- the Greek sign, which was preserved in its entirety from the age of written Phoenician, somewahta modified and adjusted to the direction of writing. The Phoenician sign for the sound: M, represented waves of water, two to three waves placed vertically in the shape of a waterfall ( see the chart). The Greek and Latin sign was represented by two waves in two strokes using four lines. The Aramaic-Hebrew sign developed somewhat differently, so that in Old Hebrew somewhwere around the ninth century BC waves by which this sign is represented are places horizontally and one right prong is lengthened. In the fifth century BC the waves change their shape into a thick semi-circular line  placed horizontally in comparison with the vertical  earlier developed line, which represents an appendix of the end wave from the Phoenician sign. Apart from this, a base was added to the vertical line parallelly to the thick semi-circular line. From the thick semi-circular line there is a vertical line which was added later and thus the result is an irregular square. In the end the Aramaic-Hebrew sign has this shape: m

 

14.NI- the simbol by which in Greek and Latin the sound: N is represented, follows faithfully the Phoenician sign for the same sound but it is adjusted to the needs of these languages that is to the direction of writting. Namely,the Phoenician sign consisted of one-stroke line, actually a curve in the shape of the reversed latin letter: Z (see the chart). The Greek and Latin sign was adjusted to the direction of writting so it is turned in way that its base consists of the upper and the bottom line of the Phoenician sign and between them remained the diagonal line going from left to right. In the he Armaic-Hebrew sign for the same sound the bottom line which later becomes the base of the sign was lengthened in comparison with the Phoenician sign in the ninth century BC. Only in the seventh century BC the line in its lower part slightly bends to the left i.e. in the direction of writing. The upper line shortened or in some forms of the Old Hebrew alphabet it was even omitted. In the Hebrew alphabet today, it looks exactly like that: n

 

15.KSI- the Greek sign which develped from the Phoenician sign used to denote the sound :S. This Phoenician sign also gave the sign: X in the Latin language and the sign for the consonant: sameh (s) in Hebrew. The Phoenician sign had three short horizontal lines which were crossed by a single long vertical line so that it resembled an antena ( see the picture). In the Greek sign only the vertical line was omitted. The Latin sign has a somewhat different structure- two crossing lines so we get the sign: X, while the case of the Aramaic and Hebrew sign sameh is different. Over time, less attention was paid to writing of the three horizontal lines. Precedence was given exactly to the middle vertical line and the writing of the sign begins with this very line to the left which rounds  slightly and the three horizontal lines are written in one stroke without any specal attention. Later, in the second century BC the three horizontal lines blend into one thick flamboyant line which together with the base or the vertical line makes a circle. Today the sign for the sound sameh looks like this: s.

 

16.OMIKRON-this Greek and later Latin sign for the vocal: O, represents a completely imitated Phoenician sign for a similar sound. Namely, in the West Semitic languages it is the guttural sound: ayin (see about ayin). The Aramaic-Hebrew sign gets a shape of a triangle here and later in the sixth century BC the right side of the triangle was lengthened, while the triangle itself lost the shape and opened. Tofay this sign in Hebrew looks like this: i

 

17.PI-this Greek sign is actually more developed than the Phoenician one which was also used to denote the sound: P. In Phoenician this sign was represented with a short narrow line, from which a longer one went downwards in a shape of a base. Later the Greek sign obtained the contemporary shape (Cyrillic П). In Latin a sign for Greek Rho was used here. The Aramaic and Hebrew use a somewhat more developed sign: p

 

18.KU-this sign and sound do not exist in Greek but instead they are found in the Latin alphabet where a Phoenician sign for the emphatic sound kof was copied. The only modification is a shortened vertical base line from the Phoenician sign, while the base is exactly the circle. The Aramaic and Hebrew alphabet retain the vertical line of the Phoenician sign as the base while the circle is smaller and even open. Finally, Hebrew sign gets this shape: q

 

19. RO- name of the Greek sign for the sound: R, it is actually a copied Phoenician sign for the same sound. Namely, the Phoenician sign was just turned in the direction of writing to the left, while the Greek one was adjusted to writing to the right. The Aramaic and Hebrew sign got just one curved vertical line instead of getting a complete oval circle placed on the vertical line representing a base. The Hebrew sign for the sound: R retains this form even today-r

 

20. SIGMA- is a sign copied from the Phoenician alphabet adjusted to fit the direction of writing from left to right. The Phoenician sign used to mark the sounds: S, Š- had the form of the today’s Greek sign sigma with its prongs upwards. In latin prongs are rounded and the product is the Latin letter: S. In the Cyrillic alphabet the form of the Phoenician and Hebrew shin with the flat base remains. The Hebrew letter shin i.e. sin has this form: c.v

 

21. TAU- this is the Greek sign for the sound: T i.e. a modified Phoenician sign for the same sound. In Greek the Phoenician sign stopped being used in the form of a cross, instead the vertical line of the cross becomes the base while being lengthened. The same happened in Latin. The Aramaic and Hebrew sign for the same sound gained this form: t. Consequently, the cross is disassembled in two vertical lines which are linked with a new one.

 

It can be concluded from the contrastive graphic analyses of several alphabets that the Greek and Latin alphabets maybe inherited, that is adopted 21 graphemes out of the existing 22 from the Aramaic and Hebrew alphabets. The remaining graphemes in the Greek and Latin alphabets were developed later, probably as creations produced by combining the existing Western Semitic graphemes or by direct personal conceptual graphic designs of certain ancient writers.

 

 Since the Slavic alphabet was at first the Glagolitic alphabet, this alphabet can be compared just graphically with the Phoenician and Old Greek ones. However, there is few scientists who find common elements in that case. Still, it is necessary to do a special analysis about that. Today, the prevalent scientific opinion is that the Glagolitic alphabet was designed by Ćiril who in 863 came among Moravians to preach Christianity. The fact that many Glagolitic signs have the same form as some signs from the Phoenician alphabet used to mark the same sounds should be pondered upon.  It can be said that the Greek signs also have the basic outlines, and as it was already displayed they developed directly from the Phoenician alphabet. Some Glagolitic signs are a combination of two simpler Glagolitic signs. (These are the signs such as shta/shcha, yery etc.). The sign AZ in Glagolitic alphabet has the outline of the Phoenician aleph and Greek alpha. There are legs of an imagined triangle visible in the sign but in this case they cross each other and form a cross, only there is no base of the triangle which in the Greek and the Phoenician sign goes across the legs of the triangle. The sign Buky in the Glagolitic alphabet is turned in the same direction as the Phoenician sign; the belly is turned up instead of down in the Cyrillic sign, as a base. The base in the Buky sign is a horizontal line and the belly is latticed that is just stylized in comparison with the Phoenician sign. The sign: Vedi could have been invented additionally, but Glagoli has the basic short diagonal line serving as a base- the same as the Phoenician sign; the upper short line from the Phoenician sign morphed into a small complete circle so analogously the bottom small circle in the Glagoli sign could have been added to form symmetry. Thus, the signs were circled or rounded during time. The sign: dobro has the outline of the Phoenician: Daleth, again with rounded bottom angles of the triangle, but the top of the triangle was somewhat rounded as well. Also the Glagolitic sign: Yesti, has the form of the Phoenician: He from which the Greek sign: Eta developed, but in the Greek alphabet the sign changed the direction, following the direction of writing, while in the Glagolitic alphabet it retained the direction i.e. it was written opposite to the direction of writing. Generally speaking, not analysing every sign of the Glagolitic alphabet, influences of the Phoenician alphabet can be seen, maybe even direct influence before Greek, but also the Phoenician indirect influence. The sign: shta or shcha is a direct copying of the Phoenician sign for the sound: Sh, which was as such later brought into the Cyrillic alphabet as well. The signs: myslite, pokoj, rtsi, slovo, tverdo… also have the basic contours of the Greek and indirectly Phoenician signs. These are facts, so it can be concluded that the Slavs adopted if not all at least many of the signs in their alphabet from Greeks, that is indirectly (however disputable it may be whether it was really indirect) from the Phoenicians. The order of letters in the Glagolitic alphabet is also Phoenician i.e. Western Semitic. Later on, the Slavs start using the Cyrillic alphabet as a product of the Phoenician alphabet which reached them via Greece as early as the 10th century A.D.  The Roman peoples bring the Latin scrypt to the Slavs which they inherited from the Latins. The basic lines of almost every sign of the Cyrillic and the Latin alphabet are direct copies of the old West Semitic alphabets- the Phoenician and the Old Hebrew.

 

 

THE CONTEMPORARY HEBREW ALPHABET

Both the old and the new Hebrew alphabet do not differentiate between the capital and the lower case letters but only a few letters have a different form when they occupy final positions in words, similar to the Arabic alphabet just much simpler. Vowels are mostly omitted in writing. The Hebrew alphabet is written from right to left.

In the following chart contemporary Hebrew letters can be seen and also easily learned:

Alef

Bet

Gimel

Dalet

He

Vav

Zajin

Het

Tet

Yod

Kaf

א

ב

ג

ד

ה

ו

ז

ח

ט

י

כ

ך

Lamed

Mem

Nun

Same

Ajin

Pe

Cadi

Kof

Resh

Shin

Tav

ל

מ

נ

ס

ע

פ

צ

ק

ר

ש

ת

ם

ן

ף

ץ

 

For a better understanding of the contemporary Hebrew alphabet’s development, take a look at the following chart:

Letter names

Forms

Contemporary Hebrew

Ancient Hebrew

Print type I

Print type II

Print type III

Handwritten letters

Rashi type

The Phoenician alphabet

Paleo-Hebrew alphabet

The Aramaic alphabet

Alef

א

א

א

Bet

ב

ב

ב

Gimel

ג

ג

ג

Dalet

ד

ד

ד

He

ה

ה

ה

Vav

ו

ו

ו

Zajin

ז

ז

ז

Het

ח

ח

ח

Tet

ט

ט

ט

Jod

י

י

י

Kaf

כ

כ

כ

Final position Kaf

ך

ך

ך

Lamed

ל

ל

ל

Mem

מ

מ

מ

Final position Mem

ם

ם

ם

Nun

נ

נ

נ

Final position Nun

ן

ן

ן

Sameh

ס

ס

ס

Ajin

ע

ע

ע

Pe

פ

פ

פ

Final position Pe

ף

ף

ף

Cadi

צ

צ

צ

,

Final position Cadi

ץ

ץ

ץ

Kof

ק

ק

ק

Resh

ר

ר

ר

Shin

ש

ש

ש

Tav

ת

ת

ת

 

In order to mark vowels correctly a number of diacritic mark (dots and dashes used to mark vowels [nikud]) systems was developed. One of these, the so called Tiberian system became dominant  over time. Aaron ben Moses ben Asher and many generations of his family are concidered to be the ones to who should be thanked for inventing and perfecting this system. The aforementioned marks are used for special purposes such as in biblical texts, poetry and in teaching Hebrew.   There is a number of signs in the Tiberian system for cantillations which show how to cantillate certain quotations (similar to European neumes), and also a number of crowns which are used exclusively in the Torah scrolls.

Hebew letters can also be used as numbers (most often in the Bible), however, Arabic  that is Western numerals are in everyday use today..

 

 CURIOSITIES OF THE BIBLICAL TEXT

 

 None of the books of the Old Testament reached us in autographic form (autograph is an original text andwritten by the author). All we have are actually transcripts. Since printing press was once non-existent, books were transcribed on papyrus or parchment (leather). Since the Old Testament books were voluminous and transcribers were just human beings who make mistakes some minor mistakes crept  into the original text during the transcription. Most of this kind of mistakes were actually unintentional. Let’s list a few examples so that it can be understood to what extent these mistakes influenced the Bible which is available to us today.

First of all, the replacement of similar consonants is quite common. (see the chart)

 

Bet and resh

Reš and dalet

Tet i ajin

Kaf i nun

He i het

b

r

r

d

 

As it can be seen in the chart consonants pairs bet and resh, resh and dalet, tet and ajin, kaf and nun, he and het, mem and nun, kaf and nun etc., are similar in the Old Hebrew alphabet.

In the square Hebrew alphabet, which is of recent date as we already said, similar consonant pairs are dalet and resh, he and het, bet and kaf, jod and vav etc.

 

Bet and resh

Resh and dalet

Tet and ajin

Kaf and nun

He and het

Ajin and cadi

Final position Kaf and final position nun

b

r

f

k

h

š[

^

r

d

š[

n

j

x

@

 

When this kind of a mistake is made, a Hebrew word can change its meaning. So, for example, there can be a case where instead of the word hyh haja which means ”he was” a text transcriber writes haja hyj which means ”an animal”. However, this and similar kinds of mistakes can easily be discovered in a Hebrew text, primarily according to the meaning. This is because if there was, for example, ”a man was on a mountain” or ”a man animal mountain”  in a Hebrew text, it would be clear that an unintentional mistake had occurred during  the transcription and we would deduce from the meaning that this is the past tence of the verb ”to be” and not some animal. Even though this kind of mistakes is very rare there are many bible credibility critics and thus, it was important to explain here what exactly is caused by such unintentional transription mistakes. As it can be seen they do not cause anything of great importance.

It happend often that a metathesis of consonants (metathesis is a shift of positions) occured during a mechanical transcription. So, for example, instead of the instance abv there is avb or instead of bhr there is brh. This occurence, especially because Hebrew is written almost exclusively with consonants, sometimes resulted in a transcriber writing jrb barah which means”to escape” instead of rjb bahar which means”to choose”. Even these mistakes couldn’t influence understanding and credibility of the text because every text and even every sentence has its meaning so it is impossible that someone throughout the text chooses what to eat and what to drink, and all of a sudden, when they need to choose weat as well, they do not choose it but they ”escape weat”.

It happened often that a transcriber instead of writing two adjacent identical or similar letters writes only one. It is as if someone wrote incorrectly “ocurence“ instead of “occurrence” in English. This mistake is called haplography. Thus, for example, in the Second Book of Samael 7:23 there is correctly written lifdot lo leam while for the same thing in Chronicles 1 17: 21 there is an incorrect form lifdot lo am. Sometimes dittography occurs which is actually double writing of one or more letters. So, for example, in Jeremiah 29:19 there is the correctly written !yabnh haneviim, while in Jeremiah 7:25 there is an incorrect form hanevijim !yyabnh, which is a misspelling of the transriber and can be a proof showing that the transcriber didn’t look at the text the whole time but he read several words of the text and then wrote them down from his memory.

 It happened sometimes that a whole row or a whole passage was omitted because of the transcriber’s inattention. This most commonly occurred between two same words. Sometimes, a transcriber would misinterpret  abbreviations, so for example in Isiah 7:10 once there was the abbreviation y (J) which was abbreviated from why[vy (Yeshayahu), but later this abbreviation was transcribed incorrectly and it tuned to hwhy (Yahweh).

Some texts were listened and then transcribed. A person who knew the text by heart dictated it to a transcriber who wrote it and could have made a series of mistakes. If you contemplate this idea, these situations actually had two people responsible. The responsibility for making a mistake can go both to the dictator and the transcriber. The person dictating could have forgotten a word or even a sentence while the person writing could have misheard a word and thus wrote it incorrectly. So, for example, in the Book of Isaiah, which was actually found as a whole in Qumran, in the first column of the 26th row (this can be seen in photographs as well as in the analysis of a part of the Book of Isaiah in this book) some words are in plural while in the masoretic text of Isaiah singular forms of the words occupy these positions.

Apart from the listening mistakes, mistakes made out of ignorance or inattention also occur. It mostly happened that the transriber didn’t know how exactly to write a certain word. If the transcriber listened to a person dictate, these mistakes were common because it is easier to transcribe a text than to write a dictation.  There is a lot of these instances in the Qumran Manuscripts, but a good example is the penultimate word of the first column of the 9th row of Isaiah where the word ’’tkphmk ke – mahpekat ’’ was written as: ’’tkpmk ke- mapekat ’’. The greatest disadvantage for the Bible transcribers was the way words were written in a text. An important characteristic of a Hebrew text in that time was WRITINGWORDSWITHOUTPUNCUATIONMARKSANDSPACESBETWEENWORDS so some unintentional mistakes crept in because of this writing characteristic.  

Intentional change of the text happend when a hardly understandable expression was intended to be replaced by a more easily understood expression or when some place changed because of dogmatic reasons. There were cases when words used to explain the text which were written between the rows or on the margins were afterwards implemented int he text itself. These are glosses. So in Is. 4, 18:13: hi’ beth – el, behind the word lez is a gloss. In Kings 2 9:4 related to the word r[nh (ha – na’ar) in the text, someone wrote the same word and added the explanation ybnhr[nh hn’r hnbj’ on the margin. Later the transcriber implemented this margin note into the text, so today we read ybnh r[nh (ha-na’ar ha-navi). A great authority in the area of biblical manuscripts, Fenton Hort, said a very importand thing concerning the Bible transcribers: ’’In spite of very real possibilites to ill-produce the text during the transcription, the overall work of the transcribers was done with great care and credibility. Actually, it was assessed that variations exist only in a thousandth of the whole text”. This Hort’s statement taken into concideration, we can truely be astonished by the Bible transcribers’ work. Since we know that their writing technique consiseted only of leather and a quill pen, we cannot help thinking that maybe even God himself guarded the correctness of the biblical text. Look at any of the books printed in the computer era. They all have mistakes. There can be found spelling and punctuation mistak, printing mistakes, material mistakes of the author etc. Don’t forget that every computer writing program allows writing and deleting, they even correct grammar and spelling mistakes in many languages.  After this, the author usually reads the text for several more times and corrects mistakes, an editor reads and they also correct it, then proofreading is done once more and the book is sent to printing. And in spite of all that, mistakes are still there. The Bible transcribers couldn’t make a mistake with leather and a quillpen. Think of the Isaiah’s scroll found in Qumran. It is over seven meters long, written in 54 columns. If a transcriber made just one serious mistake and he was aware of it he had to start the work all over again. Unintentional mistakes of the transribers remained, but first the Jewish and then many other scientists corrected them for us over centuries.

All these mistakes couldn’t have left a trace on the quality and understanding of any biblical sentence. Bearing in mind that there is a great number of transcriptions and later translations, certain small mistakes remained even today while other were corrected over time. It can be freely said that The Correct version of the Bible doesn’t exist. Every transcription and every translation has a number of unintentional mistakes and sometimes even intentional ones. Luckyly, all of the abovementioned forms of mistakes can easily be discovered if you know primarily Hebrew and Greek and then maybe Latin also or, say, the Old Slavic language.  Many scientists, translatiors and publishing houses have done this work for us, so knowing these languages is not necessary if we trust translators and scientists. Again, there is no such thing as The Correct version of the Bible in a sence that every letter and dash is correct, but on the other hand, we can argue with absolute certainty that every sentence is preserved with its clear meaning to this day. Let’s also repeat that knowing primarily Hebrew but Old Greek also is a way to a world where we can discover that statements you read until now are true.

In 1947 very old manuscripts were found in caves beside the Dead Sea in a small place of Qumran. This discovery triggered an avalanche of fear in the Church, desire of scientists and joy of linguists. Thes manuscripts mostly consisted of parts of the Old Testament. They were written during a long period of time. Some manuscripts were created 2400 years ago, while other date to 1950 years ago. What is most important, the discovery of these manuscripts proved that what we can read in the Bible today and what was written 3000 years ago is apsolutely identical in meaning.

 

 

 

 

 

EXAMPLES OF COMMON LANGUAGE ROOTS AND WORDS IN WESTERN SEMITIC AND SLAVIC LANGUAGES

 

 

A

 

ABRAKADABRA- Western Semitic word, believed to possess magical power. 30 Its origin is Aramaic and it consists of three words which are: arba (ABRA), k' KA), hrbd (DABRAH). The first word is a verb that means- let it be, it will be, it will be done, I will create, I will do (cohortative mood). The next word is a preposition ‘as’, and the third word is participle form of the verb ‘speak’, or a noun- speech, speaking. The whole word means the following- ‘Let it be as I speak’. It is used in many world languages, and thus can be one of the best examples of the influence of Western Semitic languages on Indo-European languages in general.

 

ANCIENT, ANTIQUITY- The word that has probably entered most of Indo-European languages and thus Slavic languages, via Western Semitic languages. The evidence for this is a Western Semitic word ‘qyt['’ (, read as: atik), which represents the notion of age or antiquity in general. By adding certain sounds, we got the word ‘Antiquity’ 31 (French: antique). In this case, the sound is ‘n’ 21, probably added in order to simplify the pronunciation, given that guttural ayin is on the primary location of the Western Semitic word, which is, itself, very difficult to pronounce for the non-Semitic nations (French: antique).

 

Notes:

30. SANURSKN-1: Magical word, with no defined meaning, which has a magical power to cure the disease.

31. SANURSKN-1: German- Antik. Represents the ancient Greco-Roman period and the art of this period.

 

 

B

 

BAJATI, VRAČATI (Serbian for: to practice sorcery)- It can be compared to a Western Semitic word, i.e. verb root hyp(PAYA), which denotes: mouth, oral cavity, imperpetual speech and so. Labial plosive sound at the front of this Western Semitic word  was easily transferred into Slavic as ’B’, as its phonological counterpart 1. Consonant ’he’ in Western Semitic word is only an affix to the root, written in order to retain the word’s integrity in conjugation and declination of certain nouns that can possibly be derived from it. Based on the above, we might conclude that the Slavic verb ’bajati’ and Western Semitic verb ’paya’ are very similar, both semantically and phonologically. Incantation (bajanje) is a from of imperpetual speech 40, but it is used in order to summon the so-called supernatural powers. Thus, in this case, we can notice a great degree of homonymy between these verbs.

 

BAJKA (Serbian for: Fairy tale)- look at: Bajati (Serbian for: To practice sorcery)

 

BATINA (Serbian for: Bludgeon, rod) 47 It can be compared and possibly linked to the Hebrew term used to indicate the types of snakes: Cobra-@ t p (Peten). As cobra has a shape of a rod, while the head and the neck are broader than the rest of its body, they can, in some way, be seen as a handle, whereas the body of the snake might represent the rod. In addition, Moses turned a rod into a snake when he presented God’s power to the Egyptian Pharaoh. The Hebrew has the consonant ’p’ (pe) at the front, which often turns into the consonant ’b’, when a Semitic word is transferred into a non-Semitic language 1. Both Serbian and Semitic word have almost completely common consonants. Phonologically, they are almost identical regarding the consonants, while semantically- they are very similar.

 

BIRATI (Serbian for: To choose) 48 Western Semitic verb root: h r b   (BRH), has ’b’ and ’r’ as the basic consonants (those who are bearers of meaning) and precisely indicates choosing. The final guttural ’he’ in the above word is an extension of the vowel in front of ’he’ and the consonant used for the completion of the root. Phonological and semantic similarity of the two roots (Western Semitic and Slavic) is obvious. Russian: Vybirać, Czech: Vybirat.

 

BLATO (Serbian for: Mud) This Slavic word is comparable to the Western Semitic root: f l p (PLT), which denotes: throwing out, extraction, softening, dilution. The Serbian word, ’blato’ 41 has the consonants: b, l, t. It is obvious that in the case of Western Semitic word,  these same consonant are the bearers of meaning, except for the first one which has an unvoiced bi-labial form, therefore- the sound ’p’ as the first consonant, while in Slavic word, there is ’b’ at the front 1. (Here we can compare Western Semitic root MLT with ’malter’, which is Serbian for ’mortar’) Therefore, it can be assumed that the two compared terms are related both phonologically and semantically, although each one belongs to a completely different language family.

 

BOL (Serbian for: Pain) This Slavic word can be compared to the Wsetern Semitic root: h l b (BLH), which means: aging, deterioration, state of disease. As you can see, the Western Semitic root contains two consonants which are the basis. The third consonant is ’h’ (he), which is used as a complement to the root and an extension of the vowel in front it. One could say that this consonant does not really belong to the root, and therefore isn’t the phonological basis of the meaning that the root conveys. The Slavic word ’bol’ 42 also consists of the consonants ’b’ and ’l’. We might say that the Serbian and the Western Semitic words are very similar in phonological terms, and somewhat similar regarding the meaning.

 

BRAT (Serbian for: Brother) 43 A Pan-Slavic word which can be compared toa Western Semitic word which means: relationship, alliance, unity, kinship. Namely, we’re talking about the word: t y r b   (BERIT). As we can notice, the consonant construction of the Slavic and the Western Semitic word are identical, while the vowels, which are usually variable, differ. The two compared words are somewhat similar semantically, i.e. their meanings can be correlated, whereas, phonologically, they are identical, as far as consonants are concerned.

 

BRATI (Serbian for: To collect) 44 In Ben Shoshan’s Hebrew Dictionary, the verb root a r b   (BRX) means: taking, fetching, collecting, gathering crops. The final letter is a guttural aleph, that is not pronounced nowadays, nor it was earlier in the biblical period, especially not when at the end of the word, but it is rather used as before- as an extension of vowels or as a sound for the completion of the root. We can clearly notice structural and semantic similarity of the two roots (Hebrew and Slavic). Russian: Brać, Czech: Sbirat. Slavic root only contains consonants ’b’ and ’r’ and these very consonants are bearers of meaning in the abovementioned Hebrew verb root. It is difficult to determine whether this root is a common Western Semitic root or just Hebrew.

 

BRISATI (Serbian for: Delete) The word which can be compared to the Western Semitic root: s r p   (PRS), which means: compression, retreating, deletion. In Hebrew, for example, it can also mean- stretching. (Although it can also be compared to Western Semitic root: B-R-SH, look: BRUSITI) We can easily notice the similarity of the Slavic and the Western Semitic word 45, in terms of consonants. The second and the third root consonants are the same in both words. In Western Semitic word, the first consonant is ’p’ (pe), while in the Slavic word, it is ’b’ 1. By the way, given that these sounds frequently replace each other, we might consider this word as an example of this type of replacement. By setting and comparing consonants this way, with them being part of both Slavic and Western Semitic word, we can say that they are very similar phonologically and very close in meaning.

 

BRUSITI (Serbian for: To hone) 46 This verb ia associated with the Western Semitic root: v r b   (BRsh) which denotes: scraping, grinding, scaling, brushing. The Western Semitic word contains ’sh’ (shin) as the final consonant that could become the consonant ’s’ in Slavic, which usually happens in other examples. 2 In this regard, the Serbian and the Western Semitic words are phonologically very similar, regarding consonants, but they also show certain resemblence in semantical terms.

 

BRZ (Serbian for: Fast) 43 An adjective which is comparable to the Western Semitic verb root: $ r b (BRC) which indicates the speed, turmoil, upheaval, highlighting, passing. It's easy to see that the first two consonants are identical in both words, but it can be assumed that the third consonant of the Western Semitic word could possibly turn into the sound  ’z’ 9 in the Slavic word. On the basis of these assumptions, we can conclude that the aforementioned Slavic and Western Semitic words are phonologically close, as far as consonants are concerned, and that they bear semantical resemblence.

 

Notes:

40. PSERHS-1,  p.93, states that the original meaning of the word ’bajati’ was: speak, and thus the basis of the word is of ancient Slavic origin: BA- this basis occurs only in old Czech and the Lechitic language. Its derivatives are ’bajka’, ’basna’... (fairy tales, fables)

41. PSERHS-1, p. 168, states that the word ’blato’ (mud) is a Pan-Slavic word and ancient Slavic word, and is thus considered to have pre-Indo-European origin, more precisely- it is derived from the word ’bal-ta’ and denotes wetland area.

42. PSERHS-1, p. 185, states that the word ’bol’ (pain) has a root that is common for Slavic languages and is dated to ancient Slavic period, so that there were no clear links to the Indo-European languages.

43. PSERHS-1, p. 199, As for the word ’brat’, it says that it  is a Pan-Slavic word from the ancient Slavic period and is associated with the Indo-European basis: BHRA. There is also some evidence that the words that denote kinship are often being borrowed for no reason.

44. PSERHS-1, p.201, At the entry ’brati’, it is said to come from the Pan-Slavic verb from the ancient Slavic period.

45. PSERHS-1, p.211, At the entry ’brisati’, it is said to be a Pan-Slavic post verbal form, and thus the connections of this Slavic word with some of the Indo-European languages ​​can not be determined.

46. PSERHS-1, p. 220, At the entry ’brusiti’, it is said to be a Pan-Slavic imperfective form, and that it can be related to some Indo-European languages , which reduces but does not exclude the possibility a linguistic root common with the Western Semitic word.

47. PSERHS-1, p.120, The word ’batina’ is said to be of ancient Slavic origin, and it is thus assumed that it has a Indo-European basis, derived from the root ’udarati’ (to hit).

48. PSERHS-1, p. 201, it is stated that the word is of ancient Slavic origin and a Pan-Slavic word.

49. PSERHS-1, p.222, it is stated that the word is an ancient Slavic adjective.

 

 

 

 

C

 

 

CAR (Serbian for: Tzar) 63 A Slavic word comparable to the Western Semitic word: r c (SAR) which means: leader, tzar, envoy, minister... As we can see, the Slavic version has ’c’ as the first consonant, while the Western Semitic word has ’s’ (sin) as the first consonant. Based on the above, we can conclude that the above two words very similar, semantically and phonologically.

 

CRTATI (Serbian for: To draw) 62 This word has its equivalent in Western Semitic languages. The Western Semitic root f r c   (SRT) denotes- scratching, scraping, cutting, drawing. Western Semitic consonant sin he could have possibly turned into the sound ’c’ 3 , in the Slavic word. The central and the final consonant remained unchanged (Russian: cherta. Czech: chrta). Later, during the writing of the Talmud, the word f w f r c (SIRTUT) appeared in Hebrew, based on the existing abovementioned verb root, which denotes- drawing. We can conclude that the compared words are phonologically similar and thus very similar in meaning.

 

CVET (Serbian for: Flower) (Colour) The Slavic word for colour is ’cvet’ 61 The Serbian language has no adequate word in this case. To denote this word, Serbs use a Turkish loanword ’boja’. Western Semitic root: [bx (CVXX), meaning: colour, which is used in Hebrew, has two common consonants with the Slavic word ’cvet’. These are ’c’ and ’v’. As for the third consonant (ayin), we can assume that, in this case, it is not pronounced, or that it has been removed from the Slavic version in order to faciliate the pronunciation. Even in modern Hebrew, ayin is not pronounced, especially when it is at the end of the word or non-vocalized. In Serbian, Slavic root remained in use, as with the word  ’cvetanje’ (blossom) and all the words that can be furtherly derived. As for Russian, the correlation between ’cvet’ (meaning: colour) and ’cvet’ meaning ’flower’ is evident, that is- single word is used for describing both colour and flower. Logically, using the same principle, we can correlate Western Semitic word ’cevaxx’ to the Slavic word ’cvet’ (colour, flower). So, Slavic and Western Semitic root of the word ’flower’ are very close, both semantically and phonologically, given that they both consist of two identical consonants.

 

NOTES:

61. PSERHS-1 It is stated that the word ’cvet’ is a Pan-Slavic word from the ancient Slavic period, p.281

62. PSERHS-1 It is said that this word is a Pan-Slavic word and that it is a derivative form from the ancient Slavic period, being derived from the terms which then denoted -plug, an iron knife, str.278

63. PSERHS-1 It is said that it was a Slavic version of the Byzantine term ’kajsar’ meaning ’car’, thus, perhaps a loan translation, p. 258

 

 

                                                               Ć

 

 

  ĆUTATI, šutati (Serbian for: To be silent) 64 This word can be correlated with the Hebrew verb: h t v   (SATA) which means: killing, death, nothingness, silence. It must, of course, be distinguished from the verb of identical root, meaning ’to drink’. Consonant ’sh’ (shin) which is the first letter of the Hebrew word could have transferred into an affricate sound ’ć’ in the Serbian word 20, given that such transformations can be seen in other loanwords of other recipient languages. The final ’he’ of the Hebrew word is, as we already said, a complement to the base. (See: JURITI) In this case, the Hebrew and Slavic verb could be very similar, both phonologically and semantically, and thus they could be somewhat connected.

 

NOTES:

64. PSERHS-1 It is stated that this is a Pan-Slavic word and that it comes from the ancient Slavic period, p.367

 

 

                                                             D

 

 

DATI (Serbian for: To give) 70 This common Indo-European word, and thus Slavic, can be compared to the Western Semitic word: @ t n (NTN) which has the same meaning: to give. This Western Semitic root is very volatile when conjugated. Namely, the first consonant ’n’ (nun) assimilates with the following consonant ’t’ (tav) in the imperfective, imperative, infinitive form and disappears. The final ’n’ (nun) disappears in the infinitive and perfective form. The only constant consonant is in fact ’t’ (tav), and thus can be considered a semantic basis. In the Akkadian language, which is also Semitic, the root is the same but instead of consonants ’t ’(tav), in the middle, there is ’d’ as a secondary radical of the root. The sound ’d’ ​​is the only consonant in the root in the Slavic languages as well, the vowels are changeable, prefixes and suffixes as well and in the end there is only this sound left. Based on the above, it can be concluded that the aforementioned Western Semitic and Slavic (Indo-European) words are semantically identical and possibly similar in phonological terms.

 

DAVORITI (Serbian, old-fashioned: To sing ) 71 This verb can be correlated with the Western Semitic root: r b d (DBR) which denotes: speech, pronunciation, recitation. As you can see, all three consonants of the Slavic word also occur in Western Semitic word, except for  the consonant which is in the middle. In Western Semitic word, there is  ’b’ (bet), which, as already mentioned, may turn into vet, i.e. ’v’, even in Western Semitic languages- during the formation of various types of words out of the root containing consonant ’b’ (bet). Based on the above, we can assume that these two words are similar to some degree, both semantically and phonologically.

 

DEBEO 75  (Serbian for: Fat) In Western Semitic languages, the root: b d (DB, DV), denotes a being or an object of large proportions. In Hebrew, for example, this root means ’bear’. The first two consonants are the same in the two words compared (in Western Semitic root and Slavic word). We could say that they are similar, in phonologically and semantically. If we think about this further, we should mention the Slavic word ’div’ which also denotes a being of large proportions. Consonant ’v’, which is at the end of this word, could have been generated from the consonant ’b’ 19 (the final consonant of the Western Semitic word), which is often the case when certain word is transferred from one language to another and this might have occured in this example.

 

DEDA, đed 73 (Serbian for: Grandfather) This word is compared to a Pan-Slavic word, and thus to the Western Semitic root: d g   (GD) which means: grandfather, father's father. As shown above, the consonant gimel (g) is at the beginning of the above Western Semitic word, and gimel used to be pronounced as Serbian ’dž’ when it was used in this position. In modern Hebrew, this consonant is pronounced like Serbian ’g’, although it occurs at the beginning of words. The Arabic language still uses ’dž’ at the beginning. So, we can assume that, during the possible word’s transfer, the replacement of consonants occured. Namely, the Western Semitic ’dž’ could have transferred into a soft ’d’ in Slavic languages, and then- into ’đ’. 4 By comparing the two consonant factors of the two words this way, it can be concluded that these words are phonologically and semantically similar.

 

DOBAR 74  (Serbian for: Good) In some Serbian etymological dictionaries, it is stated that the word ’good’ originates from the basis ’dob’ by adding the suffix ’r’ with the soft mark. Comparing the basis ’dob’ with the Western Semitic word b w f   (TOV), which has the same meaning (good), we can notice certain similarities. Namely, it is possible that the Western Semitic consonant ’t’ (tet), which has emphatic value, has turned into its counterpart ’d’ in Slavic languages, in order to faciliate the pronunciation. 5 The Western Semitic consonant ’v’ (vet) could have turned into Slavic ’b’, just as it turns into ’b’ and then back again into ’v’ 19 in Western Semitic languages, depending on its position in the word. Comparing the two words’ factors (Western Semitic and Slavic) this way, we can conclude that they are semantically identical and might be very similar in phonological terms.

 

DREMATI 76  (Serbian for: To nap) Slavic word which can be attributed to the Western Semitic and common Semitic verb root: ! d r (RDM) which means: napping, sleeping, getting someone to sleep. This verb root occurs at the very beginning of  The First Book of Moses as a noun: dream, dreaming. Comparing the roots, it can certainly be assumed that there was such a frequent metathesis of the sounds in this case. 10 Namely, the consonants ’r’ and ’d’ had a space shift. Given that the Western Semitic word and the Slavic root consist of the same consonants, we can say that, regarding the consonants, they fully match (excluding the metathesis as a regular phenomenon), and that they  are identical semantically, as well.

 

DROBITI 72 (Serbian for: To grind) Slavic word, comparable to a common Semitic verb root: b r d (DRB) which means: hitting, grinding. The Slavic base ’drob’ contains in its root the same consonants as those who bear the meaning of the aforementioned Semitic verb root. We can conclude that the compared Slavic and Semitic verbs are alike, as far as consonants as concerned, and that they are very similar, regarding semantics.

 

Notes:

70. PSERHS-1, p. 382, states that the word is a Pan-Slavic word, i.e. an ancient Slavic and Indo-European verb. It is considered that it originates from the base ’do’, and that this base is also present in Assyrian, as in ’na-danu’ which has the same meaning.

71. PSERHS-1 states that the origin of this word is unclear, p.385

72. PSERHS-1 states that this is a Pan-Slavic and ancient Slavic word, p. 441

73. PSERHS-1 Considering this Pan-Slavic word, it is stated that this is a case of onomatopoeia in children’s speech, p. 388

74. PSERHS-1 It is stated that the word ’dobar’is a Pan-Slavic and ancient Slavic adjective which comes from the root ’ DOBЪ’, p. 420

75. PSERHS-1 It is believed that the word is of Indo-European origin. The evidence for this is also given, p. 387

76. PSERHS-1 It is alleged that this is a Pan-Slavic and ancient Slavic word and can thus be compared to the Latin word ’dormio’, p.511.

 

 

 

E

 

ENO (Serbian for: There) Demonstrative pronoun ‘eno’ 81 corresponds to the Hebrew pronoun: h n h   (HINA) which also means ‘here’ or ‘there’. Semantically, it is very similar to the Serbian pronoun, while phonologically, it is slightly different because of the initial consonant being ‘h’ (he) that is often not pronounced in Western Semitic languages, especially when it is at the end of the word, which has already been discussed. However, given that it is believed that this consonant was in fact pronounced in the biblical period, it might be assumed that it was lost in Slavic version, in order to facilitate the pronunciation. 6

 

NOTES:

81. PSERHS-1, p. 484, states that this is a South Slavic demonstrative pronoun that was formed by interacting the sound ‘e’ (Which has an important semantic role in these languages- Writer’s remark).

 

 

 

                                                           F

 

 

FARAON (Serbian for: Pharaoh) A word which transferred from the ancient Egyptian to Western Semitic languages ​​and then directly to the Indo-European languages. In Hebrew, it is: w[rp (PARXXO). As we can see, suffix ‘-n’ was added to the Slavic version. Consonants ‘p’ (f) and ‘r’ remain, while the guttural ayin disappears, probably in order to facilitate the pronunciation for the Indo-Europeans, and therefore- for the Slavs. Having compared the two names this way, we can easily understand that the Slavic languages ​​received the word ‘faraon’ 91 from the Semitic languages.

 

NOTES:

91. PSERHS-1, p. 506, states that this is a loan word from ancient Egyptian (per-a a) and Hebrew (far-o), and that this word was brought to Slavs by Gypsies, when, on their way from India, they spent some time in Egypt.

 

 

 

                                                            G

 

GABELA (Serbian, old-fashioned: Tax) 109a A word which means: taxes, customs. It is very common in Balkan Slavic languages. It can be compared to Western Semitic noun: h l b q (KABALA) which means: confirm, receive, gaining, billing, sales tax. In Slavic version of this word, Western Semitic emphatic consonant ‘k’ (qof) might have been replaced with sound G, possibly in order to facilitate pronunciation 7. Such a substitution (qof into ‘g’) is frequent when Semitic words transfer into Indo-European languages. Having all of the above in mind, we can conclude that the word ‘gabela’ is actually Semitic.

 

GAMAD (Serbian for: vermin)102 In Western Semitic languages, ​​there is a word that can be compared to Serbian collective noun ‘gamad’. It is the word: d m g   (Gamad) which denotes: dwarf, revulsion, the abomination, a parasite. Phonological similarities of the two words are evident. Meaning of these words has been developed and nowadays, there are slightly diverging meanings of these two words in Slavic and Western Semitic languages.

 

GAMIZATI (Serbian for: to crawl)102 Slavic word ‘gamizati’ can be compared to the Hebrew verb root: z m q   (QMZ) which denotes: stretching, towing, pulling, kneading. At the beginning of the Hebrew root, there is emphatic consonant qof which is, due to its emphatic function, very close to the sound ‘g’, or could possibly be overheard as ‘g’ 7 in the Slavic version. This could, perhaps, serve to explain the phonological similarity between these words (Hebrew and Slavic), while the semantic similarity is obvious.

 

GANUTI (Serbian for: to impassion)109d A word comparable to the Western Semitic verb root: h n g   (GNH) which means: emotional disturbance, humiliation, embarrassment. Phonologically, Western Semitic and Serbian words are very much alike, since they both have consonants ‘g’ and ‘n’ in the roots. (In Western Semitic word, consonant ‘h’ (he) cannot be seen as an equal part of the root, given that it doesn’t bear the meaning, but serves as a complement to the root, since each Western Semitic root must have a minimum of three consonants. The sound ‘he’, at the final position, is never actually pronounced. As for meaning, the words ‘ganuti’ and Western Semitic ‘GNH’ also share some similarities, so it can be said that they convey the same idea: the violation of feelings and / or position while certain person is present.

 

 

GARAV-GAVRAN (Serbian for: Sooty, raven) 103 Serbian word ‘gavran’ can be compared with a common Semitic word that can be shown with the example of the Hebrew root: br[ (XXRV) which denotes: evening, darkness, dark, black, blackness. At the beginning of the root, there is the consonant ayin which is often transcribed, mimicked and pronounced as ‘g’ in European languages, probably due to its closeness regarding the place of formation with the aforementioned consonant ayin 8. Thus observing the parts of the word, we can see that the Semitic and Slavic root have almost identical consonants and that they are very similar, both regarding meaning and the phonological features, as far as consonants are concerned. Serbian noun ‘gavran’ was possibly formed by inversion of consonants, although, sometimes, we can even hear ‘garvan’ in Serbian, i.e. without any inversion.

 

GAZITI (Serbian for: To tread) 101 A word compared to the Hebrew verb root: hci (XXSH). Hebrew roothas consonant ayin at the primary place, which, by the way, is guttural (see: GRDITI). In other languages, it is often mimicked as ‘g’ 8. That may have happened with this very example- ‘grditi’. In the middle of the Hebrew root, there is consonant ‘s’ (sameh) which is, during the transfer to other languages, often mimicked as ‘z’ 9. Consonant ‘h’ (he) in the Hebrew word cannot be considered a bearer of meaning, but only a complement to the root, so that the root has the minimum number of consonants, and serves as an extension of the vowel before it. Thus we conclude that the Slavic word ‘gaziti’ could be phonologically similar to the above Hebrew term. The above Hebrew root means: compression, treading, pressing, stroking.

 

GENIJE (Serbian for: Genius) 109e A word that has probably come to the Indo-European and Slavic languages via Latin. If we compare this Indo-European word to the Western Semitic word:      (Gaon), we can clearly see the similarities. Only the sounds ‘g’ and ‘n’ from Western Semitic languages was transferred to the Slavic ones, while the silent aleph was eliminated as unnecessary. We can certainly say that the two compared words are very close in phonological terms and identical when it comes to semantics.

 

GLADITI (Serbian for: To stroke) 109c This word can be compared to the Western Semitic noun:      (GELED) which denotes: leather, crust, shell, stroking (verb root:     GLD). As we can see, all the three consonants that make up the root of the Western Semitic root are also present in the root of the Slavic verb. Those consonants are ‘g’, ‘l’ and ‘d’. We can conclude that the words are phonologically similar, regarding the consonants. The meaning of the two, though, is a bit of a problem. In Hebrew, this word doesn’t denote caressing, but skin, crust, or so. However, some Hebrew dictionaries, read that the word denotes caressing, as well (D.B. Abba). If these allegations were proved to be true, it would make sense saying that the Slavic and the Hebrew word, GLD- ‘gladiti’, are similar regarding the meaning, too.

 

GLAVA (Serbian for: Head) 107 One of the few Slavic words denoting body parts that is similar to the Western Semitic word denoting the same. Namely, in Western Semitic languages, there is a verb root:    (GLV) which denotes different phenomena in various Western Semitic languages. However, it seems that it only means ‘head’, or at least something that can be correlated with head. Thus, this word in Hebrew is used to denote: hair stylist, hair, the quality of having big head, the shape of the head. In the Aramaic language, it also means: head. As we can see, the Western Semitic and Slavic word are absolutely identical regarding the consonants in their root, being only a little different in semantic terms.

 

GLEDATI (Serbian for: To watch) Slavic word that can be correlated with the Western Semitic verb root:     (Qlt) which means: absorbing, recording, suction, observing, understanding. The first consonant of the Western Semitic word (qof) is emphatic in nature and it could be transferred to Slavic languages as ‘g’, due to easier pronunciation, given that these two consonants are very close regarding the articulation 7. (See: QOF in Hebrew pronunciation!) The third consonant in the Western Semitic root is tet, which is also emphatic in nature, and could have been transferred to Slavic and other languages ad ‘d’, because these two are alike when pronounced emphatically. Having in mind all the characteristics of the Western Semitic root and Slavic word  ‘gledati’ 109b, we can assume that these two are phonologically similar and semantically matching.

 

GODITI- ugoditi (Serbian for: To please) 108 A word which can be compared to the Western Semitic verb root:     (XXDH) that means: decorating, pleasing, doing a favour. The Western Semitic word has ayin as the first consonant which is guttural, and is often transferred to other languages as ‘g’ 8. One can therefore assume that in case of ‘ugoditi’, it also transferred as the consonant ‘g’. The second consonant of the Western Semitic word is ‘d’ which corresponds with its position in the Slavic word. The third consonant in the Western Semitic word is the sound h (he) that has already been discussed. It cannot be taken as an equal component of the root that means: ornamentation, decoration in Western Semitic languages. Therefore, the bearers of the idea are: XX (G), D. In the Slavic root, there are these very sounds ‘g’ and ‘d’, which confirms that the Slavic words ‘goditi’ and ‘ugoditi’ are very similar to the Western Semitic XXDH in phonological terms, whereas their meanings coincide.

 

GOLEM (Serbian, old-fashioned: Golem)106 This word is associated with the Hebrew root:    (GLM) which means: treating materials, building models, monsters. If the monster is big and its name is Golem, then, in that sense, we can discuss the structural and semantic similarity of the Hebrew word with the Slavic word. However, this Serbian word can also be compared to the Hebrew word:       (GAMLON) which means: size, coarseness. If replacement of consonants occurred (‘l’ and ‘m’), then we can take this direction 10. The fact is that the Serbian and Hebrew words share common consonants in their roots and those are: GLM-GML.

 

GORA (Serbian, old-fashioned: Mountain)104 word can be compared with the Hebrew noun that means the same-   (HAR). The Slavic word’s base consists of the consonants ‘g’ and ‘r’, or ‘h’ and ‘r’ in Czech or Slovak version (Czech: Hora). As for Hebrew, as stated, the same consonants denote ‘mountain’ (consonants ‘h’ and ‘r’). We might say that there is a semantic and phonological similarity between these two words, given that the consonants of the both roots are same.

 

GRDITI (Serbian for: To scold) 109 This word is associated with the Western Semitic verb root: dri (XXRD). This root denotes: rejection, imposing will, scolding, intimidation, education, forcing. This is a root that has the guttural consonant ayin at the beginning, which is often transferred as ‘g’ 8 to other languages. That could have happened in this case, i.e. that in the Slavic version we hear ‘g’ as the first sound. The second and third consonant of the Western Semitic word are identical to the second and third consonant of Slavic word. We can conclude that these two words are very similar phonologically, as far as consonants are concerned and that they are relatively close in meaning.

 

GREBATI (Serbian for: To scratch)105 This Serbian verb has identical consonants as the Hebrew verb with the same meaning:     (grb), with the only difference being that the third consonant of the Hebrew root will nevertheless have vet-type pronunciation, rather than bet-type, as in Serbian. (We cannot be sure about this, though, since we do not know the original ways of pronouncing certain Western Semitic consonants, especially those with multiple ways of pronunciation, depending on the position of morphemes, and thus, neither the consonant bet, given that it is pronounced two ways, even nowadays). The Hebrew root can also be associated with the Russian word ‘grebyonka’ (comb), which is an object that can be used for scratching. In addition, the Slavic languages ​​also have ‘grabulje’ (rakes). It is quite possible that Slavic words related to ‘grubost’ (roughness) are also related to this root. Based on the above, we can conclude that the Western Semitic and Slavic roots, which denote scratching and roughness, consist of the same consonants and have very close meanings.

 

GREJATI (Serbian for: To heat) (See: GARAV) This Serbian verb can be compared to Western Semitic verb root:     (GRH). It denotes: heating, annealing, stress. Consonant ‘j’, in Serbian form of a Slavic verb, can be seen as a remaining sound of an ancient Slavic sound ‘yat’, which has completely disappeared from the other Slavic languages (Russian: Greć). This sound (yat) was often replaced by ‘h’ in Slavic languages. In the Western Semitic version, the consonant ‘h’ (he) is in the root, but it is actually added only in order to complete the root. Evidence for this is that this consonant is lost when the root has a form of a noun or an adjective, as in some forms of the verb. So, in the bases, the two verb roots, Western Semitic and Slavic, have consonants ‘g’ and ‘r’. They are syntactically identical and very similar in phonological terms.

 

GROM (Serbian for: Thunder) 106 The Serbian word ‘grom’ and the verb ‘grmeti’ are probably onomatopoeic words, as Skok states. In this sense, the word ‘grom’ might be related to the Western Semitic verb root:    (GRM) which denotes: crackling, cracking, breaking, thunder storm. By observing the two roots, the Slavic and the Western Semitic, this way, we can clearly see their phonological and semantic similarity, given that the basis for both compared the word consisting of identical consonants.

 

  NOTES:

101. PSERHS-1 states that it is a South Slavic word of an unclear etymology, Mladenov compares this with verb to Ural-Altaic languages, including- Turkish: Gezmek and Kyrgyzstani: Kozak.

102. PSERHS-1 It is said that this is an onomatopoetic word, p. 548

103. PSERHS-1 This word is believed to be of Indo-European origin and that it probably comes from the verb ‘goreti’ (to burn), p. 591-593

104. PSERHS-1 Regarding this word, it says that it is a Pan-Slavic and ancient Slavic word, probably originating from an Indo-European root ‘guer’, p. 589

105. PSERHS-1, p. 601, states that the word is a Pan-Slavic an ancient Slavic word.

106. PSERHS-1 states that this word is probably of Indo-European and onomatopoeic origin, p. 623

107. PSERHS-1 states that the word is a Pan-Slavic an ancient Slavic word, p. 566

108. PSERHS-1 states that the word is a Pan-Slavic an ancient Slavic word, p.583

109. PSERHS-1 states that this is an Indo-European root ‘ghreu’, of which the Serbian word originated, p. 661

109a. PSERHS-1, p. 541, states that this is a Western European Semitism.

109b. PSERHS-1 states that the word is Indo-European, common and ancient Slavic, p.568.

109c. PSERHS-1, states that the word is Indo-European, common and ancient Slavic, p. 564.

109d. PSERHS-1, states that the word is of ancient Slavic origin, p. 550

109e. PSERHS-1, p. 727, states that the word originates from the Latin word ‘ingenium’, as the majority of scientific words.

 

 

 

                                                          H

 

HLEB (Serbian for: Bread) This Slavic word (Russian: hleb, Czech: Chleb) is the name for a life-giving food. The connection of this Slavic word with Semitic words that denote certain vital ingredients is very interesting. In Arabic, the word ’LAHMun’ means ‘meat’. In Hebrew, the same word (of somewhat different vocalization (lehem-  )) means ‘bread’. We can assume that there was a semantic substitution in this case, where a single word denotes different objects of similar or approximate purpose in two languages. Moreover, In Arabic there is the noun ‘HALIBun’, and in Hebrew, it is HALAV (  ), both words denoting a vital foodstuff. Wouldn’t you agree that this particular Semitic word shares an exceptional phonological similarity with the Slavic word for an important foodstuff- bread? According to Kiparsky, this is a Pan-Slavic and ancient Slavic loanword taken from certain non-Indo-European languages, which may be evidence for possible Semitic origin of this word. (PSERHS-1, p. 673)

 

HODATI (Serbian for: To walk) 111 Slavic word that can be compared to Western Semitic root:     (HADA, HDH). Namely, it is a root which denotes: sending, providing, spreading, movement, walking. When in participle form, it shows many similarities with Slavic languages: ‘hode’, masculine, ‘hoda’, feminine. Thus, the roots of the Slavic and the Western Semitic word consist of the same consonants: ‘h’ and ‘d’. (Russian: Hodit, Czech: Chodit)

 

HRANITI (Serbian for: To feed) 112 The Western Semitic languages share the root:    (QRN) which denotes: giving, fostering, financing (Later on, in Hebrew, it related to the word ‘fund’). We might think that the Western Semitic qof, which stands at the beginning of the word, had been removed or replaced by the Slavic consonant ‘h’ 11 (Russian: hranic). In this case, we might say that the Slavic and Western Semitic roots are phonologically similar and that they show semantic similarity.

 

NOTES:

111. PSERHS-1, states that the etymology of the word has not been fully explored, but that this is certainly a Slavic word, p. 677

112. PSERHS-1, p. 648, states that the verb is of Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic origin, and that we must take into consideration the pre-Slavic contamination of this verb.

 

                                                        J

 

 

JAK-snažan (Serbian for: Strong) In Western Semitic languages, there is a root:     (JKH) which originated from the root:     (JKL, JHL). In the aforementioned root, consonant ’l’ (lamed) has been removed, which is very common in Western Semitic languages ​​and it served to obtain an effective word that denotes: strength, power, force. The root JKH has ‘h’ as its final consonant, which has been added as a complement to the root, as well as to reinforce the root in semantic sense. Thus, the basic consonant are ‘j’ and ‘k’ and they denote strength. This is also the case in Serbian word ‘jak’ 121.

 

JELEN (Serbian for: deer) Western Semitic languages ​​are familiar with the word:     (AYALA) which denotes: deer. If we consider the consonant ‘n’ a suffix added during the development of the language (in the Slavic languages), then it is easy to see that the Slavic and the Western Semitic words- ‘’jelen’ and ‘ayala’ share two identical consonants- ‘j’ and ‘l’ (Skok said that  ‘-en’ is probably an affix in the word ‘jelen’ 122). As for Western Semitic word, the aleph at the beginning could have fallen out. However, the Russian word for ‘deer’ is ‘олень ’. However, we can say that Slavic languages have ‘l’ and ‘n’ (nj) in the roots. This questions the phonological similarity between the Slavic and the Western Semitic word, although some similarities are nevertheless noticeable.

 

JESTE (Serbian for: it is) 123 The Western Semitic word:     (JEŠUT) denotes: being, existence. Perhaps this word got common in the Slavic languages, as well as in Western Semitic languages, except that in this case, the Western Semitic ‘sh’ had turned into the consonant ‘s’ in the Slavic word. This root appears as an auxiliary form of the verb ‘to be’ in other Indo-European languages as well. Based on the above, we can conclude that the Slavic and the Western Semitic words are phonologically and semantically similar.

 

JORGOVAN (Serbian for: lilac) 124 Skok states that the word entered the Slavic languages ​​from Acadian, which is also a Semitic language. In this language, the word for this plant is ’argaman’. In order to facilitate pronunciation, in today’s Serbian, the ‘m’ from this word turned into ‘v’ and there was an insertion of the consonant ‘j’ at the beginning of the word. However, the etymology of the word ‘jorgovan’ must be further explored.

 

JURITI (Serbian for: to chase) 125 The Serbian verb ‘juriti’ can somehow be correlated to the Hebrew verb:    (JARA). This verb is used to denote: imposing will, chasing, compelling, stimulating learning, knowledge transfer. So, basically, the Serbian word has the consonants ‘j’ and ‘r’ in its root.  The Hebrew verb basically has the same consonants, since, as we previously discussed, the consonant ‘he’, which is at the final position, is not, in fact, the part of the root. Therefore, the Serbian and the Hebrew verbs are very similar phonologically, and very close semantically.

 

NOTES:

121. PSERHS-1, p. 112, states that the word ‘jak’ had originated from Pan-Slavic and ancient Slavic interrogative and relative adjective ‘Kakъ’ which later turned to ‘jak’ in order to mark strength and power

122. PSERHS-1, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, from the root which is, as stated, Indo-European- ‘ely’, p. 771

123. PSERHS-1, p. 159, states that the word originated from the Indo-European root ‘es’ which is related to the verb: to be

124. PSERHS-1, p. 783, states that this is a Balkan Turkish loanword, but that there is a chance that it is Assyrian: argamanu

125. PSERHS-1, p. 787, unknown etymology

 

 

 

                                                             K

 

KADA? KAD? (Serbian for: when?) This Slavic adverb phonologically and semantically matches the Aramaic adverb:    (KAD) with the same meaning. Consonants appearing in both words are the same. These two consonants are ‘k’ and ‘d’. We can thus assume that these adverbs from the two different language families might have similar origin, but they are also phonologically and semantically identical.

 

KAL (Serbian, old-fashioned: mud) 139d The Slavic noun which denotes: Mud, dirt. We will compare it to the Aramaic noun:    (QALAX, read as: kala) which means: stone, clod of soil, mud. What is noticeable is that the consonants at the primary and medial position are identical in both words, and that the consonant aleph, at the end of the Aramaic word, has possibly been removed from Slavic versions as unusable, being a muffled sound in the Western Semitic languages, especially when it is at the end of the words, as in this case. This consonant also has an extending purpose, regarding the vowel ahead of it. The conclusion is that the two compared words, as far as consonants ’k’ and ‘l’ are concerned, are very similar and semantically matching to great extent.

 

KAO (Serbian for: as, like) 131 The Pan-Slavic word which can be correlated to the Western Semitic preposition:   (KE, KA, KI). Actually, in some Slavic languages’ dialects, the word for ‘as’ is pronounced as ‘ka’. This perfectly matches the Western Semitic: KA. One should thoroughly investigate this phenomenon, found in two very different language families, but at this point, there is not enough space for that. What we might conclude is that phonological and semantic similarities certainly exist.

 

KAPARA (Serbian for: down payment) 132 This word could be defined as an Italian loanword used in the Balkans, belonging to the area of trade. It is less commonly used in the northern Slavic languages. It can be correlated to the Hebrew verb:    (KPR), which means: to sacrifice for reconciliation, forgiving sins, providing material for the insurance of purchase, cancelling. It is easy to see the phonological and semantic similarity of the compared word (Western Semitic and Slavic).

 

KEVA (Serbian, informal: mother) 133 The Serbian slang word meaning ‘mother’, used to denote women or girls. It may be correlated to the Hebrew word used to indicate the feminine gender or anything that has a hole or a canal on it:     (NEKEVA). The consonant nun and the semi-vowel schwa have probably been removed, because the semi-vowel is barely heard at the beginning of the word, and then there is a combination of nun and qof, which is more difficult to pronounce. In the dictionary of the Serbian language (Serbian Academy of Science and Arts), it is stated that ‘keva’ is a Hebrew word.

 

KLOPITI, UKLOPITI (Serbian for: to imbed) 134 It is interesting to compare this Slavic word to the Western Semitic root:     (QLV) which denotes: linking, assembling, integration, coming together. If we compare the consonants of both words (Western Semitic and Slavic), we can clearly spot the similarities and differences. It can be assumed that replacement of sounds occurred (sound ‘v’ turned into bilabial ‘p’) 12. Given that the consonant are, in this case, almost identical in the two compared words, we can conclude that the Slavic and Western Semitic words are phonologically very similar and that they are semantically almost completely identical.

 

KNjIGA (Serbian for: book) The Pan-Slavic word which we will compare to the Acadian word ‘kaniku’ which denotes: book, writing. As you can see, the Acadian ‘n’  turned into ‘nj’ the Slavic version of the word 13, which is often the case with the word transfer from  Semitic to Slavic languages. The Acadian ‘k’, as the final consonant in the word, turned into ‘g’ in the Slavic word 7, which is also a common case with this kind of transfer. For those reasons, we can assume that this Slavic word may be of Semitic origin. Skok also thinks so and this is written in "The Etymological Dictionary of Serbo-Croatian".

 

KORITI, ukoriti (Serbian for: reprimand) 135 The common Semitic verb, represented by the root:    (KRX) denotes: calling, naming, reading, scolding, reprimanding, etc. in Western Semitic languages. The Pan-Slavic word ‘koriti’ can be compared to this common Semitic word. In case of the Hebrew word, we can see that the final consonant is aleph. It is not pronounced at the end of words but it only prolongs vocal in front of it. So, it could come off as a consonant, in the absence of features during the pronunciation. The first and the second consonants are identical to the first and the second consonants in the Slavic version. We might conclude that there is certain closeness of the Slavic and the Semitic verb. (Russian: karić, Czech: karat).

 

KOŠULJA (Serbian for: shirt) 136 The Slavic word that can be correlated to the Western Semitic word:     (Kesel) which means: protection, coverage, safety. From the same root comes the word:     (Kasal), which is one of the words denoting ‘muscles’, especially those on the upper body. The western Semitic samech (s), could have, as it usually happens, easily turned to ‘š’ in the Slavic version 15, while lamed (l), which is the final place in theWestern Semitic word, could have turned into the Slavic ‘lj’16. By analyzing the above words this way, we can conclude that they are actually very similar phonologically and that they denote related concepts in semantic terms. Certainly, the shirt is used to protect the body.

 

KOTITI (Serbian for: to give birth) 137 This verb is associated with offspring of cats. Namely, as stated in the etymological dictionary by professor Skok, in the Slavic languages ​​‘kot’ refers to kittens (Czech: KOTA- kitten, Russian: KOŠKA- cat). The verb ‘kotiti, kotiti se’ also originated from this word, with all its particular meanings and words derived from it. In Western Semitic languages, the words for cat are:    (HITA)     (HATUL). It can be concluded that the Western Semitic het (h), in order to facilitate the pronunciation, turned into ‘k’ in Slavic case 14. We should not forget the Arabic word for cat: Qitai-tun (suffix ‘-tun’ denotes a feminine noun in nominative case). Having in mind these facts about the Slavic and the Semitic forms of word ‘cat’, we may conclude that they have a common origin.

 

KOVA (Serbian, old-fashioned: time) 138 For this Serbian word, it is possible to say that there are some Western Semitic words with the same consonants and the same meaning:          (HAKAFA, TEKUFA). These words will signify the idea of : time, period, periodicity. In both Western Semitic words, ‘ha’ and ‘te’ are the constructional noun prefixes. In this case, ‘ha’ is, of course, the definite article, while ‘te’ may be a prefix for 2nd person of imperfective verb groups in the Western Semitic languages. In the root, there are only ‘k’ and ‘f’. Given that ‘f’ usually turns into labial-dental fricative sound ‘v’ 12 , we get the word ‘kova’. In Serbian, the meaning of this word is: time, period (see: SSRSJ, vreme). Thus, we might see the phonological and semantic closeness of the examined words.

 

KRATITI (Serbian for: to shorten) 139 There is an interesting relation of the Slavic word ‘kratiti’ and the Western Semitic root     (KRT), which bears the idea of ​​shortening, cutting, killing. This root appears in the Old Testament books of Moses, so it's definitely of Western Semitic origin. It is thus easy to notice that the Slavic root and the Western Semitic root are almost identical and that they resemble semantically.

 

KRETATI (Serbian for: to move) 139a The Slavic word that has its semantic and phonological counterpart in the Western Semitic languages. We must pay attention to the Western Semitic root: ivtrq (KRTXX), which denotes: movement, moving. The final consonant ayin in the Western Semitic root has a guttural function of the vowel beside it, but it can be omitted in speech, when at the final position. In addition, the Western Semitic languages, there is a common phenomenon of adding ayin as a final consonant of the root, to indicate the idea of ​​movement, while the first three consonant of the root determine the idea of motion more precisely. So, we get three consonants important for us, and those are: KRT, in Western Semitic case, but also KRT in Slavic case, where it means the same in both language families, when found in certain roots. These Slavic and Western Semitic words are similar, both phonologically and semantically.

 

KRIK (Serbian for: scream) 139b (Russian: Kričać) This Slavic word can be correlated to a common Semitic root:     (KRX). The basic meaning of this root is: shouting, yelling, calling, reading. The first two consonants are identical in both words (Slavic and Semitic). The third consonant is debatable, and opinions on the similarity of these words are questionable. One of the arguments that could support a thesis on the similarities of these two words could be that the final consonant (aleph) is not pronounced when it’s found in this position. Aleph is generally a consonant that is not pronounced but it is rather heard as a break in front of a vowel. Thus, in Slavic case, it could have been that certain consonant was added as the third one, in order to complete the word. Thus observing the elements of the Slavic and the Western Semitic word, one gets the impression that they share certain similarities.

 

KURVA (Serbian for: whore) 139c The noun denoting a woman of low moral standards and a person with bad character traits, in the Slavic languages. It might be compared to the Hebrew noun:       (QURVA), which originates from a common Semitic verb root: QRB (which denotes: close, closeness) meaning: closeness, relationship, intercourse, sin, evil. It is easy to notice remarkable phonological similarity of the examined words, regarding the consonants, and the similarity of the examined word in the semantic sense, as well.

 

NOTES:

131. PSERHS-1, p. 112, states that the word is derived from an Ancient Slavic and Pan-Slavic relative and interrogative pronoun: Kakъ

132. PSERHS-2, p. 40, states that it is a Balkan Italian loanword from the area of trade, and that it comes from the Hebrew word ‘kapara’- sacrifice for atonement.

133. SANURSKN-9, p. 416

134. PSERHS-2, p. 95, states that the word originated from the Ancient Slavic and Pan-Slavic onomatopoetic base: ‘klep’ meaning- noise

135. PSERHS-2, p.155 states that it comes from Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic word, with its original meaning denoting: to make war, to scold, to seize, and that the best proof for this is definitely the noun ‘korist’- the benefit from the war

136. PSERHS-2, p. 58, states that the word is a Pan-Slavic loanword from the Balkans, originating from the Italian word ‘casulla’ which was spread via church services and that it is probably of Greek origin.

137. PSERHS-2, p. 170, states that it is a Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic denominative verb, derived from the noun ‘kot’- cat, which is believed to have Semitic origin

138. PSERHS- does not process this word. It is stated only by SSRSJ, but it does not explain the origin.

139. PSERHS-2, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic and its etymology is associated with the Indo-European root ‘qer’ which denotes ‘cutting’, p. 183

139a. PSERHS-2 states that the word is Pan-Slavic and ancient Slavic and that it might originate from the Indo-European root ‘qort’ which denotes: turning around, p. 191

139b. PSERHS-2 states that the word is Pan-Slavic and ancient Slavic, of an onomatopoeic origin, p. 99

139c. PSERHS-2, p. 245, states that this word hasn’t been examined enough, in etymological terms

139d. PSERHS- this word is not examined

 

 

L

 

LAGATI (Serbian for: to lie) In the Western Semitic languages, there is a word that is written with two consonants:    (LOXX) and it denotes the pharynx. From this word, many ​​more semantically similar roots- and thus more verbs, nouns and adjectives were derived. It is well understood that all these roots and words derived from them denote the related phenomena. Thus, for example, the word ’pharynx’ in Hebrew, one of the Western Semitic languages, has given the root:    (LXXH), which denotes ‘lying’, i.e. unnatural speech that allegedly doesn’t come from the mouth and the tongue, but rather from the pharynx, as presented in the Western Semitic languages. Comparing to the Slavic word ‘lagati’ 141, we can notice certain similarities. First of all, in the Serbian word, the only consonants in the root are ‘l’ and ‘g’. In the Hebrew word, we have consonants ‘l’ (lamed) and XX (ayin). The consonant ayin is often transferred to Indo-European languages ​​as the sound ‘g’ 8. Observing the factors of the two words this way, we can see that they actually consist of almost same consonants, while one of them was slightly modified in order to facilitate the pronunciation. It should be noted that the consonant ‘he’, as an integral part of the root in the Hebrew word above, serves as a complement to the root and as an extension of the vowel before it.

 

LAK, lagan (Serbian for: lightweight) The Slavic word is similar to the Hebrew adjective and adverb:    (KAL) which denotes: lightweight. In this case, it is possible that the metathesis of the sounds occurred 10, and thus the Western Semitic word ‘kal’ got to be pronounced as ‘lak ’in the Slavic languages 142, while both of the words have the same meaning. The apparent closeness of the examined words should be investigated further.

 

LAV (Serbian for: lion) This Slavic word 143 (lyev, lav) has its counterpart in the Western Semitic languages, both in semantic and phonological sense. Namely, this word is:      (LAVI), which is one of the synonyms for the word ‘lion’ in the Western Semitic languages. This word has found its place in other Indo-European languages- English: lion, French: lion. The apparent similarity of the Indo-European and the Western Semitic word should be investigated further.

 

LEK, lečiti (Serbian for: the cure, to cure) 144 The word that can be compared to the Hebrew root:      (LQH) which denotes: beating, hitting, getting ill, wounding. The meaning of this root is precisely opposite to the meaning of the Slavic word ‘lek’, but we can be assume that it was transmitted to the Slavic languages ​​along with misunderstanding its meaning, given that it is meant to denote disease, not treating disease. Basically, the idea is the same, in both Slavic languages ​​and Hebrew it denotes ‘disease’ or ‘treatment’. Consonant ‘h’ (he) in the Hebrew root, as we already said, cannot be considered an equal member of the root, but only a means of support of the integrity of the root  or an extension of the vowel in front of it. Thus observing the factors of the Slavic and the Hebrew word, one can say that both words have consonants ‘l’ and ‘k’ in the bases. The conclusion is that these words are phonologically almost absolutely identical and that they are opposite in meaning but represent the same idea.

 

NOTES:

141. PSERHS-2,  p. 260, states that it is an Ancient Slavic and Pan-Slavic word, originating from the Slavic root ‘lъg’ which is derived from the Indo-European root ‘leugh’

142. PSERHS-2, states that it is a Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic word, p. 263rd

143. PSERHS-2, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, but there is also Ostir’s point of view- that this word of Ancient Slavic origin, from the original homeland of Slavs, p. 275

144. PSERHS-2, p. 296, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic and that it could possibly originate from the Indo-European root ‘le-’.

 

                                                            M

 

 

 

MAGACIN (Serbian for: warehouse) 151 The word which has entered our language corpus through Latin. However, we should not forget the Jewish word      (Mahsan), in etymological sense. This Hebrew word is a noun denoting: storage, pantry, barn. It is derived from the verb root: HHSN- which denotes: taking care, securing, providing. The Jewish het turned into ‘g’ (as it often is the case with the guttural sounds, given that the sound het is considered guttural 8), the Jewish samech turned into European ‘c’ 3, and thus we got a Western Semitic word affected by European influence, used primarily in the Balkan languages.

 

MAGARAC, MAGARE (Serbian for: donkey) This word is Mediterranean, being present in almost every language ​​of the Mediterranean area, of course- in different forms of adaptation to individual languages. The word is used in the Slavic languages, as well, especially in the Balkans. This animal was bread across the Mediterranean by the Phoenicians, its name being Phoenician, that is- Western Semitic. It is the word:     (Hamor). As we can see, there has been a shift in position of the Western Semitic consonants in Serbian: het (h), mem (m). The sound ‘m’ got at the beginning of the Slavic word 10 while the Western Semitic guttural sound het turned into ‘g’, as it often occurs during the transition of Semitic guttural sounds 8 into Indo-European languages, and it stands in second place of the word ‘magare’ 152.

 

MAHER (Serbian for: a professional)153 (German: machen- to work, macher- the one that works). It is a word that entered primarily the South Slavic languages, possibly in the recent past. There is a common Semitic word alike. In the Western Semitic languages, it is an adjective describing: speed, ease, quickness, and it is written with the following consonants     (MHR). We also use it in this sense. In Serbian, it is a noun. There is a possibility that the word got into Serbian via the Semitic languages rather than German, as the general opinion has it, but this claim requires a deeper analysis and research of the origin of the word ‘maher’ in Serbian.

 

MALTER (Serbian for: mortar)154 In Serbian, this word probably originates from an Indo-European language ​​(English: mortar, German: malter). On the other hand, as far in the Old Testament books, there is a Jewish word:     (MLT), which denotes: binding, gluing, mortar. As this root is formed in the Hebrew language, it serves as basis to many parts of speech, so, we can say that it certainly is Western Semitic. Comparing the Serbian and the Hebrew word, we can conclude that the basic consonants are identical in both of them, and that they are semantically very similar.

 

MESTI (Serbian, old-fashioned: to clean) 155 The Slavic word ‘mesti’ has its counterpart in the Western Semitic languages. The root of the Slavic form is ‘met’ (Metać, metaćelj, metem, Meteš) In the Western Semitic languages, there ​​is the word:      (Metate) with a doubled pair of consonants (see: PLOVITI). It comes from the root:      (TITE), meaning: broom, cleaning, sweeping.

 

METNUTI (Serbian, old-fashioned: to put) 156 In this Slavic word, we can notice the Western Semitic root:     (MATA, MTH) which denotes: descending, directing downwards, putting, placing. In its root, the Slavic word has the following combination of sounds: M-E-T (meti, metnem, metneš). Semantic and phonological similarity of the two compared words in the two language families is evident.

 

MISLITI-DUMATI (Serbia, old-fashioned: to think) The relationship of these Slavic verbs with certain Hebrew verbs (mashal- dama) is very interesting. Here, it may be about correlation of the Western Semitic word roots, i.e. two roots which are synonymous in Western Semitic case, whereas the two Slavic words are also synonymous in Slavic case. The Western Semitic verb roots:         (MSL, DMH), are synonymous and denote: character, similarity, contemplation, counseling, as well the words derived from these. In Slavic case, the word ‘misliti’ 157 was modified from the Western Semitic word, i.e. the Western Semitic ‘sh’ turned into ‘s’ 2. However, in Slavic word ‘dumati’ 157a, it is likely that the final he form the Western Semitic counterpart (DMH) was removed, because he is nevertheless not pronounced in the Western Semitic root when it is on the final position, although it has to be written.

 

MISTERIJA (Serbian for: mystery) 158 This common Indo-European word certainly originates from the Western Semitic root:     (STR) which denotes: ​hiding, concealing, secrecy, destruction. In the Indo-European languages, the prefix ‘mi’ was added, and it is also used in Western Semitic nouns. The suffix for feminine nouns in European languages is also typical (-a,-ja). The word root remaining is undoubtedly of Western Semitic origin. This international Latinism, as far as the root consonants are concerned, completely matches the Western Semitic root. Semantically, the two compared words are very similar.

 

MLAD (Serbian for: young) 159 This Slavic word is phonologically and semantically very similar to the Western Semitic word:     (MLD) which denotes: youth, childhood, birth. It comes from the common Semitic root: WLD, actually: JLD. In the above case, all three consonants, both in Slavic and Western Semitic word, are identical. So, they are phonologically very similar, and only in the sense of meaning can we say that they share an approximate or close meaning.

 

MORA (Serbian for: nightmare/trouble) 159a This Slavic word has its counterpart in the Western Semitic languages, both phonologically and semantically. This word is:      (MORA), which is semantically and phonologically identical to the Slavic word. In Russian, for example, the root is expressed through the verb ‘morić’ and the words derived from it. There is no doubt that there is an identical consonant construction in basic and derived Slavic words and the Western Semitic word.

 

MRSITI (Serbian for: to eat greasy food) This word can be compared to the Western Semitic root:     (MRS) which denotes: fullness, fatness, flatulence. This roots also denotes abscess, as a medical term, due to its histopathological structure. All three root consonants are the same as in the Slavic word. Therefore, the words compared are phonologically almost identical, at least as far as consonants are concerned. Semantically, they are somewhat different. In Serbian, by ‘mrsiti’ 159b we mean -non-compliance to the fast and eating greasy food, while the Western Semitic word is used to indicate that very food, obesity, fatness, flatulence.

 

NOTES:

 

151. PSERHS-2, states that this is a Turkish loanword of Arabic origin used in the Balkans, p. 655

152. PSERHS-2, states that this is a Greco-Latin loan translation of the Arabic word ‘homar’, p. 351

153. PSERHS-2, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, and that comes from the verb ‘mahati’ with the suffix ‘-er’, 354

154. PSERHS-2, states that the word probably has German origin, p.363.

155. PSERHS-2, states that the word originates from the Ancient Slavic root ‘met’, p. 417

156. PSERHS-2, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, making correlation to the Indo-European root: 'Menthe' (to mix), p. 411

157. PSERHS-2 states that it is a Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic abstract noun, with no Indo-European references, p.431

157a. PSERHS-1, states that this is a loan word from Germanic, from the root ‘doms’, p. 456

158. PSERHS-2, p. 433, states that the word is an international Greek scholastic word.

159. PSERHS-2, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, having no relation with other Indo-European languages, p. 438

159a. PSERHS-2, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, and thus the Indo-European origin is assumed, p.456

159b. PSERHS-2, states that the word is of uncertain origin, and that the Indo-European origin has not been proved, p.470.

 

                                                             

                                                           N

 

NATAŠA (Serbian personal name) 161 This Slavic name can be associated with the Hebrew verb:     (NTN read as: Natan) which denotes: giving, gift, and the noun:   (SHAJ), which means: gift. Such observations of the Slavic name are rare, and this pioneering attempt should be further encouraged. We can notice that the consonant ‘n’ (nun) was dropped from the Hebrew verb, which is, judging by its nature, easily achievable, and that the final ‘j’ (yod) also disappeared, perhaps in order to facilitate pronunciation (See: Hebrew pronunciation). Such an etymological approach to the name Natasha is very common worldwide.

 

NOSITI (Serbian for: to carry) 162 The Slavic verb which has the following phonemes in its root: n, s (nositi, Russian: nasić, Czech: nosit) with certain vowels added. It has its counterpart in the Western Semitic languages, and that is the root:     (NSX), in terms of phonological and semantic similarity. However, consonant aleph, which normally stands at the final place of the Hebrew verb, is not pronounced, but serves as a support to the root, in this case, and practically- we have only two consonants, which appear in both of verb roots compared. Those are consonants: ‘n’ and ‘s’, in the words: ‘nositi’, ‘nosit’, ‘nasić’ (Slavic) and ‘nasa’ (Western Semitic).

 

NOTES:

161. In Serbian literature, it is considered a Slavic name.

162. PSERHS-2, states that the term is of Indo-European origin, probably from the Indo-European root ‘eneko’, and also that it is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, p. 512

                                                      

 

                                                          O

 

 

OLUJA (Serbian for: storm) 165 This word is Slavic. Given that it cannot be found in languages ​​other than the South Slavic ones, it is considered a euphemism of the Hebrew compound:         (Halelujah), see: Halelujah. So, having simplified the Hebrew word, the initial and the final Hebrew ‘h’ have been removed, as well as the consonant lamed (l). This word was probably used from the moment of introducing Christianity to the Slavs.

 

ORO (Balkan traditional dance) 166 The noun denoting a traditional kind of dance, used mostly in Macedonian. It can be compared to the Hebrew noun:     (HORA), which has a weak root foundation and we might say that it is a Hebrew loanword. One can also think about the fact that the ‘direction’ of this word went from the Indo-Europeans to the Jews, and not vice versa. As for the phonological diversity of these words, there is a visible loss of a guttural consonant ‘h’ (he), actually-its addition, if the word of originates from the Jews. The structural and semantic closeness of the examined word is evident.

 

NOTES:

165. PSERHS-2, p. 554

166. PSERHS-1, p.679, it is believed that the word originated from the Greek word ‘horos’ with a similar meaning, as well as the Serbian word  ‘hor’.

 

                                                        P

 

PASTIR (Serbian for: shepherd) 171a This noun can be compared to the Western Semitic root:    (STR) denoting: concealing, covering, secrecy, keeping, destruction. If we assume that the syllable ‘pa’ in the Serbian noun, which is the beginning of the word, is actually only a prefix (Skok, the word ‘pastir’, PSERHS-3, p. 567), one can come to a conclusion that the root consonants (S, T, R) are identical in the two compared words. In this sense, we can say that the compared words are semantically very close and that they are phonologically, as far as the consonants are concerned, identical.

 

PEVATI (Serbian for: to sing) 171 This Slavic verb can be associated with the Western Semitic word for ‘mouth’. One can also think about the fact that the consonant ’v’ in the Slavic case came a bit later, especially if we compare the Serbian word ‘pevati’ with the Russian word ‘петь’. Of course, the Serbian ‘-ti’ and the Russian ‘–ть’ are suffixes for infinitive forms. The base is actually ‘pe’ or ‘pev’. In the Western Semitic languages, the word ‘mouth’ ​​is expressed by using a short combination of a vowel and a consonant (pe) and graphically- with two consonants:  . If the word ‘pesma’ (a song) is derived from the verb ‘pevati’ (to sing), then this word may be correlated with the Western Semitic word: PE- (mouth). Observing the factors of the Slavic and the Western Semitic word this way, one can come to the conclusion that they are phonologically, as far as consonants are concerned, very similar and denote related phenomena.

 

PISATI (Serbian for: to write) 172 The Slavic root which denotes: writing, drawing lines. It is represented by the consonants ‘p’ and ‘s’, which, in some cases, can be modified into ‘p’ and ‘š’ (Russian: pisać, Czech: Psat, Serbian, Present tense: pišem, pišu). The Western Semitic consonants:    (PS) denote: line, drawing a line, and later- railway. The Phoenicians, who are Western Semites, brought the alphabet to the Balkans. We can easily see a very similar composition of root consonants in the Slavic and the Western Semitic word.

 

PITOMITI (Serbian for: tame, domesticate) 173 The Serbian verb ‘pitomiti’ can be correlated to the Western Semitic root:     (PTM) which denotes: fattening, feeding livestock, domesticating wild animals. The structural and semantic similarity with the Slavic verb in this case is surprising, as it is primarily a Hebrew verb which may be encountered even in the literature of the Old Testament. In other Slavic languages, this verb denotes: feeding, nutrition and also domestication, as in Serbian. The conclusion is, therefore, that the compared Slavic and Western Semitic verbs are very similar, both semantically and phonologically.

 

PLAŠITI (Serbian for: to scare) 174 This Serbian verb can be compared to the Western Semitic root:     (BLS), which denotes: scaring, chasing, research, looking for someone. Consonant ’p’ in Serbian word is maybe there in order to facilitate pronunciation, in place of consonant ‘b’ in the Western Semitic case. The two consonants are very easily and often replaced, given that, according to the linguistic classification, counterparts as far as place of articulation is concerned. Thus, we can say that the basic consonants both words’ roots are almost identical, while semantically, the compared words are very similar.

 

POHITATI (Serbian for: to hurry up) 175 The Slavic verb ‘pohitati’ has its semantic and phonological counterpart in the Hebrew language. Namely, it is the Hebrew root     (PHD), which denotes: ​​fear, scaring, running away, hurry. This may be a piece of evidence for the similarities between the Slavic word above and the Jewish word, and thus directed to further research. The Slavic ‘t’ aa the final consonant in the root of this word is there due to substitution of the Jewish consonant dalet (d) into the Slavic ‘t’ (As in Turkish loanwords: defter-tefter, meaning: notebook). However, this is not the main Slavic verb. It is, however, a younger word, the resulting product of the verb ‘hitati’, with the Slavic prefix ‘-po’ added, and this main verb can be compared to the Western Semitic verb root     (HDH), indicating: sharpening, hurry, speed. Final HE is not pronounced. The central daled, as we already stated, turned into sound ‘t’ in Slavic case. Phonological and semantic similarity is apparent in the examined verbs.

 

PRCATI (Serbian, vulgar: to have active role in sexual intercourse) 176 In most dictionaries, this word is considered a slang word of onomatopoeic origin, and it can be compared to the Western Semitic root:     (PRC), which will be discussed at the entry: PRSNUTI. This Serbia word had previously been used almost exclusively to denote mating of animals. Given that, in this act, an actual piercing of male sex organ into female sex organ occurs, the idea of ​​comparing this with the above Western Semitic verb is clear. In fact, this verb denotes: piercing, spraying, outbreak. Therefore, the Serbian verb ‘prcati’ and the Western Semitic verb root PRC have identical basic consonants, so phonologically, as far as the consonants are concerned, they are similar, whereas semantically they are related.

 

PRIČATI (Serbian for: to speak) 177 This Slavic verb is comparable to the Western Semitic verb root:     (PRC), which, among other things, denotes:  extensive talking, begging someone. This verb root is to be distinguished from the one at the entry: PRSNUTI. We can assume that the Western Semitic consonant ‘ts’ (tsadi) turned into ‘č’ in the Slavic word 21. It is easy to see that these two verbs are both phonologically and semantically very similar. In his Etymological dictionary, Skok does not provide sufficient evidence for the origin of the Slavic word, but rather assumes that it originated from translation of Jesus’ parables from The New Testament.

 

PRSNUTI (Serbian for: to burst) 178 This verb can be compared to the Hebrew verb:    (PRC) which denotes: piercing, spraying, outbreaking. There is a totally different meaning of this root when it comes to PRIČATI. Semantic and phonological similarity of the Serbian and the Hebrew verb is very obvious in this case. It can be assumed that the emphatic consonant ‘ts’ (tsadi), turned into ‘s’ in Slavic case, so- the basic consonants in the Slavic version of this verb are- P, R, S. Even in the Semitic languages, ​tsadi (Hebrew) and saad (Arabic) often replace each other, being similar according to manner and place of articulation.

 

PUCATI (Serbian for: to shoot) 179 The Slavic verb ‘pucati’ can be correlated to the Western Semitic verb root:    (PCH), i.e.:     (PCC) which denotes: shooting, explosion. The first one has ‘h’ (he) as the third consonant, which serves as an extension of the vowel before him and the complement to the root. In the latter Western Semitic root, there is only the consonant tsadi (ts) added in order to amplify the meaning, and thus we can say that the latter was derived from the first root and is younger. The second root belongs to so-called Ayin-Ayin gizri verb group, as for the Hebrew language. So, the Slavic verb ‘pucati’ and the Western Semitic verbs PACA and PACAC show resemblance in both phonological and semantic terms.

 

NOTES:

171. PSERHS-2, p. 652, states that it is a Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic word originating from the root: pe-, and that there are no comparisons to other Indo-European languages.

PSERHS 171A-2, p. 614, states that this noun is derived from the verbs: pasti, napasti (fall, attack), with the suffix ‘-r’ added.

172. PSERHS-2, states that this is a Pan-Slavic Ancient Slavic word, and that it may have arisen from the onomatopoeic word ‘pik’, which denotes: scratching, scraping ..., p. 662

173. PSERHS-2, p. 210, says that this verb is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, and that the resemblance with the Indo-European languages are not examined enough

174. PSERHS-2, p. 225, states that it is a Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic word originating from the root ‘-pel’

175. PSERHS-2, p. 229, says that it is a Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic verb, which originated from the Indo-European root ‘squd-‘

176. PSERHS-3, p. 28, believes that the origin is unclear, and that this is correlated to moving hind legs, i.e. floundering (koprcati se)

177. PSERHS-3, p. 40

178. PSERHS-3, p. 24, states that the verb is Ancient Slavic and Pan-Slavic, of onomatopoeic origin.

179. PSERHS-, p.24, it is correlated to ‘prsnuti’ (burst)

                            

R

 

RACIJA (Serbian for: raid) 181 This Latin term, which is very commonly used in the Slavic languages, may have originated from the Semitic languages. Namely, it is believed it originated from the Arabic language, but here, we will compare it to the Western Semitic root:    RWC which denotes: running, seizure. The Western Semitic root, has consonants: B, C as bearers of meaning. The central waw is an extra consonant, which is lost in most of verbal aspects, but remains in certain nouns. It cannot be considered an equal part of the root, because it is volatile. This may confirm the possible Semitic origin of the word.

 

RAD, raditi (Serbian for: work, to work) 182 This Serbian verb is congruent with the Hebrew verb:     (RDH) which denotes:  to make someone work, to capture someone. The common consonants of the Western Semitic and the Slavic word are: R, D. The consonant which is on the final position in the Western Semitic root is the guttural ‘h’ (he), which is not pronounced when in this position and not considered an equal part of the root, but it rather serves as support to the integrity of the root or as an extension of the vowels. We can conclude that the Slavic and the Western Semitic words have identical basic consonants and they both denote: work. However, the Slavic word for work is also ‘rabota’ (Czech: robota), which also has a congruent word in Hebrew, with the same meaning as in the Slavic languages: tbi (XXBT). The first consonant is the guttural (ayin), which was thought to be pronounced two ways: ayin and rhayin (equivalent to Arab: ayin and rhayin). It is probably all about the Western Semitic root: RBT, which appears to be similar to the Slavic root of the word ‘rabota’ and all parts of speech derived from it. Comparing the factors of the Western Semitic and the Slavic word this way, we can say that they are very similar phonologically and denote the same phenomenon.

 

RANITI (Serbian for: to wound) 183 This word should be compared to the Western Semitic word:    (XXNH) which, in the Western Semitic languages, denotes: impoverishment, wounding, torture, raping. The first consonant in the Western Semitic word is guttural, meaning it has two ways of pronunciation in the ancient Hebrew language. One way of pronouncing is preserved to this day, and it is congruent with the Arabic ayin. Another way to pronounce this guttural consonant was not preserved to this day, but can be identified with the Arab rhayin, similar to the French ‘r’, uttered gutturally. According to this, we can assume that this sound, in Slavic case, could have easily been replaced with Slavic ‘r’, being very similar to it. So, the Slavic and the Western Semitic word have ‘r’ and ‘n’ as their basic consonants. In Western Semitic word, consonant ‘h’ (he) cannot be seen as an equal part of the root (See the entry: GANUTI). Thus observing the factors of the Western Semitic and the Slavic word, we can conclude that they are phonologically similar, as far as consonants are concerned, and that they have similar meaning.

 

RAZBIRATI (Serbian, old-fashioned: to understand) 184 As explained in Serbian dictionaries, this Slavic verb consists of a base and the prefix ‘ra’. The base is ‘sbir’, which is comparable to the Hebrew root:     (SBR). It denotes: opinion, thinking, understanding, explaining. In this sense, we can say that the Hebrew root is semantically very similar to the Slavic word, and that they are phonologically similar, as well.

 

REĆI (Serbian for: to say) 185 This Slavic word can be compared to the Western Semitic verb root:     (RSH) which denotes: speaking, pronouncing. If we take into account that the root of the Slavic word actually consists of two consonants- ‘r’ and ‘c’, ignoring the variable vowels, we can move on with comparing these two words. First of all, the sound ‘h’ (he) from the Western Semitic word needs to be removed, given it is not an equal member of the root but rather an extra part of the root that serves as a complement, but also as an extension of the vocal before it, but this was already discussed. What remains is to take the consonants ‘r’ and ‘sh’ as the semantic base of the Western Semitic word. If these two consonants are compared to the consonants in Slavic word’s root, we will find that the first consonant in both of them is ‘r’, while the Western Semitic ‘sh’ could have turned into ‘ć’ in Slavic case, as such transfers are known from other examples. Observing the Slavic and the Western Semitic word, we can conclude that they are very similar phonologically, as for the consonants, and that they are semantically identical.

 

RED, urediti, srediti (Serbian for: order, to fix, to make order) 186 The term can be correlated to the Western Semitic root:     (RDH) which denotes: cleaning up, making order, ruling, making somebody work. As we can see from the previous entries, the consonant ‘h’ (he) from the Western Semitic word is not considered a true member of the root, but as an extra consonant. Bearers of meaning are therefore consonants: R and D. This is the case with the Slavic word, as well. Classifying and analyzing the factors of the two words (Slavic and Western Semitic), we can say that they are semantically close, and phonologically very close, especially regarding the consonants.

 

REŠETO, REŠETKA (Serbian for: sieve, bar) 187 This word can be compared to the Western Semitic root:    (RST) which denotes: net, grille, sieve. As you can see, all three consonants in the above words match. So, these two words can be considered very similar, both semantically and phonologically.

 

REZATI (Serbian for: to slice) 188 This Slavic verb may be correlated to the Hebrew verb:     (RAZA) which denotes: cutting, thinning, weakening, causing attenuation in weight. The consonant he in the final position of the Hebrew root is not really a part of the root (see: JURITI). We can say that the abovementioned Slavic and Hebrew verbs have identical basic consonants in the roots: R and Z. We can also say that they are, regarding the consonants, phonologically very similar and semantically close.

 

ROD (Serbian for: gender) 189 It is interesting that in the Western Semitic languages, primarily in Hebrew, ‘gender’ is by its structure represented identically as the Slavic version of this word,  but read or spoken in reverse order, from left to right: DOR (  ). Of course, this does not prove the similarity between the Slavic and the Western Semitic word or their common origin, but they one can certainly ask why this is so. One can think about whether this phenomenon is random or not. There are several more ‘reversed’ words alike in this book. However, there is little chance that a word only incidentally has the same meaning as some other word form a total different language family, when its letters are pronounced in reverse order 10.

 

RUPA (Serbian for: hole) 189a This noun is, by its origin, phonologically and semantically parallel to the word ‘rov’ (trench) and verb ‘rovariti’, etc. Both nouns are comparable with the Western Semitic noun:    (BOR) denoting: hole, channel, trench, and similar. As we can see, it is possible that in this case- a simple metathesis of sounds occurred, and thus, in the Slavic word, the consonants have the following order: R, V, while the order in the Western Semitic version is: B, R. Certainly, in Western Semitic case, there was originally sound ‘b’, just because it is at the beginning of the word. If we add a prefix or possibly a preposition to it, it would turn into sound ‘v’, according to the rules in Hebrew phonetics, as is the case with the Slavic version, i.e. the word ‘rupa’.

 

NOTES:

181. PSERHS-4, p. 325, states that the origin is unclear

182. PSERHS-3, states that the word probably originated from the Indo-European root, ‘redha”, meaning: to give birth, p. 97

183. PSERHS-3, p. 107, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, without Baltic but with Indo-European parallels

184. PSERHS-1, p. 155, states that the term originated from the Indo-European root ‘bhur’, meaning: to rave, to yell, and that it is probably not the Ancient Slavic word, but a loanword

185. PSERHS-3, states that the term is of Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic origin and that it is associated with the Indo-European root ‘req’ which is assumed to be onomatopoeic, meaning: roar

186. PSERHS-3, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, p.122.

187. PSERHS-3, states that this is an Ancient Slavic and Pan-Slavic agricultural word, with no Indo-European origin, p.132

188. PSERHS-3, states that this is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic word, p.134

189. PSERHS-3, states that this is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic word, p.151

189a. PSERHS-3, p. 173, states that the word is Ancient Slavic, and that it occurs in the South Slavic languages ​​and Ukrainian. It is believed it originates from the Indo-European root ‘ereu’, along with the influence of Illyrian and Thracian forms.

 

S

 

 

 

SABIRATI (Serbian for: to add, to sum) 191 This Slavic word which denotes ‘summing’ is comparable to the Western Semitic root:     (SPR) which denotes: counting, summing, stating, talking. The difference between the Slavic central consonant ‘b’ and the Western Semitic root’s central consonant ‘p’ can be explained by the fact that the various dialects of a Semitic language, and Semitic languages ​​between themselves, very often replace the two consonants in the same word. Arabic language, for example, doesn’t have the consonant ‘p’ but it is replaced by ‘b’ where it appears, both in the common Semitic roots and international words containing the sound ‘p’. However, even when a non-Slavic word is transferred into ​​Slavic languages, there is often substitution of such sounds occurring 1. Observing the factors of the Slavic and the Western Semitic word, one gets the impression that they are phonologically similar, regarding the consonants, and that they are very close in meaning.

 

SALO (Serbian for: lard) 192 This word can be correlated to the Western Semitic root:    (SLX). It denotes: Obesity, gaining weight, lard, growing. Given that the final consonant in the Western Semitic word is aleph, it is not pronounced but it serves to extend the vowel before it. In this case, the Serbian word ‘salo’ and the Western Semitic word have the same consonants. So, they are very similar phonologically and semantically, too.

 

SATIRATI (Serbia for: to crush) 193 (Death) The mutual consonants of the Slavic and the Western Semitic word are evident. In the Western Semitic languages​, there is the root:     (STR) which denotes: losing, hiding, secrecy, destruction (See: MISTERIJA). Thus, the Slavic ‘satirati, satreti’ has three basic consonants identical to the abovementioned Western Semitic root. According to this, we can conclude that the Slavic and the Western Semitic words are phonologically and semantically very similar.

 

SAVET (Serbian for: council) 194 Council as an organization, but also the very word for it, can be correlated to the Jewish system of justice. Among the first advisory bodies, there were the Jewish Councils. The judge, who had an advisory role, was named:     (ŠOFET). If we take a careful look on the root of the Hebrew word, we will see that it contains consonants: SH, F, T. Comparing them with the Slavic consonants in the word ‘savet’, we will find that these are the same or very similar consonants (regarding the place of articulation) and that they can easily shift places, especially when the word is transferred from one language to another. In that sense, the Hebrew shin could have easily turned into Slavic ‘s’ (as in the following example: shabbat- subota), and: fe (f) could turn into Slavic ‘v’. We will conclude that the above words are phonologically and semantically very similar.

 

SLABITI (Serbian for: to lose weight) 195 This word can be correlated to the Western Semitic word:     (SLF) which denotes: removal, loss, failure. The first and the second consonant of both terms, as can be seen, are: S, L. The third consonant of the Western Semitic word is ‘f’ (fe), which corresponds to the sound ‘p’ (its ‘softer’ pronunciation). Given that this sound is often replaced with the sound ’b’, while transferring from the Western Semitic languages to other languages, it can be assumed that in this example- the same phenomenon occurred. Thus comparing the Western Semitic and the Slavic word, we can conclude that they are phonologically very similar, as far as the consonants are concerned, and that they have related meaning.

 

SLATI (Serbian for: to send) 196 This Slavic word can be compared to the Western Semitic word and root:     (ShLH). The last consonant of the Western Semitic root is ‘h’ (het) (See: HET). In the aforementioned Slavic word there is no consonant ‘h’, but we can assume that it was removed, due to difficult pronunciation, as it often happens with this sound, in many languages. The consonant SH (shin), from the Western Semitic root, could have turned into ‘s’ in Slavic case 2, which also happens in many words. Thus observing the factors of the two mentioned words (Slavic and Western Semitic), we can conclude that they could be somewhat related phonologically, while, semantically, they are identical.

 

SLIKATI (Serbian for: to paint) 197 ​​The Western Semitic root     (SLK), denotes: ​​scratching, rubbing, pressing, slipping, carving. Since this root is very close to the Serbian word ‘slikati’, both semantically and phonologically, we can assume their closeness. We might even specify mention another Slavic word that denotes ‘painting’, and that word is- рисовать (Russian). It can be correlated to a common Semitic root:        (RSM-RSM) which denotes: writing down, recording, drawing, painting, depending on which Semitic language it is used in.

 

SMEH (Serbian for: laughter) 198 This word can be compared to the Hebrew word:     (SMH) which denotes: joy, pleasure, happiness. It is easy to see that all three consonants are the same in both words (Slavic and Hebrew). The third consonant in the Hebrew word is ‘h’ (het), which is different from the often mentioned  ‘h’ (he), because it sounds a bit louder than ‘h’ and may be transferred from one language to another without changing the pronunciation, i.e. being transferred to certain words, its pronunciation in other languages remained the same. In loanwords of the Semitic languages, its pronunciation ​​was often lost due to difficulty of uttering guttural sounds or it was substituted by similar sounds. If the root of the Slavic verb truly consists of the consonants: S, M, H (the verb ‘smejati se’), then we can talk about the phonological similarity, based on the consonants that occur both in the Slavic and the Hebrew word. Semantically, however, they do not fully resemble. While the Hebrew means: joy, the Slavic word means: laughing. However, these two actions can be grouped under single idea, and so we can talk about the semantic closeness of these words.

 

STATI (Serbian for: to stop) 199 The Slavic word ‘stati’ may be correlated to the Western Semitic root:     (STH) which denotes: ​​turning, stopping, changing direction. There is an obvious semantic and phonological similarity between these two words. As for the Slavic root, we can say that what is important are less likely variable consonants (S and T), which is important in the Western Semitic root, too. The Western Semitic he (h) is an extra consonant according to grammatical and phonetic rules of the Western Semitic languages. What remains are consonant (S, T) identical to the Slavic consonants in the above word, which precisely denote: stopping.

 

STOR, STORA (Serbian for: space) 199a The Slavic word which is comparable to the Western Semitic verb root:     (STR) that denotes: concealing, covering, secrecy, storage, destruction. Bearing in mind the meaning of the Slavic word, we can easily justify the sense of such comparison. The Western Semitic and the Serbian word have the same consonants in the roots, so it can be concluded that the phonologically, as far as the consonants are concerned, they are identical and that semantically they overlap.

 

SVIRATI (Serbian for: to play) 199b This verb is much more rare in other Slavic languages than in the South Slavic ones. It can be correlated to the Western Semitic verb root:     (ShFR) which denotes: blowing the horn, playing, publication. It is perhaps better to compare it to the Arabic verb root SFR, which has the same meaning. The Western Semitic ‘sh’ may have turned into ‘s’ in Slavic case 2, while the Western Semitic fe, which turned out of pe in the mediary position, will appear again in certain grammatical forms. In Slavic case, fe became the fricative ‘v’, as it often happens with certain loanwords in the Slavic languages. Thus explaining and analyzing the factors of the mentioned verb roots (SVIR, SHAFAR), it is easy to see their similarities.

 

NOTES:

191. PSERHS-3, it is related to the entry: BRATI

192. PSERHS-4, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, and that comes from an Ancient Slavic verb ‘saditi’ (to plant) p. 195th

193. PSERHS-3, it is related to the entry: TERATI

194. PSERHS-4, it is related to the entry: VIJEĆE.

195. PSERHS-4, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, adding that it might be a Slavic-German lexeme, p.277.

196. PSERHS-3, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, and that there is no Indo-European origin involved, p. 280

197. PSERHS-3, it is related to the entry: LIK, and believes that the consonant ‘s’ is a prefix in the Slavic verb. It is also stated that the word ‘lik’ is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, p.551.

198. PSERHS-4, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, p. 292

199. PSERHS-3, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, p.324.

199a.PSERHS-3, p. 348, states that the word is Ancient Slavic and Pan-Slavic, originated from the Indo-European root ‘-ster’

199b. PSERHS-3, states that the word is Ancient Slavic and Pan-Slavic, and is considered to originate from the Indo-European root ‘suer’, which is supposed to be onomatopoeic, p. 372

 

 

                                                              Š

 

 

ŠEPURITI (Serbian for: to strut) 201 If a person is shaping up and smartening up, then they might as well strut and boast. The Serbian word ‘šepuriti’ can be correlated to the Hebrew root:     (SPR) which denotes: beautifying, smartening up. Comparing the Serbian and the Hebrew word in this manner, we can say that they are phonologically identical when it comes to consonants and semantically close, with an explanation that beautifying might lead to strutting.

 

ŠEŠIR (Serbian for: hat) 202 The word which appears only in the South Slavic languages. Since it cannot be classified as a Turkish loanword, it is usually said to be a pure Arabism in our language. It can be assumed it originated from the Western Semitic word:       (SHIMSHIYA) which denotes: umbrella, head protector. As we can see, the sound ‘m’ (mem) disappeared from the Slavic version and received the suffix ‘-r’.

 

ŠEST (Serbian for: six) 203 It would be good to compare the Slavic number ‘šest’ to the Western Semitic word for ‘six’, as this similarity often causes controversy. In fact, most Semitic numbers, referring to the units, actually have one or two identical consonants with the certain Slavic numbers. Number six is the most similar to the same number in the Semitic languages, especially Hebrew. However, one mutual consonant is not sufficient evidence of possible closeness or similarity of the Slavic and the Semitic word. This fact could, perhaps, be of much more help to a thesis about an ancient language, from which all world languages developed, referring to the event in Babylon. The fact is that the Slavic ‘šest’ and the Hebrew:    (SHESH) which denotes the same number, are extremely alike. They both have the mutual consonant ‘š’ (sh), and the consonant ‘s and ‘š’ often replace each other during the transfer from the Semitic to the Slavic languages. Therefore, they are phonologically very similar and semantically identical. The question is whether other Semitic numbers have similarities with words that indicate numbers in the Indo-European and the Slavic languages.

 

ŠIBATI (Serbian for: to whip) 204 This Slavic word can be compared to the Hebrew word:     (SHBH) which denotes: capturing, hitting, catching. The consonant ‘h’ (he) is in the final position of the Hebrew word and it does not belong to the root completely, but rather serves as a complement and an extension of vowels. So, the Hebrew and the Serbian word have two identical consonants- Š (sh) and B. They are semantically close, phonologically as well, so it is possible to think about their similarities.

 

ŠIRITI (Serbian for: to spread) 206 The Slavic verb, comparable to the Western Semitic verb root:    (SHRH), which denotes: opening, spreading. The first two consonants in both compared words (Š, R) are identical. They are the bearers of meaning in the Western Semitic word. The final ‘h’ (he) in the Western Semitic verb is an extension of the vowel before it and a complement to the root, since there are no Western Semitic roots consisting of only two consonants, which we already discussed. Thus, they are phonologically very similar, as far as the consonants are concerned, whereas semantically they coincide to great extent.

 

ŠITI (Serbian for: to sew) 205 This is a Slavic word which has its counterpart in the Western Semitic languages, ​​both in semantic and phonological sense. Namely, it is the root:    (STH) which denotes: weaving, sewing. As you can see, there are two consonants mutual for the Slavic and the Western Semitic word, except that the Western Semitic word has the consonant ‘h’ (he) in final position, which, as it’s already mentioned, is not a true part of the root, but was added later, during the development of the Western Semitic languages, for closure and prolonging of the vowel before it. Consequently, we can say that the two specified words: one Western Semitic, other Slavic, are very similar phonologically, as far as the consonants are concerned, (they share the consonants: Š, T), while semantically, they are very close, i.e. they denote the same idea .

 

ŠKOLA (Serbian for: school) 207 A common Indo-European noun, widely used among the Slavs. It is compared to the Hebrew nouns:         (Sehel, Sikuli) meaning: mind, wisdom, wit, mental ability. The abovementioned Hebrew nouns are derived from the verb root:    (SKL) which denotes the same actions (thinking, reasoning and so on). It is easy to see the same consonants in the compared words. The three consonants are identical in the two compared words, especially if one bears in mind how the noun ‘škola’ sounds in other Indo-European languages. In the Slavic languages, there was a substitution of the sound ‘s’ for ‘š’, which is a common thing during the transition of the words from different languages ​​into the Slavic languages. However, even in Hebrew, there is a phenomenon of sounds ’s’ and ’sh’ replacing each other, especially if they are, as with the compared words, represented by the consonants SIN and SHIN ( ). It is believed that this word is a Latinism and by this we might explain its spreading among the Slavs in Europe, but not its origin, which is perhaps Semitic.

 

NOTES:

201. PSERHS-3, p. 387, states that this is an Ancient Slavic verb

202. PSERHS-3, p. 389

203. PSERHS-3, p. 388 states that this number is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic and that it comes from the European: sex, six. It is also correlated to the Persian ‘shesh’

204. PSERHS-3, p. 391, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic and it is considered to originate from the Indo-European root ‘-qs’

205. PSERHS-3, p. 396, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, and that it is related to the Roman verb ‘suere’

206. PSERHS-3, p. 395, states that this is a verb formed out of Pan-Slavic and ancient Slavic adjective ‘širok’ (wide) and that there are no parallels to the other Indo-European languages

207. PSERHS-3, p. 272, states that this is a Dalmatian-Roman lexical leftover, from the Latin ‘schola’

 

                                                             T

 

 

TAMO (Serbian for: there) 211 This Slavic demonstrative pronoun can be compared to the Western Semitic demonstrative pronoun, and they are completely matching in semantic terms:    (SHAM). The first consonant ‘sh’ (shin) in the Western Semitic word might have turned into correspondent dental sound ‘t’ in Slavic case, as such shifts often occur when certain words go from one language to another. Comparing the factors of the words ‘sham’ and ‘tamo’ this way, we can conclude that they are phonologically very similar and semantically identical.

 

TAPŠATI (Serbian for: to clap) 212 We can compare the verb ‘tapšati’ with the Hebrew root:     (TPS) which denotes: capturing, retrieving, catching with the hand, hitting with the hand. If we look at the roots of each word, we will notice that the consonant ‘sh’ from the Hebrew word could have possibly turned into the sound ‘š’ in the Slavic word. Observing the factors of the two words this way (referring to consonants), it is easy to see the obvious phonological similarity. The semantic similarity is a bit less obvious, but these words can be correlated so that their similarity can be assumed.

 

TIH (Serbian for: quiet) 213 This word is comparable to the Hebrew word:    (TOHU) which, in Hebrew, denotes: gap, silence, nothingness. Bearers of the meaning in the Hebrew word are the consonants: ‘t’ (tau) and ‘h’ (he)- where he is a central part of the consonant root, since the word ‘tohu’ comes from the verb root:     (THH) and the last h (he) was only added as a complement to the root. As we can see, the Slavic and the Hebrew word have the same consonants in the roots and those are ‘t’ and ‘h’. Based on this, we can conclude that they are phonologically, as far as consonants are concerned, very similar and that they denote similar notions. So, they are also close in semantic terms.

 

TKATI (Serbian for: to weave) 214 This Slavic word contains the consonants ‘t’ and ‘k’ in its root (Czech: tkat, Russian: ткать). In the Western Semitic languages, there is the verb root    (T, KH). This root may have come to Serbian from the medieval Jewish religious literature, where it was used very frequently. It is probably of Aramaic origin. It was certainly phonologically modified in the Western Semitic languages. Since it appears only as a noun, there are no data on its complete morphology, because it lacks the third letter of the root and would not change the meaning of the root if it was in it, as the rule says it would be in the word anyway, if there was a fear of changing the point and the meaning of the word. The word, that is- the root, was probably borrowed from another language, since there are no other words of the same root and approximate meaning in the Western Semitic languages. If it is borrowed from a Semitic language, it makes sense to mention it in the sense of similarity of the roots in the Western Semitic and the Slavic languages. More precisely, in the Western Semitic languages, this word denotes: seam, sewing, weaving, a weaved object.

 

TUGA (Serbian for: sorrow) 215 The Western Semitic word:      (TUGA) is identical to the Slavic word that is considered Ancient Slavic. The Western Semitic languages ​​have the verb root from which the word ‘tuga’ was derived. It is the verb root:          (JGH, HoGH). According to the rules on forming nouns in the Western Semitic languages, the prefix ‘t’ (tav) is added, and the guttural ‘h’ (he) removed from the beginning of the word, and thus the noun ‘tuga’ is formed, which is an independent entry in Hebrew dictionaries, defined as: grief, sorrow, tragedy, misfortune. So, the Western Semitic and the Slavic word are semantically and phonologically identical.

 

NOTES:

211. PSERHS-3, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic and that the etymology is related to the word ‘tama’ (darkness) –more precisely, something dark and unknown- therefore ‘there’ (tamo), p.439. It would be interesting to mention that the Western Semitic demonstrative pronoun ‘sham’ is derived from the noun ‘shemama’ which denotes: emptiness, desolation, mystery

212. PSERHS-4, states that the word is Ancient Slavic and so relates this word to ‘taprati’, p. 397

213. PSERHS-3, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, p. 468

214. PSERHS-3, states that this is a word that originates from the Indo-European root ‘teq’ meaning- to weave, to sew, p. 477

215. PSERHS-3, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, while its etymology is associated with the Russian word ‘тугой’, meaning- tense, p. 453

 

                                                               U

 

 

U (Serbian for: in) 221 In some Slavic languages, ​​the preposition ‘in’ can be expressed in several ways, but the consonant ‘v’ is always used and it sometimes turns into the sound ‘u’ (as in Serbo-Croatian, for example). The Western Semitic languages ​​use the consonant bet () as the prepositions- in, for, by. This preposition (BET), depending on the position of individual phonemes in relation to it, within single morpheme, might turn into the fricative ‘v’. It should be noted that, in Western Semitic languages, ‘b’ and ‘v’ are in fact one grapheme that can denote two phonemes. It can be concluded that this is actually the use of the same consonant (which sometimes turns into the vowel ‘u’) as the prepositions ‘in’ and ‘on’, in different language families.

 

UGRIZ-gristi (Serbian for: bite, to bite) 222 This word can be compared to the Western Semitic root:     (GRZ) which denotes: cutting, mangling, bite mark. The Western Semitic and the Slavic word have completely identical consonants in the roots, so they are phonologically almost identical in that sense. Semantically, however, they are a bit different, since the Western Semitic word denotes primarily cutting (with an axe).

 

UMETNOST (Serbian for: art) 223 It is unlikely that this word has something in common, in etymological sense, with the verb ‘umetnuti’ (to insert), since this would meet only one condition concerning the same origin and that is phonological similarity. However, in the Western Semitic languages, there is a verb root (as well as the words derived from it):     (XMN) which denotes: art, artistic activity. The consonants in the Slavic word that bear the meaning are: UMETN. In the primary position in the Western Semitic root, there is the consonant aleph, which is silent or just heard as a brief pause, usually when in medial position. Only the vowel after it is pronounced. In Slavic case, the sound ‘t’ may have been inserted. If the factors of these words are seen this way, we can speak of certain similarity of the Slavic and the Western Semitic words ‘umetnost’ and ‘omanut’.

 

UNIŠTITI (Serbian for: to destroy) 224 This Slavic verb is phonologically and semantically analogous to the Western Semitic word that has the following consonants in its root:     (Xns). This root is in active use in Hebrew. It usually denotes: humiliation, torture, destruction. The first consonant of the root is aleph, which could be vocalized by any vowel, depending on the type of words that is to be formed from the root in the Western Semitic languages. This first consonant is pronounced without using vocal cords and since it is the first consonant in the word, we can simply say that it is generally not pronounced, but the vowels after it. The other two consonants in the Western Semitic root are identical to the Slavic word, except for the Western Semitic ‘s’, which could have turned into Slavic ‘š’ 15 or ‘č’ (Russian: уничтожать, Czech: ničit). Based on the above, it seems that the Slavic and the Western Semitic word are close, both phonologically and semantically.

 

NOTES:

221. PSERHS-3, states that the preposition is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic and that it is related to the Indo-European ‘au’ (of) p. 533

222. PSERHS-4 refers to the entry ‘greznuti’ and believes that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, p. 412

223. PSERHS-4, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic and is considered to have originated from the Slavic word ‘um’ (mind) p. 544

224. PSERHS-2, quotes Miklosic who believes that the word is Ancient Slavic, originating from the root ‘ni’, meaning: nothing, forgoing..., p. 520.

 

                                                                 V

 

 

VELIK (Serbian for: big) 231 This adjective, as well as other parts of speech derived from the same root in the Slavic languages ​​(Russian, Ukrainian: Velyikiy) can be correlated to the Western Semitic root:     (BLG) which denotes: size, magnification, empowerment. The first difference between the mentioned roots is obvious- the consonant ‘b’ at the primary position in the Western Semitic root, often replaced by the fricative ‘v’ in the Western Semitic languages. Only because it is at the beginning of the word, in the Western Semitic root, the first sound is ‘b’, but otherwise it is often replaced with ‘v’. The final ‘g’ (gimel), in Slavic case, might have turned into ‘k’ 17, as it often is the case with loanwords in the Slavic languages. Observing their factors this way, semantic and structural similarity of the two roots in two different language families is evident.

 

VRAČATI (Serbian for: ti practice sorcery) 232 This Slavic word may be related to the Western Semitic verb root:     (PRC) which should be distinguished from the Western Semitic root: PRC denoting- spraying. The above Western Semitic root denotes: begging, extortion, addressing supernatural powers. The consonant ‘p’ (pe) which is the primary consonant of the root, could have easily turned into the fricative ‘v’ in Slavic case, as it usually occurs with Turkish loanwords in the Slavic languages 18. The final C (ts) turned into Slavic ‘č’, which may be seen in other loanwords in the Slavic languages.  Observing the factors of the above words (Western Semitic and Slavic) this way, we can speak of their semantic and phonological similarity.

 

VRTETI (Serbian for: to spin) 233 In the Western Semitic languages, there is the root:    (PRT) which denotes: transmission, substitution, turning, spinning, sharing. In the aforementioned Western Semitic word, the first consonant is ‘p’ (pe), which is often replaced with the consonant ‘b’ or ‘v’, since the two consonants are counterparts when it comes to place of articulation. This is so in Slavic case, as well. The consonant ‘v’ is at the beginning of the word 18. Other basic consonant are the same in both words, so that the Western Semitic and the Slavic version of the verb ‘spin’ have the consonants ‘b’ (v), ‘r’ and ‘t’ as the bearers of the meaning. The suffix ‘-ti’ was certainly added to the Slavic infinitive form. Observing and comparing the two verbs this way, we can conclude that they are phonologically almost identical, as far as the consonants are concerned, and semantically close.

 

NOTES:

231. PSERHS-3, p. 573, states that the word originated from ancient Slavic adjective ‘velъ’, and it is assumed to have originated from the Indo-European root ‘-uel’

232. PSERHS-3, p. 616, states that the word originated from the Old Slavic verb’vrati- lagati’ and mentions the Indo-European root ‘uer-‘, meaning: to say

233. PSERHS-4, states that the origin is unclear.

 

Z

 

 

 

ZID (Serbian for: wall) 241 In the Western Semitic languages, there is the word:     (SID) which originates from the root     (SVD) denoting: building a wall, later- painting. This Western Semitic root is always disposed of the consonant ‘v’ (vav) in most nouns derived from it, and, in fact, all the other so called ayin-vav verbs, both in Hebrew and some other Western Semitic languages. The ‘s’ from the beginning of the Slavic word got there due to displacement of sounds, as in the Turkish loanwords, ‘s’ into ‘z’ (miras-miraz, meaning: dowry) 9 The similarity of this Slavic word to the Western Semitic one is possible, although this case requires a more detailed analysis.

 

ZNATI (Serbian for: to know) 242 This Slavic word which denotes knowledge is represented by the consonants ‘z’ and ‘n’. Comparing it with the Western Semitic languages, we will come across the root:        (ZVN, ZN) which denotes: nurturing, financing, knowledge transfer. One might conclude that the roots of the Western Semitic and the Slavic word consist of the same consonants, when it comes to the concept of knowledge. As we can see, in the Western Semitic word, the bearers of the meaning are the consonants ‘z’ and ‘n’. The consonant ‘v’, which appears as a central sound in the aforementioned Western Semitic word, is only the supporting element of the integrity of the root and cannot be considered the bearer of the meaning.

 

ZORA (Serbian for: dawn) 243 The word is a representative example of representing ‘light’ with the sounds: Z, R. There are many Slavic words that contain these two sounds, denoting light as a natural phenomenon, which can be seen and observed. Some of them are: zrcalo-ogledalo (mirror), zariti se-svetleti se (to emit light), zirkati, zuriti, gledati (to peek, to stare, to watch), zorno-jasno (clear), zrenik-vidik (view). It might be interesting to compare this Pan-Slavic word (or a combination of two sounds as bearers of the meaning of the words, denoting light-Z, R) to the Western Semitic verb root, which also serves to denote the light, which also has the consonants Z, R as the bearers of the meaning. This root is:    (ZHR). There are many other Western Semitic words for light which contain the two consonants as the base, but the roots of which also contain the base consisting of the above consonants, inlaid with extra sounds that serve as complements to the root’s unity, for example.     (ZWR),     (ZYR). The conclusion is that in both Slavic ​​and Western Semitic languages, the same sounds denote a phenomenon in nature- light, or at least watching and observing it, and thus, this phenomenon should be further explained.

 

NOTES:

241. PSERHS-3, p. 633, states that this noun is derived from the verb ‘zidati’ (to build), which is, as we already said, Ancient Slavic and Pan-Slavic technical word

242. PSERHS-3, p. 658, states that this is a Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic word, which is assumed to have originated from the Indo-European root ‘gn-‘

243. PSERHS-3, p. 661,662 states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, and that it originates from the verbs: zreti-gledati, sijati, svetleti (to watch, to shine)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE WESTERN SEMITIC WORDS RELATED TO THE CONSTRUCTION WORK AND THEIR POSSIBLE IMPACT ON THE SLAVIC LANGUAGES

 

 

BAJTA, POJATA (Serbian, old-fashioned: house) 251 The word ‘bajta’ was used to denote the first Slavic houses, while today, the word ‘pojata’ means: house, stables. This word is widespread in all Mediterranean languages. For example, in Italian, it means: hut. We can assume its Semitic origin, and since the Phoenicians were the first teachers of the construction work throughout the Mediterranean, which has already been discussed, we can also assume that it comes exactly from the Western Semitic languages. In Western Semitic languages, the word:    (BAJIT) denotes: house, home. As we can see, in the word ‘pojata’, a substitution of consonants ‘b’ (bet) with its bilabial counterpart ‘p’ occurred, which often happens with Turkish loanwords (Turkish: sabun, Serbian: sapun). (PSERHS-1, p 94, states that this is a word that can be heard in northern Italy, southern France, the Pyrenees, in Basque, Thracian, Greek, Serbian and Croatian and that it is probably a Hebrew word).

 

GRAD (Serbian for: city) 252 This Slavic word can be correlated to the Phoenician word: tri (XXART) which denotes: city, town. The first consonant in the Phoenician word is ayin, a guttural sound considering the place of articulation, which is often transferred into the sound ‘g’ in other languages ​​(The name for Gaza, Palestine in Hebrew is: hzi-XXAZA, and in this example, it is easy to see that the Semitic ayin turned into ‘g’). The consonant ‘t’ (tau) ,in Phoenician case, often turns into its counterpart ‘d’, which is close to it when it comes to the place of articulation. Considering the factors of the two words this way, we can say that they are semantically identical and phonologically very close. Phoenician (Punic) city of Carthage was called: GART HADASHT- the new city. By the way, as noted above, the Phoenicians were the first teachers of the construction in the Mediterranean region and its surroundings, which may be good evidence that the Slavic word is highly associated with the Western Semitic word. In Hebrew, the word for ‘city’ is very similar to the Phoenician one, but without the final consonant ‘t’ (tau), which, in the Phoenician word, is only an indicator for female gender, or perhaps, in this case- an indicator of status constructus. Namely, it is a Hebrew word with the same sounds that bear the meaning identical to those in the Phoenician word. Finally, the Hebrew word for city is:: RYi (XXIR)

 

MOST (Serbian for: bridge) 253 This Slavic word can be compared to the Western Semitic word:     (MASHATO) which denotes: sea parade, scaffold, bridging, bridge. The consonant which bear the meaning in both these words are almost identical, except for the sound ‘s’ in Slavic word, which could have possibly come from the sound ‘sh’ 2 that is found in the Western Semitic word. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Slavic and the Western Semitic words share high semantic closeness, and that phonologically, they are very similar.

 

MOŠUN - Skok says that this is a common toponym, more precisely- the word used to denote the village. In the Western Semitic languages , there is a word:     (MOSHAV) which denotes: settlement, village, place. In Hebrew, the word is slightly younger, when it comes to the origin. The word is derived from the verb:    (JSHV)-to sit, not to work, reside, settle. The problem in comparing is the last consonant of both words (Western Semitic and Slavic). It might be concluded that the words compared are phonologically and semantically very similar.

 

STENA (Serbian for: rock) 256 This noun is comparable to the Aramaic-Phoenician noun:     (Shitin) which denotes: stone, base, foundation, rock. The above noun is masculine in these languages. However, what is important are consonants and they are almost identical in both nouns from two different language families- Slavic and Western Semitic. In the Slavic noun, there is a combination of the following consonants (bearers of the meaning): S, T, N, and the Western Semitic nouns consists of the following: SH, T, N. Since the transition of the sound ‘sh’ to ‘s’, in words coming from a foreign language to the Slavic languages, is very frequent, we can find the right reason for comparing these two words. So, one can think that the Slavic word may have Western Semitic origin. The firm conclusion is that the compared words are semantically very close in structure, type and arrangement of the consonants.

 

TEMELJ (Serbian for: foundation) 257 This word is comparable to the Hebrew verb root:     (TPL) which denotes: connecting, linking, building, base. If we compare the consonants in these words, which can be treated as bearers of the meaning in both of them, we will see that these are the same or very close when it comes to the place of articulation. The consonant ‘t’ occurs in the primary position in both words (Slavic and Hebrew), the second consonant in the Serbian word is ‘m’, in the Hebrew – ‘p’. These sounds are easily interchangeable, since they are both bilabial. In the third place, there is the sound ‘lj’ in the Serbian word, while in the Hebrew word, there is ‘l’. Even this kind of transition (L to LJ) seems very familiar 16. Based on the above, it is clear that the compared words have very similar roots, which may have been slightly modified and adapted to the language it belongs to.

 

TRG, TRGOVATI (Serbian for: square, to trade) Skok compares this word to the Aramaic word:     (TAGARA) 254, meaning: to trade, to buy, to sell, as well as the Akkadian word: TAMGARU. It is possible that in Slavic languages, the word ‘trg’ (square) was used before the verb derived from it- ‘trgovati’ (to trade). If we assume that the word ‘trg’ came to the Slavic languages from the ​​Western Semitic languages, it is important to emphasize that, in the Western Semitic languages, this root denotes trading, rather than city centre, as in the Slavic languages. Later, the Slavs started using the verb ‘trgovati’ according to the same logic, just like the Semites did. In the Western Semitic languages, the root:     (TGR) denotes: trading and selling. As we can see, in the Slavic version of this word, a replacement in the position of the last two consonants occurred- instead of G, R we have R, G 10. From all the above, we can be conclude that the aforementioned Slavic word is, both semantically and phonologically, close to the Western Semitic word.

 

ŠOR (Serbian, old-fashioned: street) 255 Although we don’t know whether this localism meaning: street, rod is of Slavic or Hungarian origin, we should compare it to the Hebrew word:      (SHURA), due to semantic and structural closeness between them. Namely, the aforementioned Hebrew word is used to denote: queue, street, row. It is easy to notice the semantic and phonological closeness of these words.

 

NOTES:

 

251. PSERHS-1, p.94, states that this is a Rheto-Roman loanword from Hebrew ‘bajit’

252. PSERHS-1, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic and that it originated from the Ancient Slavic word ‘gord’ meaning: fence, garden, p. 602

253. PSERHS-2, p. 459, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, and that there are no Indo-European parallels

254. PSERHS-3, p. 498, states that this is a Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic word, derived from the Ancient Slavic base ‘trgъ’ and wonders how the Ancient Slavs received this Mediterranean word

255. PSERHS-3, p. 407, states that the word comes from the Hungarian word ‘sor’ (read as: shor) which denotes: queue, line, row

256. PSERHS-3, p. 334, states that the word is Ancient Slavic and Pan-Slavic, considered to originate from the Indo-European root ‘stai-‘, meaning: to stand

257. PSERHS-3, p. 456, says that the word is a pure Greek loanword used in the Balkans

 

THE WESTERN SEMITIC WORDS DESCRIBING LIQUIDS AND THEIR POSSIBLE IMPACT ON THE SLAVIC LANGUAGES

 

 

Liquids, containers for storing liquids, operations with

liquids, water, sea, seafaring...

 

 

BADANJ (Serbian, old-fashioned: bowl) 53 As stated in Serbian dictionaries, ‘badanj’ is a small kit that is used for storing primarily liquids, but also solid food. This Serbian word is comparable with a common Semitic word which primarily denotes: belly (    BETEN), although, in the Western Semitic languages, the consonants ​​that make up this word, i.e. the root, can also derive many words for: bloating, bubble, bubble-shaped vessel. So, we can conclude that the second consonant in the Western Semitic word, ‘t’ (tet), could have easily turned into ‘d’ 5 in Slavic case, and the Semitic ‘n’ at the final position of the word has turned into the sound ‘nj’ in Slavic case 13, which is very common. Observing and comparing the two words (Slavic and Semitic) this way, we can conclude that they are semantically close and phonologically very similar.

 

BANJA (Serbian for: spa) 53a The word ‘banja’ is comparable to the Western Semitic verb root:     (BNH), especially when it occurs in the so-called PIEL verbal group, since it that case it denotes: reconstruction, reformation, renewal. The purpose of the spa is actually renewing the people. The Serbian consonant ‘nj’ in the word ‘banja’ could have come from the Western Semitic ‘n’ (nun) 13. As we often stated, the consonant ‘h’ (he), which is in the final place in the Western Semitic base, is a possible extension of the vowel before it and serves to complete the root. It is concluded that the compared words are phonologically and semantically very similar.

 

BARA (Serbian for: pond) 51 This Slavic word is comparable to the Western Semitic word:     (BXR) that denotes: spring, well, a place on the ground where liquid is preserved. The Western Semitic word consists of three consonants: bet, aleph and resh. It can be assumed that. in Slavic case, aleph was lost as such, because it can’t be pronounced, and that, for these reasons, it turned into the sound ‘a’ which is close to it by its nature.

 

BARKA (Serbian for: arc) It might be interesting to compare the Western Semitic root:     (BRK) to the Slavic word ‘barka’. As we can see, all three Slavic consonants correspond to the consonants in the Western Semitic word. The root of the Western Semitic word denotes: speed, thunder, lightning, and we can assume that ‘barka’ 52 was a new navigational tool, faster than the existing ones, at that time. If it is known that the Phoenicians were the best sailors, teaching many people seafaring, it is possible that the Slavs learned this word from them. Surely, it would be good to further investigate the similarity of the examined word.

 

BOCA (Serbian for: bottle) 50 This word should be compared to the Western Semitic word:     (BOTS) which denotes: places where liquid is preserved, containers for storing liquids, pond, mud. You might notice that the Serbian and the Western Semitic words are almost identical, as far as the consonants are concerned. However, they are semantically somewhat remote, and thus we can comment their comparison in a negative sense (Western Semitic and Slavic word). The fact is that they are structurally very similar and that, as for meaning, these words denote similar concepts according to the function and the content. In Aramaic, there is a noun:     (BUKA), meaning: bottle. We will notice the shift of the consonant ‘k’ into ‘ts’, when the word is transferred from non-Slavic to the Slavic languages, so it is reasonable to assume, based on these facts, that the above Mediterranean words may have Western Semitic origin.

 

ČAŠA (Serbian for: glass) 54 This Slavic word 261 can be compared to the common Semitic word:     (QOS) which has the same meaning, i.e. it denotes: glass. This comparison can cause controversy, since the big question is whether an emphatic consonant, such as Hebrew consonant ‘q’ (qof), could turn into Slavic ‘č’. (Although, in Latin, there is: Caesar-Kajsar-Cezar which used to be ‘ćesar’ in Serbian). It turns from palatal plosive sound into velar affricative sound, so either ’ć’ or ‘č’ are possible. The other important consonant, in both Slavic and Semitic word for glass, is consonant ‘š’, or ‘s’ (in the Semitic word). The phenomenon of ‘s’ 15 turning into ‘š’ 2 and vice versa is frequent. Observing the factors of the compared words this way, we can say that they are phonologically similar and semantically identical.

 

GUMINA (Serbian for: hawser) 54a This word denotes the thick rope used for tying boats. It can be compared to the Western Semitic word:     (GUMA) of the same meaning. In the Slavic languages of the Balkans, the word comes from the Italian word ‘gomen’ with the same meaning. Therefore, we can say that this Italian word in Serbian is actually a Semitic word. It is easy to notice the phonological and semantic closeness of the Western Semitic and the Serbian word.

 

JAMA (Serbian for: cave) 54b The Western Semitic consonant pair:    (JM) denotes: sea, lake, water, a place where water is located. The Slavic word ‘jama’ has identical consonants as the Western Semitic word and it can denote the same thing. Besides this, it should be noted that the word ‘špilja’ (cave) can also be correlated to the Western Semitic consonants that make up the root:     (SHPL) which denotes the idea of: plain, plunge, dent, etc. Of course, the consonant ‘l’ could have easily turned into the consonant ‘lj’ 16 in the Slavic word. Therefore, the conclusion is that the compared words are similar both phonologically and semantically.

 

KABLIĆ, bačva (Serbian for: barrel) This Serbian word denotes the container for storing liquids, usually made of wood (SSRSJ). Its synonyms are: kablica, bačva, kotao. Let us compare this word to a Western Semitic root. The basic consonants in the Serbian root are: K, B, L. In the Western Semitic languages, these three consonants (  -KBL) denote: income, possession, acceptance, appropriation. So, from this Western Semitic root, for example, we can derive the following word: ​​KIBULIT (     ) which denotes a bowl (for storing fluids), a canister. Therefore, we shall conclude that this Serbian word has its Semantic counterpart.

 

KADA (Serbian word: bath tub) 55 (bowl for storing liquid) This Serbian word can be correlated to the Western Semitic word:    (KAD) which also denotes a container for storing liquid. Although this word should primarily denote ‘pitcher’ in Hebrew, it is still possible that in other Western Semitic languages, it might denote other containers for liquids. So, the Serbian word and the Western Semitic word are phonologically similar, except that the Western Semitic word is masculine. We can say that the compared words are almost identical, as far as their meaning is concerned.

 

 KANAP (Serbian for: rope) 55a This word is comparable to the Western Semitic root that denotes: hugging, assembling, clamping, covering, bonding. In the Western Semitic languages, this root is represented by the consonants:    (KNF), i.e. KNP. The difference in the sounds ‘p’ and ‘f’ can be explained by the fact that in different Western Semitic languages, the consonant ‘p’ either does not occur or does occur at the end of words and in certain ​​Western Semitic languages, the sound ‘p’ occurs only as ‘f’, while the others may have both ‘p’ and ‘f’. From all the above, we can say that the aforementioned Slavic and Western Semitic words have identical consonants in the roots- which means they are phonologically identical, as far as the consonants are concerned, while semantically, they are very similar.

 

KIPETI (Serbian for: to boil) 55b This word is associated with the Hebrew root:     (CWP) which will be discussed at the entry ‘KUPATI’. The consonant ‘v’ (vav) is very volatile in its base, and often turns into the vowels ‘u’ or ‘o’. Of course, the third consonant of the Hebrew root is identical to the Serbian consonant, but there also occurs an obstacle in bringing up the similarity of the Slavic and the Hebrew word. More precisely, Hebrew words will never have the consonant ‘p’ at their end, but rather ‘f’. Therefore, in specifying the root at the beginning of the discussion on the entry ‘KUPATI’, in Hebrew word there is a grapheme denoting the sound fe (f) and not the sound pe (p), while in the Roman script, in order to indicate the closeness of the Slavic and the Hebrew word, the sound fe is transcribed as ‘p’ (See: Pe-Fe at "HEBREW PRONUNCIATION"). Hebrew ‘ts’ (tsadi) can turn into ‘k’ in Slavic case, although this claim is difficult to prove. It is nonetheless concluded that the compared words are similar, both phonologically and semantically.

 

KORITO (Serbian for: pan) 55c In Western Semitic languages, the word: hrik (KEARA) denotes: pan, container for liquids. In this Western Semitic word, there is the consonant XX (ayin) (See: Ayin at "Hebrew pronunciation") which can cause some controversy about the similarities between the Western Semitic and the Serbian word, although we should therefore have in mind, that this sound, as it often happens, could have been removed in order to facilitate the pronunciation of the word. The Slavic word had got a ‘t’ at the end. Therefore, The Serbian and the Western Semitic word are phonologicall relatively close and identical in semantic sense.

 

KRČAG (Serbian for: pitcher) 55d This noun can be compared to the Hebrew root:     (KRS), from which many verbs, nouns and adjectives derived. This root denotes everything that is egg-shaped, with a cut top, with the ability to contain certain content. For example, the nouns: stomach, pitcher and vase are derived from this root. If you look at the structure of the Hebrew root, we can see that it consists of the consonants that occur in the Serbian word for pitcher, except for the consonant ‘s’ (sameh), which could have turned into the affricative sound ‘č’ 20 in Serbian ‘krčag’. Another problem in this comparison is the consonant ‘g’ in ‘krčag’. If this sound is added, we can consider the comparison. In that case, the two words would be phonologically very similar and semantically close.

 

KUPATI (Serbian for: to bathe) 56 This Slavic verb can be compared to the Western Semitic verb root, which is now used only in Hebrew, when it comes to the Western Semitic languages. This root is:    (CWP) and it denotes: spraying, pouring, bathing, boiling, generally- dealing with water. There is only one, really small obstacle in bringing up the similarity of the Slavic and the Hebrew verb, and that is the Western Semitic consonant ‘ts’ (tsadi), which rarely turns into the sound ‘k’ in other languages. The compared words are, nevertheless, semantically and phonologically very similar.

 

KUVATI (Serbian for: to cook) 56a The verb ‘kuvati’ in other Slavic languages ​​can also have the following graphic form: kuhati. It may therefore be compared to the Western Semitic verb root:    (KHH), which denotes: cooking, boiling, anger, rage. It should be distinguished from an identical root that denotes: dark, darkening. The aforementioned root, which we shall compare to the Slavic verb ‘kuhati’, consists of the two consonants that are identical to those in the root of the Slavic verb and those are ‘k’ and ‘h’. The consonant ‘h’ (he) at the final place in the Western Semitic root cannot be considered an equal part of the root because it serves as a complement, although it in fact is in the root. The consonant ‘h’ (he) in the secondary position is an integral part of the root. See: GREJATI.

 

MATAR- As stated in PSERHS-2, p. 387, this is a common toponym for waters in the Balkans. In most Semitic languages, and thus in the Western Semitic ones, this word denotes: rain, storm, water, liquid. For example, in Hebrew, we can see an incredible sameness of this Pan-Semitic and Pan-Balkan word, including the Slavic word:     (MATAR). Since the word is Slavic, one can assume that it is directly taken from the Semitic languages. So, the words compared are semantically and phonologically identical.

 

MLAK (Serbian for: lukewarm) 56b This Slavic word can be compared to the Western Semitic word:    (MLG) which denotes: hot liquid, and many things that can be related to or done with the hot water, as well. We can assume that the Hebrew ‘g’ (gimel) turned into ‘k’ in the Serbian word 17 (the consonant in the last place of the word).  Observing the two words this way, we can conclude that they are semantically and phonologically similar.

 

NAFTA (Serbian for: oil) 56c This common Indo-European and Slavic word stems from an Akkadian word, i.e. the Semitic languages. Namely, in Akkadian, the word ‘NAPT’ means: black liquid, the liquid from the ground. It is understandable that the consonant ‘p’ was replaced with the fricative sound ‘f’ in most Indo-European languages. So, this is a Semitic word that is found in the Slavic languages and in many Indo-European languages, as well.

 

PITI (Serbian for: to drink) 58d This word can be compared to the Western Semitic root:    (PH, read as: peh) which denotes primarily mouth, but also many things related to this part of the head (See: PEVATI). As we can see, the consonant bearing the meaning is actually the first consonant of both words. This consonant is ‘p’. In Western Semitic word, the second consonant in the root (sound ‘h’) is, as previously said, only a complement to the root and cannot be considered an equal member of it. The situation is identical with the Slavic verb ‘piti’. Only the sound ‘p’ is in the root. In different tenses and aspects, there are also different suffixes added to the basic sound ‘p’ (piti, pijem, piješ, pio sam, pila je…). The conclusion is that the compared Western Semitic and Slavic words are phonologically very similar, that is, the sound ‘p’ is the bearer of the meaning in both words. They are, then, semantically related.

 

PLOVITI, plivati (Serbian for: to navigate, to swim) 56d In the Slavic word ‘ploviti’, we can trace a Western Semitic root which is very characteristic by its meaning and structure. Specifically, the Western Semitic verbs that denote movement usually have double identical sets, or- a combination of consonants and vowels. This root is:      (PLBL, PILBEL). In order to obtain the duplicity, the fourth consonant of the root is complemented with the consonant at the secondary position in the basic root. In this case, there is another ‘l’ added. The basic root is PLV and it denotes: swinging, moving, undulation. The sound ‘b’ from the Western Semitic root could have easily turned into the sound ‘v’ in the Slavic word. These consonant transformations are very frequent 19 because of their closeness at the place of articulation. Semantic and phonological similarity of the Western Semitic and the Slavic root is apparent (Russian: plavać, Czech: Plavat).

 

PLUTATI (Serbian for: to float) 57 This Slavic word can be correlated to the Western Semitic word:     (PLT) which denotes: disappearance, coming back, going away, displacement, undulation, swaying. In semantic terms, we might say that the two words are similar and consist of absolutely identical consonants in the base, and that they are, as far as the consonants are concerned, very similar.

 

ŠAFOLJ 57a- This word is comparable to the Hebrew root:     (SFL) which denotes: lowland, dent, valley. Phonological closeness of the Western Semitic and the Slavic word is evident. First of all, the consonants SH, F (P) are common to both words. The third consonant of the Slavic word might have come from the Hebrew ‘l’ (lamed), which is the third consonant of the Hebrew word. This type of replacing the consonants could be seen in other examples 16. So, as far as the consonants are concerned, the two words are completely identical. Their meaning is identical, as well. There is no doubt that an influx of Hebrew words in Serbian has occurred. The use of this word in Serbian probably dates from the period after Christ or the arrival of Christianity among the Slavs. Vujaklija states that the word originated from the German word ‘Schaff’ (Shkaf) which came from the Greek word ‘skaphe’, denoting any kind of carved objects, the trough, etc. The disadvantage of such comparisons is the absence of the sound ‘l’/’lj’ in the Greek word and the existence of the sound ‘k’ in both German and Greek version. The Slavic word ‘šafolj’ can be compared to the Western Semitic word:    (SEFEL) which denotes: mugs, bowls, hollowed object used for storing liquids.

 

ŠAJKA 57b This noun can be compared to the Western Semitic root:     (SHJH) which denotes: navigation, boat trip. This root came from the other Western Semitic root:     (SVT) with the same meaning. As it might be expected, the only Western Semitic consonant that remained in the Slavic word is ‘sh’ (shin), from the both Western Semitic roots. However, considering only the root SHJH, we can say that the real bearers of idea are the consonants ‘j’ and ‘h’. The consonant ‘h’ (he), as noted above, exceeds the vowel in front of it and completes the root. Comparing the Slavic and the Western Semitic word this way, we can see these two Western Semitic consonants, which are therefore bearers of the idea, are there both in the Western Semitic and the Slavic word. Skok says that ‘-ka’ in the word ‘šajka’ is actually a suffix. The base of the root would therefore consist of the consonants ‘sh’ and ‘j’, just as in the Western Semitic word. The conclusion is that the Serbian word and the Western Semitic word are close both phonologically and semantically.

 

SIPATI (Serbian for: to pour) 57c This verb can to certain extent be correlated to the Western Semitic verb:     (CAPA) which denotes actions such as: leaking, pouring, sailing, swimming. In the primary position in the Western Semitic word, there is the consonant ‘ts’ (tsadi) which is sometimes pronounced as today's Arab emphatic  ‘SAAD’, or even as an interdental sound ‘te’. So, this Western Semitic consonant easily turns into ‘s’, ‘č’ or ‘ć’, if a word is being transferred ​​from the Western Semitic to other languages, if it contains the consonant tsadi. The basic consonants are, then, both in the Slavic and the Western Semitic word- ‘ts’ (s) in the first place, and ‘p’ in the second place. In the Slavic word, the suffix ‘-ti’ is certainly appended. In the Western Semitic word, the consonant ‘he’ is in the third place, and, as already said, it was added to complement the root (See the entry: JURITI). Analyzing the factors of the examined word this way, we can conclude that they are, both phonologically and semantically, very close.

 

SIPATI (Serbian for: to pour) 57c This Slavic verb phonologically and semantically coincides with the Western Semitic verb:     (SPH) which denotes the idea of: ​​spilling, pouring, adding liquid. The final consonant ‘he’ in the Western Semitic verb root cannot be heard in the pronunciation process, but rather serves as an extension of the vowel in front of it and as a complement to the root, so that we can say that the bearers of the meaning the very consonants ‘s’ and ‘p’, as in the Slavic root (Russian: sipac, Czech: sipat).

 

SUNĐER (Serbian for: sponge)58 This word might have come to the Slavic languages ​​from Greek and Latin (Latin: Spongia). The sound ‘p’ in the second place of the Latin word was lost in the Serbian word. The sound ‘g’ as the fourth consonant in the Latin word has turned into the consonant ‘đ’ in Serbian. In the Latin word, the sound ‘n’ has assimilated with the voice ‘g’ and turned into the sound ‘đ’ in other languages, as well (as in Serbian and Italian, for example). This Latin word probably originates from the Western Semitic root:     (SPG) which denotes: absorbing, vacuuming, drying, sponge-like appearance. So, we can conclude that the word ‘sunđer’ is Western Semitic, got into the Slavic languages ​​from the Roman languages. Observing the factors of these three words this way, we come to the conclusion that they are identical in meaning and phonologically slightly different.

 

ŠOLJA (Serbian for: cup) 57d This word can be correlated to the Western Semitic word:   (SAL) which denotes the object that can store dry or liquid substance. For example, in Hebrew, this word denotes: basket. As for comparisons to the Serbian word ‘šolja’, we might say that the Western Semitic ‘s’ (sameh) turned into ‘š’ in the Serbian word 15, and that the Western Semitic ‘l’ (lamed) could have easily turned into the sound ‘lj’16. Comparing the Western Semitic and the Slavic word, it can be concluded that they are both semantically and phonologically very close.

 

TANJIR (Serbian for: plate) 58a This Slavic noun is comparable to the Western Semitic noun:      (TANUR) which denotes: oven, bowl (where food is prepared by heating). As you can see, the Western Semitic and the Serbian word have the same consonants. Of course, the Western Semitic consonant ‘n’ (nun) turned into ‘nj’ in the Slavic word 13. So, we can conclude that the compared words are very similar phonologically, and close semantically.

 

VESLATI (Serbian for: to oar) 58b In this word, we can trace the Western Semitic root:     (BSHL) which denotes: whirling water, gurgling, boiling and later: cooking. The Western Semitic ‘b’ in the primary position in the base was replaced by the Slavic labiodental fricative ‘v’ 19, while the Western Semitic ‘sh’ replaced by the Slavic ‘s’ 2. The closeness in meaning of these two roots in two different language families and their phonological similarity is evident.

 

VINO (Serbian for: wine) 58c The Phoenicians spread vine and making wine all over Europe. Having this in mind, we can compare the Western Semitic word for wine:     (JAJIN) with the European and the Slavic: vin, vinum, wein, vino. The first consonant of the Hebrew word can often be replaced with the consonant vav (v). It is likely that, in certain Western Semitic languages, the word for wine was once ‘wayin’ or ‘uayin’, which can be confirmed by an expert on the Western Semitic consonants and phonetics. Observing the factors of the Slavic and the Western Semitic word this way, we can say that they have are similar in phonological tense and that they denote the same concept.

 

Notes:

50. PSERHS-1, str177, the entry BOCA is said to be a Balkan word of Venetian origin and there are evidence for this claim

51. PSERHS-1, p.109, the entry BARA is said to come from a Pan-Slavic word, which has no links to other Indo-European languages

52. PSERHS-1, p.113, at the entry BARKA, it is stated that the origin of the word is Mediterranean, and that as such or with slightly modified consonants and vowels, it occurs in almost every language ​​of the Mediterranean

53. PSERHS-1, p. 86, states that this is a Mediterranean word for dishes, which are spread by the Slavs in Europe

53a. PSERHS-1, p. 108, it is considered that the Slavs received this word from the Vulgar Latin (like the word: bania), in the fifth or sixth century AD

54. PSERHS-1, p.299, it is considered that the word comes from the Pan-Slavic and ancient Slavic time

54a. PSERHS-1, p.749

54b. PSERHS-1, p. 752, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, and that no Indo-European parallels exist with this word

55. PSERHS-2, p. 12, states that it is of Semitic origin and that it came to the taps via the Black Sea ports

55a. PSERHS-2, p. 30, states that the word originated from the Latin: Cannabis (hemp), which came into Latin from Semitic languages

55b. PSERHS-2, p. 82, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, and that is derived from  the Indo-European root ‘qeuep’

55c. PSERHS-2, p. 156, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic

55d. PSERHS-2, p. 187, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, without parallels with the Indo-European languages

56th PSERHS-2, p. 237, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic with no relation to the Indo-European languages

56a. PSERHS-2, p. 224, this word is considered to originate from the Latin: Cocina

56b. PSERHS-2, p. 439, states that the word is a South Slavic adjective, derived from the previous version: mlohav

56C. PSERHS-2, p. 498, states that this word is an international oriental word

56d. PSERHS-2, p. 686, it is considered that this verb is derived from the Indo-European root ‘pleu-‘ with similar meaning

57. PSERHS-2, p. 686, refers to the entry ‘PLOVITI’ and believes that the origin of this verb is close to the one of the verb ‘ploviti’

57a. PSERHS-3, p. 399, states that the origin is unknown

57b. PSERHS-3, p. 378, states that Mladenov took Areo-Altaic root ‘shavam’- to move, and explains the origin of this word this way, which usually, as he says, occurs only in the Slavic and the Balkan languages

57c. PSERHS-3, p. 241, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic and is considered to originate from the Indo-European root ‘sup’

57d. PSERHS-3, p. 380, states that the word originated from the German: Schale

58. PSERHS-3, p. 362, states that the word is a Balkan Turkish loanword of Greek origin. In Turkish loanwords in Serbo-Croatian, Sarajevo, 1989 , Skaljic states that the word comes from Turkish (Only the path of the arrival of this word can be interpreted this way, but it is probably of Semitic origin)

58a. PSERHS-3, p. 439, states that this word is Italian, which got to the Balkans as a Venetian word

58b. PSERHS-3, p. 579, states that the word is a Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic verb, a general Slavic marine word

58c. PSERHS-3, p. 595, states that the word is a Pan-Slavic loanword of Oriental origin

58d. PSERHS-2, str.667, states that the word is Pan-Slavic and Ancient Slavic, but that it has no Indo-European origin

 

 

 

 

NOTES: From the examples sharing the same root until the end

 

1. As with Turkish loanwords, when the Turkish ‘p’ turns into ‘b’, for example: pestil-bestilj; pusu-busija.

2. The Semitic ‘sh’ can often turn into ‘s’ when transferring to the Indo-European languages. Examples: Hebrew: Shabbat- subota; Shomron- Samarija. Of course, these transitions are indirect, incurred by translating the Old Testament from Hebrew to Greek, then Latin, German and then to the Slavic languages ​​or directly from Latin and Greek into Slavic languages. There are also the direct transitions of the Semitic sound ‘sh’ into the Slavic ‘s’, by listening

3. As with Turkish loanwords, when Turkish ‘s’ or ‘ts’ turns into ‘c’. For example: Tutsak-tucak; Yatsu-jacija.

4. As with Turkish loanwords, when sounds ‘dž’ and ‘đ’ from Turkish words turn into the sound ‘đ’ in the Slavic words. For example: egirotu-iđirot; fesle ¨ gen-fesliđen.

5. In Turkish loanwords there is also this shift of sounds, when the sound ‘t’ from the Turkish words, which is transferred to some of the Slavic language, turns into the consonant ‘d’. For example- tarumar- darmar; tenbel-dembel...

6. In Arabisms and Turkish loanwords there is often the case of assimilation of the initial sound ‘h’, although by its origin (etymology), it should be there. For instance- Ashim instead of Hashim, Alka instead of Halka, but also with Jewish words- Aram instead of Haram, ans also the medial ‘h’: Avraam instead of Avraham ...

7. Turkish loanwords also have the consonant ‘k’ transferred into ‘g’ when certain Turkish words enter the Slavic languages. For example- kaide- gajde (bagpipes), kavas-gavaz. Especially when it comes to the emphatic ‘k’.

8. The best known example of the transfer of guttural sounds ayin and rhayin from the Semitic languages ​​into the Indo-European languages ​​is an example of the name of the city- Gaza. Specifically, this name in Hebrew begins with the consonant ayin, while in Arabic it begins with rhayin (related to Hebrew ayin by place of articulation). However, both in Slavic and other Indo-European languages ​​(the most important evidence are the cases in Greek and Latin), this town is called: Gaza, with the sound ‘g’ at the primary position.

9. It is known that the sounds ‘s’ and ‘c’ in Turkish loanwords turn into ‘z’ in Slavic languages. For example- atlas-atlaz; kafes-kavez, sanat-zanat, but also in Arabisms: mikas-makaze...

10. Such metatheses of sounds have also been registered in Arabisms and Turkish loanwords. When certain words enter the Slavic languages ​, from Turkish, Arabic or possibly Persian, there are cases of substitution of consonants in order to facilitate the pronunciation, or due to mishearing the word. Thus we have: barjak instead of  bayrak, barjam instead of bayram, lepeza instead of yelpaze ...

11. This substitution of consonants can be seen in Turkish loanwords as well. Namely, there are examples where the Slavic consonant ‘k’ is actually a Turkish ‘h’. For example: Sabak-Sabah; Kirmizi-Hrmza...

12. It often occurs that the consonants ‘f’, when found in a Turkish word, turns into the Slavic ‘v’, not only in this kind of relation, but also in other languages. So here we have the following examples: Turkish ‘Afet’ -here: avet; Turkish ‘kafes’, here: kavez; defter-tevter; sofra-sovra.

13. These transformations of ‘n’ into ‘nj’ are very common and logical when certain terms from other languages ​enter​ the Slavic languages, especially with the non-Slavic terms in Slavic languages ​​and who have the sound ‘n’ at their end. Very often, the word will spread to some of the Slavic languages, so that it will eventually have the sound ‘nj’ in both. The Turkish loanwords have: Figan-figanj, but also: binek-binjek; yeniceri-janjičar, then the ancient Hellenisms: Tigan-tiganj...

14. Turkish loanwords have this sound replacement phenomenon- when the sound ‘h’ from the Turkish word is replaced with ‘k’ in the Slovenian version of the same word. For example: bahtsiz-baksuz; bahsis-bakšiš; Sheyh-Šeik...

15. Such cases have been seen in Turkish loanwords, as well. For example: safran-šafran...

16. It is logical that the term that enters the Slavic languages, being ​​of non-Slavic origin, will substitute the consonant ‘l’ for ‘lj’. There are many such examples- Turkish loanword: fitil-fitilj; kandil-kandilj; zembil-zembilj... There are also the Hebraisms, well-known to us: Yisrael-Izrailj; Betel- Vetilj, and within the Slavic languages: Lav-Ljev, Bitola-Bitolj...

17. Such cases are rare but do exist. For example, the sound ‘g’ can turn into ‘k’ in Turkish loanwords, namely- the Turkish word Gazanfer looks like this in Serbian: Kazanfer...

18. There is often the case of replacement of the sound ‘p’ with the sound ‘v’, but also vice versa. Thus we have the Turkish loanwords: kopča: kovča; čepken-čevkeni; zavt-zapt...

19. The replacement of  ‘b’ with ‘v’ often occurs in Turkish loanwords- when the word from the Turkish language contains the sound ‘b’, in the Slavic languages, ​​the same word will often have the sound ‘v’ in the same place. For example- abdest-avdest; kebab-ćevap; sebap-sevap...

20. As in the Turkish loanwords: nergis-nergić, nergič...

21. Adding or inserting ‘n’ in Slavic versions and foreign words from Turkish language is very common. As with- hile-hinla; bilezik-bilenzuke; matrak-mandrak...

 

SOME IMPORTANT WESTERN SEMITIC WORDS THAT ENTERED THE SLAVIC AND OTHER LANGUAGES THROUGH CHRISTIANITY

(IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER)

 

 

The spread of Christianity among the Slavs also brought an expansion and the frequent use of many names and phrases from the Old and New Testaments in the Slavic languages. Of course, a huge part of these words and names comes from Hebrew, but also Aramaic and other Western Semitic languages. These names number thousands, but only around 150-200 of them are used frequently. The most common words, transferred to Serbian and other Slavic languages, can be found on the following pages, with brief explanation, the way they are written in Hebrew, as it stands in the original text of the Old and New Testament, as well as their transliteration into Serbian. Each phrase or name is explained, that is- their meaning in Serbian is also given.

 

AVRAM – the name that entered the Slavic languages ​​probably upon the arrival of Christianity among the Slavs. It is a direct transcription of a Jewish name, the one that the father of the Jewish people had. In the Hebrew language, in the beginning it looked like this:     (AVRAM), while later it received an extra sound he (H):       (Avraham). The very name in Hebrew means "Father of many people". It is better to use the form AVRAAM or AVRAHAM in the Slavic languages, because this form is more correct, according to the Hebrew word.

 

ADAM- A Hebrew word, transmitted into the Slavic languages ​​correctly, as it reads in Hebrew:     (ADAM). Since that in Hebrew it comes from the noun ‘earth’, we can say that the word ADAM means: THE MAN FROM THE EARTH.

 

AZOT- one of the five cities of the Philistines plain, on an important caravan route, located near Gaza, on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Actually, its real name in Hebrew is:       (Ashdod). There are indications that this name means "beloved man", from the Hebrew noun ‘ish’-man, and the noun: DOD-beloved, dear, but also: uncle.

 

ALELUJA, ALILUJA (hallelujah)- the word that represents an ancient liturgical exclamation. There was a direct transcription of the Hebrew word, retained the original in most Bibles. In the Hebrew language, it has slightly different vocals, but comparing to the European varieties known to us, and also the consonant he in the root, at the beginning, but aldso at the end, and it is pronounced in this case, as it is indicated in the final consonant, with the point in the letter:        (Hallelujah). It represents the compound verb in the imperative form in plural: PRAISE (Halelu) and the noun: GOD, THE LORD (Yah, Ya), so the entire word is interpreted as: "Praise the Lord".

 

AMIN (amen)- The word, which is placed at the end of prayer, both in Judaism and in Christianity. It represents a completely copied Hebrew word    (AMEN) meaning: "So be it, it will be." Etymologically, the word is derived from the verb: to believe, so that it denotes: THE STRENGTH OF FAITH, RELIABILITY.

 

ANA- the name, which probably got its way among the Slavs by introducing Christianity. In the writings of the Old Testament, it appears as:     (HANA), which in Hebrew means: BEAUTY or how theologians interpret it: "the Lord had mercy." In the Jewish name, it is difficult to find the elements that would make this theological interpretation of the name: HANA (ANA) rightful.

 

ARMAGEDON (Armageddon)- in Christianity this word denotes the Doomsday. It actually consists of two Hebrew words:         (HAR and MEGIDO), meaning: "Megiddonian hill." The name of this hill in Hebrew is actually a genitive construction. In this city, near Jordan, two major battles took place (Doom. 4:12-24, 2 King. 23:29).

 

BARABA (a punk)- this word is Aramaic, and literally translated, it means: Dad's son. It consists of two words, one of them being Syrian and the other one- a common Western Semitic word. The first word is   (BAR), which means the SON- Aramaic. The second word is    (ABA), means DAD, and it’s Western Semitic.

 

BETEL, see: VETILJ

 

VAVILON (Babylon)- the word that denotes Babylonia as a (former) state in the Slavic languages, but also: confusion, chaos, mess. It represents a somewhat bad transcription of a Hebrew or an Aramaic longer word:     (BABEL), consisting of two words: BAB-EL-door and EL- God. Thus, the meaning would be: "God's door." However, there are indications that this word can be interpreted through the Hebrew verb:     (BALAL) meaning: "to confuse, to mix up." However, you would say that the verb in Hebrew arose from the very name: BABEL,by a process known as doubling the consonants in Hebrew.

 

VARTOLOMEJ (Bartholomew) - one of the twelve apostles. The name that is often heard among the Slavs. It is Aramaic and it means "Son of Tholomew" (      BARTALMAJ) It consists of two words: BAR-son and TALMAY- Tholomew (name).

 

VARUH, BARUH (Baruch) - the name that is heard less often among the Slavs, being the popular among Russians. Baruch was, in the Old Testament writings, known as the friend of Jeremiah. The name is Jewish:      (BARUH) and it means "blessed." It is derived from the Hebrew verb, "To bless".

 

VENIJAMIN, BENJAMIN, BENDŽAMIN (Benjamin)- he was the youngest son of Jacob. The name is often heard among Christians, especially among Catholics. It represents the Hebrew word:        (BENJAMIN), which consists of two words: BEN- son and YAMIN- south, the right hand. The mere name can be interpreted as: "Son is the right-hand" or, "Son of the South, the Southerner"

 

VETILJ, BETEL (Bethel)- this is a town near Jerusalem. At this place, Abraham built an altar and Jacob had a vision. This place was named by Jacob himself. Today, this term is the personification of the house for the study of religion among the Christians. The word is Jewish:        (BETEL) and it consists of two words: BET- house and EL-God, and its meaning can be interpreted as: "God's house".

 

VIRSAVEJA (Beersheba) - a city on the Southern border of Israel from the period before the new era. The city still exists. It is located on the Northern part of the Negev desert, where it was located in the biblical period. Here, it is known from the Bible as: Beersheba. It was built on the site where Abraham dug a spring. It represents a Jewish name composed of two words: ibw rab (BEER-SHEVA), meaning: "Seven springs" or, more likely, "the spring of the oath" where the word BEER represents THE SOURCE, and the word ŠEVAXX means SEVEN or OATH.

 

VITLEJEM, BETLEHEM (Bethlehem) – the name of a town near Jerusalem, where Jesus was born. It was also David's hometown. Its very name is a Jewish name:        (BETHLEHEM), which consists of the words: BET-house and the words: LEHEM-bread, food, and thus, its name can be interpreted as: "The house of bread" or as: "The house of food".

 

GAVRILO, GABRIEL (Gabriel) - a name which is very common among the Slavs and Christians in general. This is the name is the name of one of the seven angels, who repeatedly appeared to Daniel, Zechariah, Mary... It represents the old Jewish name:        (GABRIEL), meaning: "My hero is the Lord" or "God is the hero." The name consists of the words: GAVRI- representing a masculine noun with the suffix belonging to the first person singular, meaning: MY HERO, MY STONGMAN and of the word EL meaning GOD.

 

GAZA (Gaza) - the name of the city in the plain of the Philistines. Today, the city that the state of Israel intends to hand over the Palestinians. The story of Samson takes place exactly in this city. The city’s name is Semitic: hzi (AZZA) meaning: "strong, powerful."

 

GALILEJA (Galilee)- the area in central and Northern Israel. A name that is often heard among the Slavs and so many other Christians. In Hebrew, it sounds like:      (GALIL), and the meaning of this word is often interpreted as: "Area".

 

GOLGOTA (Golgotha) - the place where Jesus was crucified. It also denotes the place of suffering or a bad situation in the Slavic languages. In the Slavic languages it ​​is almost exactly transcribed Hebrew word       (GALGELET), meaning: "Skull." In Jesus' day, in the Aramaic language, this word actually had the following form:       (GALGOLTA), with the same meaning. In Slavic version of the word, there was a case of assimilating the consonant ‘l’ in order to facilitate the pronunciation.

 

GOMORA (Gomorrah) - one of the five cities in the Southern side of the Dead Sea, destroyed by an earthquake and brimstone in the biblical period. The name is a Jewish word, transcribed in order to facilitate the pronunciation: hrvmi (XXAMORA). The meaning of the name in Hebrew would be: dispersal, deployment, cleaning... The first consonant is a guttural Hebrew sound ayin, which is, in this case, transferred into ‘g’ in the Indo-European languages.

 

DAVID (David) – he was the king of Judea, known for his courage and his talent in poetry. The name David is an exact transcription of the Jewish name:    (DAVID). The very name means "the one in love" or, in the Aramaic version: "The Chief".

 

DANILO (Daniel) – He was a prophet who wrote a book in the Old Testament which was named after him. His name is a slightly altered transcription of the Jewish name:       (DANIEL), which in Hebrew means "My judge is God," or "God is my judge."

 

EVA, JEVA (Eve) – the name that Adam gave to his first wife. The very name:     (HAVA) comes from the Hebrew verb "To Live", and is usually interpreted as: "Mother of all living" or, "The one who gives life."

 

ELEAZAR, ELIEZER (Elieser) - In the Old Testament. there were thirteen people with this name. One of them was the third son of Aaron. The name itself is represented by the word: rziyla (Eliezer), meaning "God helped" or "God is help," where the word EL means God and the word XXEZER means HELP.

 

ELIAKIM (Eliakim)- he was the principal chief of servants at the court of Judean Emperor Ezekiah. His name is Jewish:        (Eliakim) and it means: "May God stand up" or "God exists". The name originates from the words: EL-God and the word: AQIM- he will rise, he will exist.

 

EMANUILO (Emmanuel) - this was the name of the child whose birth Isaiah prophesied. The name itself is Jewish: lavnmi (Imanuel), and it is represented by the words: XXIMANU- with us and EL-God, meaning "God is with us"

 

ESTER, see: JESTIRA

 

ŽIDOV, ŽID, see: JEVREJIN

 

ŽIDOV (Jew) - this word, which in many Slavic languages ​​means: "Jew", as a member of the people of the same name, is rather a Roman or even French transcription of the word "Jew." As in the Roman languages, the sound ‘j’ is often pronounced as Serbian ‘ž’. This explanation can be taken as correct. (Compare with the entry: JEVREJIN).

 

ZAHARIJA (Zecheriah) - he was a prophet who returned from Babylon to his homeland and urged the Jews to rebuild the second temple. This is the name of the father of John the Baptist, as well. The name itself is Jewish:      (ZEHARYA) and it consists of two words: ZAHAR- to remember and the word- YAH- God, meaning, "The Lord enjoined" or descriptively: "God always remembers us."

 

IZRAILJ, IZRAEL (Israel) - the name which the angel gave to Jacob, before he met with his brother Isaav. Whole Jewish people are called by the name of Israel. The first king of Israel was Saul, then David and in the end- Solomon. After him, the Israeli empire fell apart to North Israel and the Southern one -Judah, Judea. Israel was more populous, it consisted of ten tribes. Many trade routes went right through Israel. The capital city was Shechem (SHEM, Serbian: Sihem), then TIRSA and then Samaria. The empire lasted about two hundred years until it was occupied by the Assyrians. The tribes were scattered by the Assyrians to other countries, so that they would never come back. It was not until 1948 that the modern state of Israel was established, under the same name:      (Yisrael). The meaning of this term has multiple versions, however, the theological and philological sources agree on one thing: Israel is a word consisting of two Jewish words- YISRA- it will fight out, and the word- EL-God. Thus, the expression Yisrael is explained as: "A man who struggles with God."

 

ILIJA (Elijah) - he was a prophet in the Northern kingdom, that is- in Israel, during the ninth century. He was also a religious and spiritual leader of the Jews. His name is Jewish:       (Elijah) and it consists of three Jewish words: ELI-my God, Yah-Jehovah and the word: HU- he, he is, which is, as you can see in the name, slightly modified - the consonant he is assimilated with the other, and a single he was created in the above name- Elijah.

 

ISAK, IŽAK, ICIK (Isaac) – hw was Abraham’s second son and one of the old patriarchs of Israel. His name was Jewish:     (Yitzhak), derived from the Hebrew verb, "to laugh, to snigger," in imperfective form in third person singular, of male gender, meaning- "he will laugh". Theologians and exegetes say that this name hides the word for God, as the most important biblical names have it in their construction. So, the exegetes believe that the meaning of this name is: "May the Deity smile."

 

ISAIJA (Isaiah) - he was a statesman who saved Jerusalem from the Assyrians, around year 700 BC. His name is Jewish (YESHAYAHU; JESHAXXJAHU). The name itself has three Hebrew words in it, and those are, as follows: YESHUXXA-salvation- YAH Lord, HU- he, he said. Phrases: "Yah" and, "HU", are assimilated, in fact- they are two consonants he assimilated into one. For this reason, at the end of the name, there is only one ‘h’ sound. The three words explained in the aforementioned form of the name mean: "God is salvation."

 

JAKOV (Jacob) - the third Jewish patriarch, the younger son of Isaac, who married Rachel. There were several other figures in the Bible who had this name. The name itself is Jewish: bvqiy (YAAKOV) and it means " the one who holds" referring to: "He who holds the heel", which cannot be seen from the word: "YAAKOV" in Hebrew, but is concluded from context of the Biblical text.

 

JAHVE (Jehovah) - God's name. It is written with four consonants:     - (JHWH), often referred to as the tetragrammaton. Jews do not pronounce it, but, in places in the text where the tetragrammaton appears, they pronounce: Adonai (Lord). The difference between the written and the read version of the same word is marked with: KETIB VEQERE in Hebrew. The very tetragrammaton is a verb: "to be" in the imperfect, third person singular, masculine. It is usually interpreted as "I am the one who will always exist." Today's reading of the name as "Jehovah" may be regarded as an unintentional error, as the tetragrammaton, after the Masoretic audit and vocalization of the text of the Old Testament, received the vocals of the word: Adonai- Lord. (Provided that the initial vowel, "a" in schwa compositum in the word Adonai becomes silent "e", that is- "schwa nah" when standing below a guttural consonant). With this in mind, the tetragrammaton got the vocal "e" after yod, after the consonant he, it got the vocal "o", after the consonant vav, it got a the sound "a" and the last he in the tetragrammaton is not read, according to the rules of Hebrew phonetics. So, the tetragrammaton got all of these consonants from the word AdOnAi. We can’t know today what the actual vocals of the tetragrammaton were, because Jews did not pronounce the name of God and the Masoretes probably couldn’t even write the vowels from the original pronunciation.

 

JEVREJIN (Jew) - Jews as a nation were mentioned for the first time in the Old Testament book of Genesis, in the fourteenth chapter in the thirteenth verse. Abraham was called Jew at this point. The word "Jew" is a slightly modified name of the people mentioned in the Hebrew language. Namely, in the native language, the Jews called themselves: yrbi (Ivri). This name is derived from the Hebrew verb: (AVAR), which means: "to cross over, to pass, to come”. As Jews often moved from one area to another in the period of their emergence as a nation, it is logical that this name was used to describe them. The word "Ivri" is often interpreted as: "the one who crossed over, the one who came over, a stranger" and this interpretation of the term "Jew" can be taken as correct. In our word "Jevrejin" the sounds V and R from the original name were preserved. The sound ‘j’ replaced the Hebrew ayin, probably in order to facilitate the pronunciation, and the suffix ‘-in’ was added.

 

JEVREM, JEFREM (Ephraim) - Ephraim was the son of Joseph, born in Egypt, where he was adopted by his grandfather Jacob. He was the founder of a great Jewish tribe. In the area of ​​Israel, he founded the town of the same name. The name is Jewish and it represents the dual noun:     i (Ephraim). The dual is indicated, as the word itself says- by duality, and this Jewish name actually means, "double fruitfulness". This would explain the meaning of this frequent Jewish name.

 

JEZDRA (Ezra) - He was a Jewish writer and a Duke, who returned to Jerusalem from captivity during the reign of King Artaxerxes. His name is Jewish, somewhat incorrectly transcribed. In fact, in Hebrew, the name: Ezra has the form: hrzi (EZRA), meaning: "Help", but for easier pronunciation, the guttural Hebrew ayin was replaced with ‘j’ in our version of the word for a Jew.

 

JELISAVETA (Elizabeth) - she was the wife of the prophet Zechariah, who lived in the hills of Judea. This was also the name of the cousin of Mary’s, Mother of Jesus Christ. Her name is Jewish: ibwyla (ELISHEVA) and consists of two words: EL-God, SHEVA-seven, the oath. Meaning of the name can be interpreted two ways, namely: "The Lord has sworn" or "God is a seven- the fidelity of perfection."

 

JEREMIJA (Jeremiah) – The Jewish prophet of Jerusalem, lived between 654-584 BC. His name is Jewish:        (YIRMEYAHU) and it consists of three Hebrew words: YIRME- he will raise; YAH-God; HU- him. Of course, in the name, there are two H (HE) sounds, assimilated into one. This name is often interpreted as: "May God elevate, may God stand up."

 

JERUSALIM (Jerusalem) - a city in Judah, near the Dead Sea, to the north-west of it. It was won by king who David made it capital of Israel and the spiritual and religious centre of Judaism and Jews, and later Christianity, including Islam. Up to 1966, it had been divided between Jordan and Israel. Today, it is the capital of Israel. The city’s very name in Hebrew is:         (YERUSHALAYIM). According to the numerical construction of the noun in the dual form, the city’s form might be seen as it consists of two parts. The city's name in Hebrew is somewhat modified, and derived from three words: IR-RYi-city;  HU-  - he; SHALOM-   - peace. The city's name is interpreted as: "City of Peace"

 

JESTIRA, ESTER (Esther) - the Jewish heroine from the Book of Esther. Her name is Jewish:      (ESTER), and can be interpreted as: "The hideout, the refuge," as the root name is actually a Hebrew verb root:    (STR), meaning: "Hide, conceal."

 

JOAKIM, JOAHIM (Joachim) - he was the king of Judah in Jerusalem and his name is Jewish:       (Hilkiayahu) and consists of three words: HILKI- he divided, he separated me; YAH-God;  HU- he. The two sounds ‘h’ (HE) were assimilated into one in this name. The name is often interpreted as: "God has separated me, Lord has separated." As you can see, our transcript of the Jewish name went too far from the original.

 

JOB, JOV (Job) - he was a rich and pious man who lived in a country of Uz, close to Canaan. God put him to test, taking all his children and his property from him. The name is Jewish:     (IYOV) and is interpreted as: "The one who returns."

 

JOVAN (John) - he was a fisherman on the Sea of ​​Galilee, the apostle who wrote: "John" in the Bible. His name in the aforementioned form is actually the Greek form of the Jewish name:      (YOHANAN), which in Hebrew means: " The Lord is gracious. "

 

JONATAN, DŽONATAN (Jonathan) - he was a descendant of Moses, the founder of a priestly family. In the Old Testament scriptures, there was also Jonathan, Saul's son, who was a great friend of David. The name is Jewish:      (YONATAN), and is interpreted as: "The Lord has given." The name itself is composed of two Hebrew words: YAH- God; NATHAN- he gave.

 

JORDAN (Jordan) - a 220 km long river, springing on Mount Hebron, flowing into the Dead Sea. It is often mentioned in the Old Testament, especially when the river is being crossed over on the way to "Promised Land", under the leadership of Joshua. John the Baptist preached and baptized Jesus Christ in it. Today, one of the Arab state has this name. The name of the river is Jewish:     (YARDEN) and is interpreted as: "He who is descending", thus the name originates from the Hebrew verb: YARAD- to go down, to descend...

 

JOSIJA (Josiah) - he was the king of Judah from the age of eight, he ruled for 31 years, from about 640-609 BC. He was killed in Megiddo, in the fight against the Egyptians. The brother of Jesus Christ was also called Josiah. The name is Jewish:        (YOSHIYAHU) and is usually interpreted as: "May the Lord heal."

 

JOSIF (Joseph) - He was the patriarch, the son of Jacob and Rachel who was sold as a slave in Egypt. He interpreted the Egyptian Pharaoh's dreams, helped his father and brothers when they came from Canaan to Egypt. This name was also the name of Mary’s husband, who raised Jesus Christ as his father. There are several biblical figures with this name. It is Jewish:     (YOSEF) and is interpreted as: "he will add", referring to: "May God add".  The name comes from the Hebrew verb: HOSIF- to add.

 

JUDA (Judas) – the founder of the Jewish tribe of Judah, son of Jacob, this is the name of one of the twelve apostles of Christ and Judas Iscariot who betrayed Jesus Christ. The name is Jewish:      (Yehuda) and is usually interpreted as: "Let him be honored, let him be praised." The name comes from the Hebrew verb: HODA -praise, thank, glorify.

 

JUDEJA (Judea) – the Southern part of Canaan, later- Israel's empire. As an independent realm, it was separated from Northern Israel, existing in the period from 950 BC up to 586 BC. Later, it was under the rule of Roman Empire. Its name is Jewish and it comes from the name Judas, the founder of the Jewish tribe with the same name (See: JUDA).

 

JUDITA - she was a widow who helped when her hometown Vetulia was being occupied. Her name is a feminine form of the name: JUDAS (See: JUDA).

 

KAIN- he was the first son of Adam and Eve who killed his brother Abel and was forced to live a nomadic life. His name is Jewish:    (KAYIN) and is usually interpreted as "Blacksmith."

 

KANAAN (Canaan) – the country on the west of the Jordan River, which God gave to Abraham and his descendants. It is believed (Shoshan: Ha-ha-milon xxivri merukaz-ha) that this name means "merchant". In the Slavic languages, the name is transcribed as: Hanan, Kanan and similar.

 

KAPERNAUM (Capernaum) – a place on the Northern coast of the Sea of ​​Galilee and the centre of Roman rule in Galatia. In this place, Christ preached in the synagogues. The name is Jewish:          (KEFARNAHUM) and it consists of two words in Hebrew: Kefar- village, Nahum- Naum (name), and is usually interpreted as, "Naum’s village."

 

KARMIL, KARMEL (Carmel) - a mountain range in Samaria and partly in Galilee, up to 540 m high, covered with oaks and olive trees. In this place, the prophet Elijah challenged Ahab, when Val’s prophets were killed. The name is Jewish:     (KARMEL), and is usually interpreted as: "Vineyard," or, "Nursery garden."

 

KORVAN - the Hebrew word used to indicate an object or an animal used as a vow to God. Muslims refer to it as: Qurban (sacrificial ram). It is Jewish:     (Qurban), as in Arabic, and it is interpreted as: "Dedicated gift."

 

LAVAN - he was a descendant of Nahor and Rivkah’s brother. Jakob married Lavan’s daughters Rachel and Liyah. The name is Jewish:    (LAVAN) and it means: "white, of white colour."

 

LAZAR (Lazarus) – he was the brother of Mary and Martha. Christ resurrected Lazarus, whose body lied three days in a cave tomb. The name is Jewish: rzil (LAAZAR) and it is interpreted as: "God's help." The name originates from the Hebrew verb, "to help"-XXAZAR (  )

 

LEVIJATAN (Leviathan) - the mythical sea monster with many heads, this name in Hebrew denotes a sea mammal, whale. The word is Jewish:      (LEVYATAN).

 

MAGDALA- a city in Galilee, see: GALILEJA, on the Damascus-Nazareth caravan road. Maria Magdalena was born here. The city’s name is Aramaic:       (MAGDELA), derived from a common Western Semitic root: GDL (which denotes: size, power, growth, etc.) and is interpreted as: "elevation, size".

 

MAKAVEJAC (Maccabee) - a member of Maccabi family, who managed to win the independence of the Jews from Syria. They ruled from year 166 to 63 BC, when they were conquered by the Romans. This is a Jewish name:     (MAKABI) usually interpreted as: "hammer."

 

MAKABI, see: MAKAVEJAC

 

MALAHIJA (Malachi)- he was a prophet who wrote the book with the same name, around year 460 BC. The name is Jewish:      (MALAHI) and it is derived from the root which means: “angel, prophet” and his name is usually interpreted as: "angelic, the one that looks like an angel."

 

MANASIJE (Manasseh) - he was the son of Joseph, born in Egypt. A Jewish tribe of the same name originated from him. He inhabited the eastern and western parts of the river Jordan. His name is Jewish:     (MENASHE), often interpreted as: "The one who made me forget, the one that causes forgetfulness."

 

MARIJA (Mary) - she was the mother of Jesus Christ and Joseph’s fiancée, related to Elizabeth, mother of John the Baptist. This is also the name of Mary Magdalene (Mary of Magdala- see: MAGDALA), who was rescued from a wicked lifestyle and became a follower of Jesus. Mother of James and Joseph also had this name. There are a few figures from the Bible that are called by this name, as well. The name is Jewish:      (MIRYAM) and is interpreted as: "supreme" or, "the ruler of the sea".

 

MATUSAL, METUZALEM (Methuselah) - he was a descendant of Enoch and Seth, the man who, according to biblical tradition, lived longest. According to the information in the Old Testament, he lived for 969 years. His grandson was Noah, whom we know from the story of Noah's Ark. The name Methuselah is Jewish:       (METUSHALAH) and can be interpreted as: "sent, given, obtained." or even better as: "The one who sent, the one drove out the death."

 

MESIJA (Messiah) – the word which means savior, the one whose arrival is expected. This explanation can be found in encyclopedias of Judaism. Christian sources explain that the Messiah the Christ himself, being the Greek translation of the Jewish word "Messiah". Originally, this word denoted any person coated (anointed) with sanctified oil. The Jewish word in the original form looks like this:     (MASHIAH). It represents the derivative of the verb "to anoint, to smear, to smear with oil". In our language, the Hebrew SH (SHIN) turned into S, while the guttural H (HET) has disappeared, and there is the suffix of the word of feminine gender, which, among other things, reimburses the deleted sound HET in the very word.

 

METUZALEM, see: MATUSAL

 

MIRJAM (Miriam) – the sister of Moses. She lead the women in songs and plays when the Jews crossed the Red Sea under the leadership of Moses. The musical instrument tambourine was named after her in Hebrew. This name is associated with the name Mary. See: MARIJA.

 

Misir (Egypt) - one of the names for ancient Egypt. Egypt is a country that still exists in the wide area along the River Nile. The Jewish people lived in Egypt for nearly 400 years and there they received many customs but also many of ancient Egyptian elements in their own language. The term "Misir" is probably of Jewish origin:       (MITSRAYIM). In Hebrew, the above-mentioned word is in the dual form, probably because the ancient Egypt consisted of two parts. The construction of the Jewish word was somewhat altered in the Slavic version of it. The Hebrew TS (TSADI) turned into the consonant ‘s’ in Slavic version. The dual extension from the Hebrew word was deleted, and between the consonants ‘ts’ and ‘r’, the vowel ‘i’ was inserted.

 

MISPA (Mizpeh) – the place where Jacob and Laban raised a pile of stones to mark the alliance of friendship (1 Moses 31:45-52). Mizpeh was the centre the Jews chosen in Judea, when most people were taken to Babylon. It was the religious centre of the uprising of the Maccabees. The very name Mizpah is Jewish:     (MITSPE) and it means: "an outlook, a guardhouse." It is derived from the verb: "to watch."

 

MIHAJLO, MIHAEL, MAJKL (Michael) - the archangel who protects and helps Israel (Dan 21:1). In the Book of Revelation, he is described as being in the constant battle against Satan, the dragon of evil. The name itself is Jewish:       (MIHAEL) and it consists of three Jewish words: MI- "who", HA (KA) - meaning "like" and the word EL-meaning: "God". So, the whole name can be interpreted as: "the one who is like the God."

 

MOAV (Moab) - the ancient kingdom and the people in the highlands of Jordan area, on the east of the Dead Sea. Moses died here. Moabites and the Israelites (Jews) were often at war. The name itself is Western Semitic:     (Moab) and it consists of two words:    (MIN) - meaning "of, from" I:    (AV) - meaning "father" and the name itself means: "from the father, who is from the father."

 

MOJSIJE (Moses) - he was a legislator and the first Israeli leader. He delivered the Jews from Egypt, around year 1300 BC and led them to the promised land of Canaan (see: KANAAN). He received the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai. He died, according the Old Testament books, when he was 120. His real name was     (MOSHE), which is traditionally interpreted as: "extracted from the water", although the same concept in ancient Egyptian language means "son." He was the reputed son of an Egyptian pharaoh. 

 

NAZARET (Nazaret) - the village in the hills of Galilee, today divided into upper and lower part. Jesus Christ spent his childhood in this place. The name is Jewish:     (NATSRAT) and it comes from the verb root:    (NCR) meaning- to preserve, to protect, and the name itself is interpreted as: "protected, preserved." In Hebrew, this name has the feminine form, according to the phonological rules about toponyms, which are languages ​​almost always of female gender in Western Semitic languages.

 

NATAN (Nathan) - he was the son of King David (Sam 5:14) and this name was also the name of the prophet David from Solomon's temple. The name is Jewish:    (NATAN) and is in perfective form, third person masculine, of the verb: "to give" and the name is usually interpreted as: "he gave, he offered up" as these are the semantic variants of the Hebrew verb: "to give."

 

NAUM (Nahum) - he was a prophet, born in Elkos, a small village in Galilee, which was later named Capernaum. He wrote "The Book of Nahum" around year 613 BC. The name is Jewish:     (NAHAM) and comes from the Hebrew verb:    (Naham) meaning: "to pity, to forgive". The name Nahum is the passive participle of the verb mentioned, meaning, "pitiful, forgiving". As we can see, the guttural H (HET) was deleted from our version of the word, probably in order to facilitate the pronunciation.

 

NEMANJA, NEMAN - the Duke of Syrian king in Damascus. Healed from leprosy, he accepts the God of Israel as his own. His name is Jewish:     (Naaman), derived from the Hebrew root:    (NXXM) meaning- to be pleasant, to do kind things for someone... His name is thus interpreted as: "good, gentle, lovable". Nemanja was called after Neman.

 

NOJE (Noah) - he was the son of Lamech and the descendant of Adam. Known for the so-called Noah's Ark and the protagonist of myth with the same name and from the biblical statements. He had three sons: Shem, Ham and Japheth, the founders of the Semites and Indo-Europeans Canaanites (1. Moses 6-9). His name is Jewish:     (NOAH) and it is a noun derived from the verb:   (NAH) meaning: "to take a break, to rest" and the meaning of this name might be: "the rest, the one that is resting."

 

OSANA – this was the way of greeting others and it was common among the Jews on the seventh day of holiday called Sukkot. Jesus was greeted this way, as well. As the solemn exclamation, this word is still there in Christian religious services. The exclamation is a Jewish word that has been modified and adapted for the Slavic languages. It consists of two Hebrew words: iwvh (HOSHA) and the word:    (NA). The first word is derived from the Hebrew verb: iwy (JAŠAXX), meaning: "to help, to save". The second word is a particle used for begging in the Hebrew language:    (NAX). The word Hosha-NA is an imperative verb in the masculine form, thus: "save, deliver, help". The whole expression would mean: "Save us, please" or "Deliver us, please."

 

PASHA (Pesach, Passover) - the Jewish holiday that Jews founded after crossing the Red Sea under the leadership of Moses. It is also known as the Feast of Unleavened Bread, in memory of the quickly-prepared food that Jews themselves prepared when setting off from Egypt. It is celebrated at the beginning of the fourteenth day of the first month of Nisan in the Jewish calendar, a period of seven days. Judaism accurately prescribes the feast and the order in the rite of the celebration of Passover, especially the Passover dinner (SEDER PESAH). The name of the holiday "Pasha" is the Hebrew name for the holiday:     (Passover), which means: "going out, coming out”.  The Hebrew noun for Passover is derived from the root:     (PSH) which means: going out, getting out, passing over...

 

RABIN, RAVI (Rabbi) – the title of the distinguished teachers. It has been used since around year 70 BC. This name means "scribes"- teachers of the law. Jesus Christ was usually addressed so. Heb.    (RAV sing.)    (RAVI sing. With the noun suffix meaning: my teacher)

 

RAHILJA, RAHELA (Rachel) - she was the daughter of Laban, Jacob's wife and mother of Joseph and Benjamin. Jacob served for her at Laban’s for seven years, but they set him up with Rachel's older sister Leah and so he served for Rachel for extra seven years. Rachel died giving birth to Benjamin. The name is Jewish:     (RAHEL) and it is interpreted in theological literature as: "sheep." However, it would be better to bring it to connection with the verb: RWH and interpret it as: "God is softened, God ceased to be angry."

 

REBEKA, REVEKA (Rebecca, Rebekah) - she was the daughter of Milcah and Bethuel. She married Abraham's son Isaac, with whom she had sons- Esau and Jacob. As patriarch’s wife, she was the holder of the divine promises. She was buried in the same cave (Cave of Machpelah), where they buried her mother in law and Sarah, Abraham, Isaac, Leah, and Jacob. The name is Jewish:      (RIVKA) and the meaning of this name is interpreted in several ways. The most common meaning, as in theology, is "cow", but it would be more appropriate to interpret this name as: "the unmarried woman, the spinster, a single woman", considering the Hebrew root: RBK.

 

RUT, RUTA (Ruth) - a Moabite woman who married a Jew, Noeminah’s son. Ruth’s son is Obed, David's grandfather. There is the Book of Ruth, written around year 400 BC. The name is Jewish and Western Semitic, in general:    (RUT) and it is interpreted as: "handsome."

 

SAMARIJA (Samaria) - a town built around 870 BC, as Israeli capital, by the king Omri. It was conquered by the Assyrians in 721 BC. The city was rebuilt by Herod the Great. Later, the area around it got this name and has had it so far. It is located in central Palestine, i.e. modern Israel. The name is Jewish:       (SHOMRON), derived from the Jewish verb root: SMR- to guard. The name Samaria can be interpreted as: "guardhouse, tower, a place of watch."

 

SAMSON (Samson) - he was from Dan’s tribe, the enemy of the Philistines, the great Jewish hero, his wife Delilah (Dalida) was able to discover that his strength is in his hair and cut it off, only to be defeated by the Philistines. Delilah was Philistine herself. His name is Jewish:       (SHIMSHON) and it is derived from the Hebrew words: SHEMESH- sun, and it is interpreted that way- Sun.

 

SAMUILO (Samuel) - he was the first prophet after Moses, who encouraged the Israelites against the enemy. He anointed the first king of Israel, Saul. He also anointed David as Saul's successor. He wrote the books of the Old Testament: I Samuel, II Samuel. The name is Jewish:       (SHEMUEL). The name itself is made up of two Hebrew words: SHEM- name (with pronominal suffix for third person masculine, that is: his name) and the word EL- God. So, this name is interpreted as: "His name is God."

 

SARA (Sarah) - she was Abraham's wife, when she was very old, she gave birth to Isaac and became mother of the chosen people. She died in Hebron and she was buried in the cave of Machpelah. Her name is Jewish:    (SARA) and it is derived from the Hebrew word: SAR- king's envoy, minister, gentleman, member of the elite. Hence, the name Sarah is feminine form of the Hebrew word SAR, and it is interpreted as: "lady, mistress, female ambassador."

 

SATANA, SOTONA (Satan) - the name in the Bible given to the one who bears the evil force, who is opposed to God, but who is completely defeated. The word is Jewish:     (SATAN) and its meaning in Hebrew is: "The enemy".

 

SAUL (Saul) - he was the son of Kish from the tribe of Benjamin, Israel's first king (1 Sam. 9-14). His capital was in Gibeah. He had a bad temper, always arguing with Samuel. His name is Jewish:      (SHAXUL, read: Saul) and it means: "prayed, asked, begged, tested". It comes from the Hebrew verb: SXL- meaning: to ask.

 

SERAFIMI (Seraphim) - one of the orders in the heavenly hierarchy, which is the closest to God, and they themselves are the highest spiritual beings. They are mentioned by Isaiah in his vision (Isa 11, 26), (Isa 11, 26). The word is Jewish:      (Seraphim), it is in plural form, meaning: "flaming, burning, fiery". The name originates from the Hebrew verb: SRF- to burn.

 

SIMEON, SIMON, ŠIMON (Simeon, Simon) - the Biblical Jewish name which appears in the Old Testament as the name of several people. Among the more important ones, those were the Apostle Peter, Christ's brother, Simon Iscariot. The name in Hebrew is: (ŠIMXXON, read: Simon), derived from the Hebrew verb: to hear, to listen, with the addition of the suffix ‘-on’, meaning: "the one who listens, hears, the one who is afraid of God ".

 

SION, CION, CIONIZAM (Zion, Zionism) - the name of the hill in south-eastern part of Jerusalem. The city of Jebusites, which David won, lied on it. Later, it was named- the city of David. There is a great bit of symbolism in Judaism and Christianity, considering this name. It is the symbol of the Jewish Diaspora Jews returning to their homeland and the state of Israel. This wa also the name of the king of the Amorites. The name is Jewish:     (Zion) and it is etymologically related to the Hebrew verb root:    (CJN), meaning: "to mark, to indicate, to unite, to connect."

 

SODOM, SODOMA (Sodom) - one of the five cities on the south of the Dead Sea. Sodom was, just like Gomorrah, an example of the corrupt place, which God destroyed (1. Moses 19). The name is Canaanite and it probably comes from the verb root:    (SDN) – to beat, to hit. The final consonant ‘n’ (nun)turned to the sound ‘m’in Hebrew case.

 

SOLOMON (Solomon) - he was the son of David and Bathsheba, the third king of Israel. He reigned around 960-922 BC. The temple in Jerusalem was built by his orders. The consecration of the temple in Jerusalem was the main event in his reign. He had a good relationship with other countries. His name is Jewish. The name has the root in its base:    (SLM), which means: peace, tranquility, composure. His name is often interpreted as: "pacific."

 

SUBOTA (Saturday) - the name of the sixth i.e. seventh day of the week. The name entered most Indo-European languages, as well as the Slavic ones. It is the Jewish name for the seventh day, which is basically a Jewish verb root:    (JSHV) and it means: sitting, resting. This name originated from the infinitive verb, which contains consonants: SVT (  ). In the Hebrew language, Saturday is written as:    (Sabbath).

 

TAMARA- she was the wife of Ir, the son of Judah. She married his younger brother, after his death. David's daughter had this name, as well. The name is Jewish:    (TAMAR) and it is explained as: "Palm tree", given that this tree is called so in Hebrew. This name is itself feminine in our language. In Hebrew, too, although the word itself is masculine.

 

TOMA (Thomas) - he was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. Only after the second appearance of the resurrected Jesus was it believed that Jesus was indeed resurrected. Therefore, he bears an epithet of an unfaithful man. His name is Jewish:     (Texom, read: Teom), meaning: Gemini.

 

TORA (   ) - this is a Hebrew word for law- the written laws of Moses and the Pentateuch as a whole. In the New Testament era, this was the title for the entire Old Testament. Torah scrolls were read and are still read in the synagogues.

 

FARISEJI (Pharisees) - they are often mentioned, but only in the New Testament. According to J. Flavio, in the first century AD, they have gained a leading position in Judaism and left an important mark on it. They were not priests but rather a party. Their name is Jewish:       (PERUSHIM), meaning: to separate. The root name is the root of the verb:     (PRS), meaning: to separate, to divide.

 

HANAN, HANAAN, see: KANAAN

 

HERUVIM (Cherub) – this word is mentioned for the first time in 1. Moses 3.24, and later, throughout the Bible. In the hierarchy of heaven, the cherubim go right after seraphim, in the highest place of first row. The name cherubim is plural in Hebrew, and it comes from the Jewish word:     (HEREV)- sword, but it has a new meaning, as a noun in the singular: "Fiery guard."

 

CION, CIONIZAM, see: SION

 

ŠIBOLET (Shibboleth) – the word used by Jephthah for checking whether a group of fugitives belonged to someone else or to his people. Since they were unable to pronounce the sound ‘sh’, but  ‘s’ (Sibboleth), he rejected them. The word comes from Hebrew:      (Shibboleth), meaning: the beam.

 

ŠABAT,  see: SUBOTA

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